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1.
J Inorg Biochem ; 205: 111014, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044395

RESUMO

Three iridium(III) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(CPIP)](PF6) (Ir-1, ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, CPIP = 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), [Ir(ppy)2(DCPIP)](PF6) (Ir-2, DCPIP = 2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) and [Ir(ppy)2(TCPIP)](PF6) (Ir-3, TCPIP = 2,3,5-trichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized. The complexes Ir-1, Ir-2 and Ir-3 were encapsulated in liposomes to form Ir-1-Lipo, Ir-2-Lipo and Ir-3-Lipo. Morphology, size distribution, and zeta potential of liposomes were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Zetasizer. The cytotoxic activity in vitro of Ir-1, Ir-2 and Ir-3 against cancer A549, HTC-116, HepG2, BEL-7402, Eca-109, B16, HeLa SGC-7901 and normal NIH3T3 cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Ir-2 and Ir-3 show no cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cells, and Ir-1 displays moderate cytotoxic effect on the cell growth in A549 cells. However, Ir-1, Ir-2 and Ir-3 were encapsulated in liposomes, the cytotoxic activity was greatly enhanced. In particular, Ir-1-Lipo and Ir-2-Lipo can effectively inhibit the cell growth in A549 cells with a low IC50 value of 3.1 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4 µM. The apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry. Ir-1, Ir-2 and Ir-3 reveal weak apoptotic effect, whereas Ir-1-Lipo, Ir-2-Lipo and Ir-3-Lipo induce an apoptotic percentage of 55.6%, 69.3% and 16.7% in A549 cells, respectively. Specially, in the assay of antitumor activity in vivo, the inhibiting percentage of tumor growth induced by Ir-2 is 27.65%, while inhibiting percentage of tumor growth caused by Ir-2-Lipo is 57.45%. Obviously, the liposomes can enhance anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo compared with the complexes. The results show that the iridium(III) complexes encapsulated liposomes induce apoptosis in A549 cells through ROS-mediated lysosome-mitochondria dysfunction pathway and target the microtubules.

2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 227: 117534, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685424

RESUMO

Two novel ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes, namely, [Ru(dmp)2(CAPIP)](ClO4)2 (Ru(II)-1) and [Ru(dmp)2(CFPIP)](ClO4)2 (Ru(II)-2), which respectively contain (E)-2-(2-(furan-2-yl)vinyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phen-anthroline (CAPIP) and (E)-2-(4-fluorostyryl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline. (CFPIP), were first designed and characterized (dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline). DNA binding experiments indicated that Ru(II) complexes interact with CT DNA through intercalative mode. In addition, the complexes Ru(II)-1 and Ru(II)-2, showed remarkable cell cytotoxicity, giving the respective IC50 values of 4.1 ±â€¯1.4 µM and 6.1 ±â€¯1.4 µM on the A549 cancer cells. These values indicated higher activity than CAPIP, CFPIP, cisplatin (8.2 ±â€¯1.4 µM) and other corresponding Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes. Furthermore, the Ru(II) complexes could arrive the cytoplasm through the cell membrane and accumulate in the mitochondria. Significantly, complexes Ru(II)-1 and Ru(II)-2 induced A549 cells apoptosis was mediated by increase of ROS levels and dysfunction of mitochondria, and resulted in cell cycle arrest and increased anti-migration activity on A549 cells. Overall, these results indicated that complexes Ru(II)-1 and Ru(II)-2 could be suitable candidates for further investigation as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of tumors.

3.
J Inorg Biochem ; 201: 110822, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536949

RESUMO

Cisplatin and its analogs have been used for the treatment of various cancers, but their serious side effect has limited clinical application. Presently, scientists are developing other metal drugs as an alternative of cisplatin. In this paper, three new iridium(III) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(adppz)](PF6) (adppz = 7-aminodipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine; ppy = 2-phenylpyridine 1), [Ir(bzq)2(adppz)](PF6) (bzq = benzo[h]quinolone 2) and [Ir(piq)2(adppz)](PF6) (piq = 1-phenylisoquinoline 3) were synthesized and characterized. The complexes can effectively inhibit the cell colonies. The cytotoxicity in vitro of the complexes against A549, HepG2, SGC-7901, BEL-7402 and normal NIH3T3 cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole)-2,5-diphenyltetraazolium bromide (MTT) methods. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and Ca2+ concentrations were assayed. The mitochondrial membrane potential, a release of cytochrome c and the expression of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) family protein have been investigated. The data reveal that the complexes 1-3 can effectively inhibit the cell proliferation in A549 cells with low IC50 value of 3.2 ±â€¯0.4 µM, 4.8 ±â€¯0.5 µM and 1.2 ±â€¯0.2 µM, respectively. The antitumor in vivo shows that complex 3 can inhibit tumor growth with an inhibitory rate of 76.34%. The studies on the mechanism indicate that these complexes cause apoptosis in A549 cell via a ROS-mediated lysosomal-mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. In addition, the interaction of the complexes with BSA was explored.

