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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126841, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388915

RESUMO

The reaction parameters including catalyst dosage, oxidant amount, initial contaminant concentration and pH etc. play the crucial roles in the heterogeneous persulfate oxidation processes, while the synergistic interactions among these reaction parameters are still obscure. We herein took an efficient heterogeneous persulfate oxidation system "bimetallic MnxCo3-xO4 solid solution (MnCo) activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS)" for carbamazepine (CBZ) removal from water. MnCo/PMS system exhibited outstanding performance that CBZ was completely removed within 10 min. The CBZ degradation performance was ascribed to the radical oxidation of SO4·- and O2·-, the nonradical oxidation of 1O2, the redox cycles between Mn and Co species and synergistic interactions among MnCo, PMS and CBZ. By monotonously or synchronously adjusting the MnCo dosage, PMS amount and initial CBZ concentration, the inherent connections of different reaction parameters were established. Strong and different synergistic interactions between MnCo and PMS, and among MnCo, PMS and CBZ, were existed due to the formation of three different reaction modes when reaction parameters met certain conditions. The features of the modes were "two-stage, the following auto-deceleration", "one-stage, constant velocity" and "two-stage, the following auto-acceleration". This discovery may provide new insights into the synergistic interactions of reaction parameters in advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Peróxidos , Purificação da Água , Catálise , Oxirredução
2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(40): 48196-48207, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605632

RESUMO

As recently created inorganic nanosheet materials, more and more light has been shed on MXenes, which have emerged as a hotspot of intensive investigations. The simple exfoliation method for MXenes attracts numerous studies to pay efforts on. Compared with the extensive research about ultrasonication and mechanical milling, gas-assisted exfoliation has never been carried out for MXenes. Meanwhile, MXene-based nanocomposites are always prepared after exfoliation step by step. In this work, a facile way to fabricate a few-layered Ti3C2 MXene delaminated using phosphorous vapor evolved from commercial red phosphorous (RP) is put forward. The vapor deposits on the surface of Ti3C2 and also partially intercalates into the interlayers to obtain a novel two-dimensional RP/Ti3C2 nanocomposite directly. The P element strongly connects with the substrate by a covalent bond that improves the safety problems for RP during storage and usage. Due to the versatile feature of MXenes, the nanocomposite has the potential to be applied in a variety of fields. Herein, it is employed as a flame retardant for epoxide resin and effectively reduces fire disaster. The one-step exfoliation plus nanocomposite fabrication provides a more feasible way for the practical application of MXenes.

4.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649270

RESUMO

Individuals with obesity (OB) prefer immediate rewards of food intake over the delayed reward of healthy well-being achieved through diet management and physical activity, compared with normal-weight controls (NW). This may reflect heightened impulsivity, an important factor contributing to the development and maintenance of obesity. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the greater impulsivity in OB remain unclear. Therefore, the current study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging with a delay discounting (DD) task to examine the association between impulsive choice and altered neural mechanisms in OB. During decision-making in the DD task, OB compared with NW had greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex, which was associated with greater discounting rate and weaker cognitive control as measured with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). In addition, the association between DLPFC activation and cognitive control (TFEQ) was mediated by discounting rate. Psychophysiological interaction analysis showed decreased connectivity of DLPFC-inferior parietal cortex (within executive control network [ECN]) and angular gyrus-caudate (ECN-reward) in OB relative to NW. These findings reveal that the aberrant function and connectivity in core regions of ECN and striatal brain reward regions underpin the greater impulsivity in OB and contribute to abnormal eating behaviors.

5.
Orthop Surg ; 13(6): 1912-1921, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of bleeding in elderly patients undergoing early hip fracture surgery with/without clopidogrel administration. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, and patients over 65 years with fresh hip fracture were enrolled. For the patients taking clopidogrel, early surgical treatment was performed without 5-7 days waiting time. The patients were divided into groups according to their fracture type and the surgical method. Within each fracture/surgery group, the patients were further divided into subgroups according to whether they had clopidogrel administration. The patients' age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, hemoglobin level at admission, and the time from admission to surgery were compared in the different groups. The bleeding outcomes, such as intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion status, as well as secondary outcomes, such as operation duration and length of hospital stay, were also compared in these groups. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in patients' baseline characteristics and outcomes, including intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion rate, operation duration and length of hospital stay, between the clopidogrel-administrated patients and the control patients. However, the percentage of patients taking general anesthesia was significantly higher in clopidogrel group than that in control group (P = 0.01). Similar intraoperative blood loss was found in the subgroups of hemi-hip replacement, internal fixation for intertrochanteric fracture of the femur (fracture type A1-2, short pin), and internal fixation of femoral neck fracture with cannulated nails. For the internal fixation of femoral neck fracture with cannulated nails, the blood loss is significantly less in both subgroups than that with other two surgical methods. Moreover, the total hip arthroplasty, with the highest bleeding risk among all the surgical methods involved, was rarely chosen to treat geriatric hip fracture in this study. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that compared with patients without clopidogrel administration, elderly patients with hip fractures who receive clopidogrel as long-term anti-platelet therapy are relatively safe for surgery in less than 5-7 days after discontinuation of clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Hemiartroplastia/métodos , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(43): 50988-50995, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689562

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are promising photocatalysts; in order to overcome the relatively low efficiency of single-component 2D photocatalysts, heterostructures are fabricated for effective charge separation. Herein, a 2D heterostructure is synthesized by anchoring nickel nanoparticle-decorated black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets to graphitic carbon nitride (CN) nanosheets (CN/BP@Ni). The CN/BP@Ni heterostructure exhibits an enhanced charge separation due to the tight interfacial interaction and the cascaded electron-transfer channel from CN to BP and then to Ni nanoparticles. Possessing abundant active sites of Ni and P-N coordinate bonds, CN/BP@Ni shows a high visible-light-driven H2 evolution rate of 8.59 mmol·h-1·g-1 with the sacrificial agent EtOH, about 10-fold to that of CN/BP. When applying benzyl alcohol to consume photogenerated holes, CN/BP@Ni enables the selective production of benzaldehyde; therefore, two value-added products are obtained in a single closed redox cycle. This work provides new insights into the development of photocatalysts without non-noble metals.

