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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(43): 6416-6429, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal metabolites are associated with gut visceral sensitivity, mucosal immune function and intestinal barrier function, all of which have critical roles in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the metabolic profile and pathophysiology of IBS are still unclear. We hypothesized that altered profiles of fecal metabolites might be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS with predominant diarrhea (IBS-D). AIM: To investigate the fecal metabolite composition and the role of metabolites in IBS-D pathophysiology. METHODS: Thirty IBS-D patients and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent clinical and psychological assessments, including the IBS Symptom Severity System (IBS-SSS), an Italian modified version of the Bowel Disease Questionnaire, the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Visceral Sensitivity Index. Visceral sensitivity to rectal distension was tested using high-resolution manometry system by the same investigator. Fecal metabolites, including amino acids and organic acids, were measured by targeted metabolomics approaches. Correlation analyses between these parameters were performed. RESULTS: The patients presented with increased stool water content, more psychological symptoms and increased visceral hypersensitivity compared with the controls. In fecal metabolites, His [IBS-D: 0.0642 (0.0388, 0.1484), HC: 0.2636 (0.0780, 0.3966), P = 0.012], Ala [IBS-D: 0.5095 (0.2826, 0.9183), HC: 1.0118 (0.6135, 1.4335), P = 0.041], Tyr [IBS-D: 0.1024 (0.0173, 0.4527), HC: 0.5665 (0.2436, 1.3447), P = 0.018], Phe [IBS-D: 0.1511 (0.0775, 0.3248), HC: 0.3967 (0.1388, 0.7550), P = 0.028], and Trp [IBS-D: 0.0323 (0.0001, 0.0826), HC: 0.0834 (0.0170, 0.1759), P = 0.046] were decreased in IBS-D patients, but isohexanoate [IBS-D: 0.0127 (0.0060, 0.0246), HC: 0.0070 (0.0023, 0.0106), P = 0.028] was significantly increased. Only Tyr was mildly correlated with BSFS scores in all subjects (r = -0.347, P = 0.019). A possible potential biomarker panel was identified to correlate with IBS-SSS score (R 2 Adjusted = 0.693, P < 0.001). In this regression model, the levels of Tyr, Val, hexanoate, fumarate, and pyruvate were significantly associated with the symptom severity of IBS-D. Furthermore, visceral sensation, including abdominal pain and visceral hypersensitivity, was correlated with isovalerate, valerate and isohexanoate. CONCLUSION: Altered profiles of fecal metabolites may be one of the origins or exacerbating factors of symptoms in IBS-D via increasing visceral sensitivity.

2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(12): 180, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728755

RESUMO

Derived from RNA, 5'-ribonucleotides, especially Inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP), can enhance the umami taste of soy sauce. In this study, the RNA content of three different salt-tolerant yeasts was examined. The most valuable strain was subjected to atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis, which improved its RNA content by 160.54%. Regular fermentation with RNA-enhanced strain failed to increase the amount of 5'-ribonucleotides in the soy sauce due to hydrolysis by phosphatase. A two-stage fermentation strategy was then carried out. Aroma compounds were mainly synthesized in the first stage, and RNA-enriched biomass was massively produced in the second stage followed by heat treatment to inactivate phosphatase. After the proposed strategy was applied, IMP and GMP in the soy sauce reached 68.54 and 89.37 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of key aroma compounds and organic acids significantly increased. Results may provide new insights for improving the quality of soy sauce through microorganism breeding and fermentation control.


Assuntos
Mutagênese , Gases em Plasma , RNA , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos da radiação , Alimentos de Soja , Zygosaccharomyces/genética , Zygosaccharomyces/efeitos da radiação , Cruzamento , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio , Paladar , Temperatura Ambiente , Zygosaccharomyces/fisiologia
3.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344932

RESUMO

Two types of mono-ester-functionalized pillar[5]arenes, P1 and P2, bearing different side-chain groups, were synthesized. Their host-guest complexation and self-inclusion properties were studied by 1H NMR and 2D nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) NMR measurements. The results showed that the substituents on their phenolic units have a great influence on the self-assembly of both pillar[5]arenes, although they both could form stable pseudo[1]rotaxanes at room temperature. When eight bulky 4-brombutyloxy groups were capped on the cavity, instead of methoxy groups, pseudo[1]rotaxane P1 became less stable and its locked ester group in the inner space of cavity was not as deep as P2, leading to distinctly different host-guest properties between P1 and P2 with 1,6-dibromohexane. Moreover, pillar[5]arene P1 displayed effective molecular recognition toward 1,6-dichlorohexane and 1,2-bromoethane among the guest dihalides. In addition, the self-complex models and stabilities between P1 and P2 were also studied by computational modeling and experimental calculations.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Modelos Químicos , Rotaxanos/química , Ésteres , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Eletricidade Estática
4.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 48(1): 75-83, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29194020