4.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466318

RESUMO

Three iridium(III) complexes ([Ir(Hppy)2(L)](PF6) (Hppy = 2-phenylpyridine, L = 5-nitrophenanthroline, NP), 1; 5-nitro-6-amino-phenanthroline (NAP), 2; and 5,6-diamino-phenanthroline (DAP) 3 were synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxicities of Ir(III) complexes 1-3 against cancer cell lines SGC-7901, A549, HeLa, Eca-109, HepG2, BEL-7402, and normal NIH 3T3 cells were investigated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) method. The results showed that the three iridium(III) complexes had moderate in vitro anti-tumor activity toward SGC-7901 cells with IC50 values of 3.6 ± 0.1 µM for 1, 14.1 ± 0.5 µM for 2, and 11.1 ± 1.3 µM for 3. Further studies showed that 1-3 induce cell apoptosis/death through DNA damage, cell cycle arrest at the S or G0/G1 phase, ROS elevation, increased levels of Ca2+, high mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and cellular ATP depletion. Transwell and Colony-Forming assays revealed that complexes 1-3 can also effectively inhibit the metastasis and proliferation of tumor cells. These results demonstrate that 1-3 induce apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial damage and DNA damage pathways, as well as by inhibiting cell invasion, thereby exerting anti-tumor cell proliferation activity in vitro.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Irídio/química , Piridinas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 390-400, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202127

RESUMO

Two iridium(III) polypyridyl complexes [Ir(ppy)2(HPIP)](PF6) (Ir-1), [Ir(ppy)2(BHPIP)](PF6) (Ir-2) and their liposomes Ir-1-Lipo and Ir-2-Lipo were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo was evaluated. The cytotoxic activity in vitro of the complexes and their liposomes Ir-1-Lipo and Ir-2-Lipo against cancer cells was investigated by MTT methods. Ir-1 and Ir-2 show no cytotoxic activity, while Ir-1-Lipo and Ir-2-Lipo exhibit high cytotoxic effect. The IC50 values range from 5.2 ±â€¯0.8 to 22.3 ±â€¯1.8 µM. The apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, the change of mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+ levels and a release of cytochrome c were investigated. The effect of Ir-1-Lipo and Ir-2-Lipo on microtubules was also explored. In the C57BL/6 mice model, Ir-1 only displays a tumor inhibitory rate of 23.21%, while lr-1-Lipo exhibits satisfactory in vivo antitumor efficacy with tumor inhibitory rate of 72.55%. This study demonstrates that complexes encapsulated in liposomes induce apoptosis in B16 through ROS-mediated lysosomal-mitochondria dysfunction, inhibition of polymerization of microtubules and induce cell cycle arrest at S phase.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenho de Drogas , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Irídio/química , Irídio/farmacologia , Lipossomos/química , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 401-416, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202128

RESUMO

This work mainly introduces the synthesis and characterization of three iridium(III) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(adppz)](PF6) (Ir-1), [Ir(bzq)2(addpz)](PF6) (Ir-2) and [Ir(piq)2(adppz)](PF6) (Ir-3). The complexes are more cytotoxic than cisplatin against tumor cell lines such as SGC-7901, A549, HeLa, Eca-109, HepG2 and BEL-7402. The toxicity test results indicated that complexes Ir-1, Ir-2 and Ir-3 can effectively inhibit the cell growth of SGC-7901 cells, and the measured IC50 values are 1.8 ±â€¯0.4, 1.6 ±â€¯0.3 and 0.8 ±â€¯0.1 µM, respectively. AO/EB staining and flow apoptosis confirmed that SGC-7901 cells were caused apoptosis after being treated with the complexes. Along with the increase of endogenous ROS and Ca2+ levels, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and massive release of cytochrome c, it is fully demonstrated that these complexes induce apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. At the same time, the complex Ir-3 is outstanding in the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Combined with the above results, it provides a favorable foundation for the future development of more effective anti-tumor drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Irídio/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Irídio/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 220: 117132, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146211

RESUMO

We herein report the synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity of BTPIP (2-(4-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) and its four ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(NN)2(BTPIP)](ClO4)2 (N-N = bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Ru(II)-1; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, Ru(II)-2; dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, Ru(II)-3; dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, Ru(II)-4). The DNA binding behaviors reveal that the complexes bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalation. Cytotoxicity of the complexes against A549, HepG-2, SGC-7901 and Hela cells were evaluated in vitro. Complexes Ru(II)-1, Ru(II)-2, Ru(II)-3, Ru(II)-4 show moderate activity on the cell proliferation in A549 cells with IC50 values of 9.3 ±â€¯1.2, 12.1 ±â€¯1.6, 10.3 ±â€¯1.6, 8.9 ±â€¯1.2 µM, respectively. Apoptosis assessment, intracellular mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), location in mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell invasion assay and cell cycle arrest were also performed to explore the mechanism of this action. When the concentration of the ruthenium(II) complexes is increased, the amount of reactive oxygen species increases obviously and the mitochondrial membrane potential decreases dramatically in A549 cells. Most importantly, the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes could arrive the cytoplasm through the cell membrane and accumulate in the mitochondria. These results showed that the ruthenium(II) complexes could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through an ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Rutênio/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA/metabolismo , Desenho de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Viscosidade
8.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 24(2): 151-169, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564887

RESUMO

Three iridium(III) polypyridyl complexes [Ir(ppy)2(PYTA)](PF6) (1) (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine), [Ir(bzq)2(PYTA)](PF6) (2) (bzq = benzo[h]quinolone) and [Ir(piq)2(PYTA)](PF6) (3) (piq = 1-phenylisoquinoline, PYTA = 2,4-diamino-6-(2'-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes toward cancer SGC-7901, Eca-109, A549, HeLa, HepG2, BEL-7402 and normal LO2 cell lines was investigated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Complex 3 shows the most effective on inhibiting the above cell growth among these complexes. The complexes locate at the lysosomes and mitochondria. AO/EB, Annex V and PI and comet assays indicate that the complexes can induce apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. Intracellular ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential were examined under fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrate that the complexes increase the intracellular ROS levels and induce a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The complexes can enhance intracellular Ca2+ concentration and cause a release of cytochrome c. The autophagy was studied using MDC staining and western blot. Complexes 1-3 can effectively inhibit the cell invasion with a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the complexes target tubules and inhibit the polymerization of tubules. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes against S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes was explored. The mechanism shows that the complexes induce apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells through ROS-mediated lysosomal-mitochondrial, targeting tubules and damage DNA pathways. Three iridium(III) complexes [Ir(N-C)2(PYTA)](PF6) (N-C = ppy, 1; bzq, 2; piq, 3) were synthesized and characterized. The anticancer activity of the complexes against SGC-7901 cells was studied by apoptosis, comet assay, autophagy, ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+ levels, release of cytochrome c, tubules and western blot analysis. The antibacterial activity in vitro was also assayed.

9.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2018: 4093285, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686530

RESUMO

The expression of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) enzyme is changed in various organs during the host response to inflammation or infection, leading to alterations in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Results of this study showed that CYP1A1 expression was significantly downregulated in the mammary tissue of bovine with mastitis, in inflammatory epithelial cells (INEs) extracted from the tissue, and in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced INEs compared with their corresponding counterparts. Overexpression of CYP1A1 in bovine mammary epithelial cells alleviated the LPS-induced inhibition of epithelial proliferation, abated the LPS-induced increase of gene expression and protein secretion of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and attenuated the LPS-induced activation of NF-κB signaling. These findings suggest that CYP1A1 has immense potential in the regulation of inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells during mastitis and may serve as a useful therapeutic target in mitigating injuries caused by inflammatory overreaction.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Mastite/imunologia , Mastite/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 151: 568-584, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656200

RESUMO

Three new iridium (III) complexes [Ir (ppy)2 (ipbc)](PF6) (1), [Ir (bzq)2 (ipbc)](PF6) (2) and [Ir (piq)2 (ipbc)](PF6) (3) were designed and synthesized. All the complexes were tested for anticancer activity using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole)-2,5-diphenyltetraazolium bromide (MTT) method. The complexes show no cytotoxic activity toward cancer BEL-7402, SGC-7901, Eca-109, A549, HeLa and HepG2 cells. However, upon irradiation with white light, the complexes display high cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 5.5 ±â€¯0.8, 7.3 ±â€¯1.3 and 11.5 ±â€¯1.6 µM for 1, 2 and 3, respectively. AO/EB staining and comet assay show that the complexes can induce apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. The complexes can increase intracellular ROS and Ca2+ levels and cause a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Autophagic assays exhibit that the complexes can induce autophagy and regulate the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3 proteins. The cell cycle distribution in BEL-7402 cells was carried out by flow cytometry. The expression of Bcl-2 family proteins was studied by western blot. Additionally, the complexes can release cytochrome c and inhibit the polymerization of α-tubulin. Our study reveals that the complexes inhibit the cell growth in BEL-7402 cells through an ROS-mediated mitochondria dysfunction and targeting tubules pathways. These complexes are a promising new entity for the development of multi-target anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Irídio/química , Irídio/farmacologia , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 145: 338-349, 2018 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331805

RESUMO

An iridium (III) complex [Ir(ppy)2(BDPIP)]PF6 (Ir-1) was reported to show high anticancer activity and may be used as a potent anticancer drug. In the current study, we designed and synthesized a novel iridium (III) complex and evaluated its potential inhibitory effect on the cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. This complex was found to display high cytotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo against A549 cell with a low IC50 value of 3.6 ± 0.3 µM and inhibiting percentage of tumor growth is 63.84% compared with the control. The complex also exhibited potencies superior to that of cisplatin toward A549 cell in vitro and in vivo. Further studies revealed that the complex can induce apoptosis and autophagy, enhance the ROS level, cause a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibit the cell invasion. Our findings indicated that the complex induced apoptosis in A549 through mitochondria dysfunction and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Irídio/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Irídio/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Piridinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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