RESUMO

A novel and effective process was put forward for converting rice straw into feed by combining diluted acid hydrolysis and ammonization with Rhodospirillum rubrum fermentation. After pretreatment with dilute sulfuric or phosphoric acid (1%, w/w) at 100°C, materials were subjected to fermentation under several gases (N2, CO2, and air) and different light intensities in a 2-L fermentor. The key indexes of feed for fermented materials were estimated and several toxic substances were investigated during the fermentation. Following sulfuric acid treatment, the true protein of rice straw increased from 29 to 143 g kg-1 and the crude fiber decreased from 359 to 136 g kg-1 after fermentation at 0.3 L min-1 L-1 of N2 flow and a light intensity of 3400 lux; and following phosphoric acid treatment, the true protein increased by 286% and the crude fiber decreased by 52% after fermentation at 0.4 L min-1 L-1 of N2 flow and a light intensity of 3000 lux. Other key contents were also improved for use as feed, and some toxic substances (i.e., furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, acetic acid, phenol, cresol) produced by the pretreatments could be removed at low levels during the fermentations.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Rhodospirillum rubrum/metabolismo , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Microbiologia Industrial , Luz , Ácidos Fosfóricos/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfúricos/metabolismo
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 33(10): 184, 2017 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948457

RESUMO

This paper reports an effective process for converting soy sauce residue into feeds by combining moderate acid hydrolysis and ammonization with Rhodospirillum rubrum fermentation. After pretreatment with dilute sulfuric or phosphoric acid (1%, w/w) at 100 °C, materials were subjected to fermentation under several gases (N2, CO2, and air) and different light intensities in a 2-L fermentor. Following sulfuric acid treatment, the true protein increased from 188 to 362 g kg-1 and the crude fiber decreased from 226 to 66 g kg-1 after fermentation at 0.5 L min-1 L-1 of air flow and a light intensity of 750 lx and following phosphoric acid treatment, the true protein increased by 90% and the crude fiber decreased by 67% after fermentation at 0.6 L min-1 L-1 of air flow and a light intensity of 600 lx Other contents, including crude fat, crude ash, phosphorus, sulfur, sulfur-containing amino acids, sodium chloride, and calcium, were also improved for use as feed. Meantime, some toxic substances, including furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acetic acid, phenol, and cresol, which were produced by the pretreatments, could be removed by 12-32, 5-8, 49-53, 7-8, and 7-8%, respectively; and total sugars, glucose, and xylose could be utilized by 68-69, 71-72, and 63-67% respectively. The quality of soy sauce residue is improved for use as feed and some toxic substances can be decreased via the R. rubrum fermentation.


Assuntos
Inativação Metabólica , Rhodospirillum rubrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Alimentos de Soja/toxicidade , Ácidos Sulfúricos/metabolismo
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 22: 2816-24, 2016 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27506957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study was designed to explore the correlations of promoter methylation in Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1), ras-association domain family member 1A (RASSF1A), and Cadherin 13 (CDH13) genes with the risk and prognosis of esophageal cancer (EC). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 71 EC tissues from resection and 35 adjacent normal tissues were collected. Methylation status in the promoter region was detected by methylation- and non-methylation-specific primers. Corresponding mRNA levels were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Correlations between the methylations of these 3 genes and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model were used to investigate the relationships between WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 promoter methylations and the prognosis of EC. RESULTS Compared with adjacent normal tissues, the methylation frequencies of WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 genes were significantly higher but the mRNA levels of these 3 genes were significantly lower in EC tissues (all P<0.05). WIF-1 and CDH13 promoter methylations were associated with the degree of tumor differentiation and WIF-1 and RASSF1A promoter methylations were associated with age (all P<0.05). The survival rates of patients with WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 methylations were significantly lower than those of patients without methylation (all P<0.05). WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 promoter methylations were independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of EC (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 promoter methylations are associated with EC. The methylation levels are negatively related with the prognosis in EC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Caderinas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Caderinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
7.
World J Surg ; 40(7): 1655-62, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) and open esophagectomy (OE) on circulating tumor cell (CTC) level of elderly patients with esophageal cancer (EC). METHODS: A total of 78 elderly EC patients who aged over 64 years were divided into the MIE group (n = 40) and the OE group (n = 38). CTC enrichment was performed through CD326 (EpCAM) immunomagnetic beads positive sorting, and then labeled by CK-PE and CD45. The quantity of CTCs was measured by multiparameter flow cytometry. Double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay ELISA (DAS-ELISA) was used for detecting the levels of IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ. RESULTS: Among the 78 elderly EC patients, CTC level after the surgery was higher than that during the surgery, and CTC level during surgery was higher than that before the surgery (both P < 0.05). Postoperative CTC level in the MIE group was lower than that in the OE group, and the variation of CTC level from pre-operation to intra-operation in the MIE group was also lower than that in the OE group (both P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was significant difference in the incidences of intra-operative and postoperative complications between the MIE group and the OE group (17 cases vs. 31 cases, P < 0.05), and the CTC levels of the patients with complications in either group were significantly higher than the patients without complications (both P < 0.05). IL-6 and IL-10 levels significantly increased, while IFN-γ level decreased in both groups during the surgery and 3 days after the surgery compared to those before the surgery; 2 weeks after the surgery, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the MIE group recovered to the pre-operative levels (all P < 0.05). However, in the OE group, IL-6 and IL-10 levels 2 weeks after the surgery were still significantly higher than those before the surgery (all P < 0.05); IFN-γ levels in both groups recovered to the pre-operative levels, with higher level in the MIE group than that in the OE group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: MIE helped to reduce the survival rate of tumor cells in peripheral blood at the early period of postoperation, and dynamic monitoring CTC level could be used to evaluate the prognosis of EC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Idoso , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(30): 7486-95, 2014 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24999552

RESUMO

This paper reports an improved fermentation process that includes simultaneous saccharification, detoxification, and cofermentation as steps for producing bioethanol. Rice straw was first steam exploded (SE) or butanone solution exploded (BSE) and then cofermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida shehatae. To overcome the inhibitors, the exploded rice straw was continuously and slowly introduced into a 10 L ventilated fermenter. When the fermentation conditions were set to 1.0% initial dry matter, 10% total dry matter, addition rate of 120 mg/min, total fermentation time of 234 h, and dose of 0.1% (NH4)2SO4, yields of 25.8 g/100 g of dry matter ethanol and 88% total sugar use were obtained for BSE rice straw. The ethanol yields were not significantly different between detoxified materials and non-detoxified materials. Most of the furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acetic acid, and butanone were removed during the fermentation of non-detoxified materials, and the sugar concentrations were very low. The in situ detoxification and fermentation was effective and inexpensive when the pre-detoxification of exploded materials and the pre-adaptation of strains steps were omitted.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Etanol/química , Fermentação , Oryza/química , Ácido Acético/isolamento & purificação , Reatores Biológicos , Butanonas/isolamento & purificação , Candida/metabolismo , Carboidratos/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/isolamento & purificação , Oryza/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
9.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 44(5): 464-79, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24397718

RESUMO

Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Hidróxido de Sódio/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis/análise , Biotecnologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Xilose/metabolismo
10.
Insect Sci ; 20(2): 167-74, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23955857

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a vital role in the nervous system of insects and other animal species and serves as the target for many chemical agents such as organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The mosquito, Culex pipiens complex, a vector of human disease, has evolved to be resistant to insecticides by a limited number of amino acid substitutions in AChE1, which is encoded by the ace-1 gene. The aims of this study are to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the ace-1 gene of the C. pipiens complex and explore an economical high-throughput method to differentiate the genotypes of these sites in mosquitoes collected in the field. We identified 22 SNP sites in exon regions of the ace-1 gene. Four of them led to non-synonymous mutations, that is, Y163C, G247S, C677S and T682A. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry for genotyping at these four sites and another site F416V, which was relevant to insecticide resistance, in 150 mosquitoes collected from 15 field populations. We were able to synchronize analysis of the five SNP sites in each well of a 384-well plate for each individual mosquito, thus decreasing the cost to one-fifth of the routine analysis. Heterozygous genotypes at Y163C and G247S sites were observed in one mosquito. The possible influence of the five SNP sites on the activity or function of the enzyme is discussed based on the predicted tertiary structure of the enzyme.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Culex/enzimologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Animais , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
11.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 36(10): 1435-43, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23338003

RESUMO

It is important to provide added value or to make full use of the co-product of grains from ethanol production. In order to convert distillers' grains into a high-quality feed, the Trichoderma viride and Rhodopseudomonas palustris fermentation were combined and investigated in this study. The T. viride fermentation was carried out in an aerobic fermentation installation in favoring of the growth of the fungi and the degradation of the cellulose, and then the fermentation of R. palustris was performed to increase the content of protein with an anaerobic installation. After the two step fermentations, the true protein content of dried distiller' grains increased from 11.4 to 33.6 % (w/w) (the content of crude protein from 14.5 to 39.7 %), the crude fiber content decreased from 21.3 to 7.6 % (w/w), the crude fat content increased from 5.5 to 7.9 % (w/w), the crude ash decreased from 14.6 to 10.2 % (w/w), the total phosphorus content increased from 0.4 to 1.2 % (w/w), and the water content was 11.8 % (w/w). The dried and fermented grains contain the R. palustris viable count of 5.3 × 10¹¹ CFU/g dry matter. The results may support a new application of an active photosynthetic bacteria fish feed in fisheries industry and offer a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials as raw materials converting into high-quality feed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fermentação , Peixes , Rodopseudomonas/metabolismo , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Animais , Fotossíntese
12.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 43(1): 1-21, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23215651

RESUMO

In order to improve the efficiency of distillers' grains converting to ethanol, 13 dilute solution explosions were evaluated based on the optimization of pure water explosion. To decrease residual inhibitor content, the exploded slurry was dried at 105°C. Using a 1.1 mol/L butanone solution explosion, with the explosion temperature set at 160°C (pressure at 1.9 MPa), the residence time at 10 min, and the dried distillers' grains-to-water ratio at 1:2 (w/w), the yields of total sugar, glucose, and xylose were 86%, 89%, and 84% (w/w), respectively, and the ethanol yield was 25.3 g/100 g distillers' grains dry matter. Moreover, the eight other reagent solution explosions improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, and of simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and the residual contents of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid decreased to an acceptable concentration range after detoxification by drying. The results suggested that compared with pure water explosions, the use of volatile solutions lowered the explosive temperature and improved the sugar yield. This study offers a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials with higher starch and hemicelluloses contents as raw materials for converting biomass to bioethanol.


Assuntos
Candida/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Celulase/química , Dessecação , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Explosões , Fermentação , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Água , Xilose/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/química
13.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 166(7): 1856-70, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22371064

RESUMO

Ethanol conversion from rice straw using butanone and acetaldehyde dilute solution explosions was evaluated based on the optimization of pure water explosion. To decrease residual inhibitor content, the exploded slurry was dried and investigated at different temperature. Using a 0.9-mol/L butanone solution explosion, with the explosion pressure set at 3.1 MPa, the residence time at 7 min, the dried rice straw-to-water ratio at 1:3 (w/w), and the exploded slurry drying temperuture at 90 °C for 8 h, the yields of total sugar, glucose, and xylose were 85%, 88%, 82% (w/w), respectively, and the ethanol productivity was 26.0 g/100 g rice straw dry matter. Moreover, 0.5-mol/L acetaldehyde dilute solution explosion improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF), and the residual inhibitors had negligible effects on EH and SSCF after detoxification by drying. The results suggested that compared with pure water explosions, the use of butanone and of acetaldehyde dilute solution explosions lowered the explosive temperature and improved the sugar yield, although relative crystallinity of the rice straw dry matter was increased after the explosion.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/química , Butanonas/química , Etanol/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Água/química , Biocombustíveis , Candida/metabolismo , Dessecação , Explosões , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Pressão , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Soluções , Vapor , Temperatura Ambiente , Resíduos , Xilose/metabolismo
14.
Org Lett ; 10(24): 5585-8, 2008 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19032038

RESUMO

A new metal-free, one-pot synthesis of substituted allenes from enones was discovered for the first time, in which a tertiary amine as a base was found to be an effective promoter in such novel transformations. The present synthetic protocol proceeded readily with high compatibility of sensitive functional groups, and it provides a new efficient way to access a series of synthetically important allenes without the use of metallic reagents or catalysts.


Assuntos
Alcadienos/síntese química , Alcadienos/química , Estrutura Molecular
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