7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 776, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a catastrophic complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Our meta-analysis aimed to identify the individual-related risk factors that predispose patients to PJI following primary THA. METHODS: Comprehensive literature retrieval from Pubmed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was performed from inception to Feb 20th, 2021. Patient-related risk factors were compared as per the modifiable factors (BMI, smoke and alcohol abuse), non-modifiable factors (gender, age), and medical history characteristics, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head, femoral neck fracture, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and osteoarthritis (OA) etc. The meta-analysis was applied by using risk ratios with 95% corresponding intervals. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were performed to further assess the credibility of the results. RESULTS: Overall, 40 studies with 3,561,446 hips were enrolled in our study. By implementing cumulative meta-analysis, higher BMI was found associated with markedly increased PJI risk after primary THA [2.40 (2.01-2.85)]. Meanwhile, medical characteristics including DM [1.64 (1.25-2.21)], AVN [1.65 (1.07-2.56)], femoral neck fracture [1.75 (1.39-2.20)], RA [1.37 (1.23-1.54)], CVD [1.34 (1.03-1.74)], chronic pulmonary disease (CPD) [1.22 (1.08-1.37)], neurological disease [1.19 (1.05-1.35)], opioid use [1.53 (1.35-1.73)] and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) [1.15 (1.13-1.17)] were also significantly correlated with higher rate of PJI. Conversely, dysplasia or dislocation [0.65 (0.45-0.93)], and OA [0.70 (0.62-0.79)] were protective factors. Of Note, female gender was protective for PJI only after longer follow-up. Besides, age, smoking, alcohol abuse, previous joint surgery, renal disease, hypertension, cancer, steroid use and liver disease were not closely related with PJI risk. CONCLUSION: Our finding suggested that the individual-related risk factors for PJI after primary THA included high BMI, DM, AVN, femoral neck fracture, RA, CVD, CPD, neurological disease, opioid use and IDA, while protective factors were female gender, dysplasia/ dislocation and OA.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa , Artroplastia de Quadril , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577954

RESUMO

As a new type of dielectric material, the low dielectric constant and corona resistance life of fluorene polyester (FPE) restricts the range of its applications. In order to simultaneously achieve a high dielectric constant and the long corona aging lifetime of FPE, SiO2 nanoparticles were chosen as additive to prepare FPE-based composite films. The microstructure of the composite film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The dielectric performances of the composites, including the dielectric constant, breakdown strength and corona resistance lifetime, were investigated. The results show that the introduced SiO2 does not destroy the structure of the FPE molecular chain and that it increases the thickness of the filler-matrix interface. The dielectric constant of SiO2/FPE composites increased from 3.54 to 7.30 at 1 Hz. Importantly, the corona resistance lifetime increased by about 12 times compared with the pure FPE matrix. In brief, this work shows what possibilities there might be when considering the potential applications of high-strength insulating materials.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(45): 24054-24058, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519405

RESUMO

Natural hydrogen (H2 ) has gained considerable attentions as a renewable energy resource to mitigate the globally increasing environmental concerns. Low-temperature serpentinization (<200 °C) as a typical water-rock reaction is a major source of the natural H2 . However, the reaction mechanism and the controlling step to product H2 remained unclear, which hinders the further utilization of natural H2 . Herein, we demonstrated that the H2 production rate could be determined by the Fe(OH)2 oxidation during low-temperature serpentinization. Moreover, the co-existence of Ni2+ could largely enhance the H2 production kinetics. With the addition of only 1 % Ni2+ , the H2 production rate was remarkably enhanced by about two orders of magnitude at 90 °C. D2 O isotopic experiment and theoretical calculations revealed that the enhanced H2 production kinetics could be attributed to the catalytic role of Ni2+ to promote the reduction of H2 O.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 189: 939-947, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464644

RESUMO

Porcine astrovirus (PAstV) is prevalent in pigs worldwide and could cause clinical symptoms such as diarrhea and encephalitis. The capsid protein (Cap) of PAstV plays a determinant role for virus immunological characteristics. In this study, the major antigenic regions of PAstV1 Cap were expressed through prokaryotic expression systems and immunized to BALB/c mice. Finally, two anti-Cap monoclonal antibodies (named mAb F4-4 and D3F10) were screened by indirect immune-fluorescence assay (IFA). A series of truncated GST-fused or artificially synthesized peptides were used to detect their reactivity with the mAbs and PAstV positive serum. Two novel B cell epitopes (120-GNNTFG-125, 485-RISDPTWFSA-494) were identified by using these two mAbs. Moreover, sequence alignment result showed that epitope 120-GNNTFG-125 was highly conserved in type 1 PAstV capsid protein. Cross-reactivity analysis further confirmed the genotype-specificity of mAb F4-4. The results of this study demonstrated to be the first description of monoclonal antibody preparation and B-cell epitope mapping on PAstV capsid protein, which may provide new information on the biological significance of PAstV capsid protein and lay a foundation for the development of PAstV immunological tests and genotype diagnostic methods.

11.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113535, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391105

RESUMO

Blending flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum with surface sodic soil is a universally recognized method for the rapid amelioration of sodic soils; however, little information is available on whether other application methods (band application) will reclaim sodic soil. Three FGD gypsum application methods (single-band, dual-band and blend applications) and a control treatment (non-FGD gypsum) were carried out using sodic soil in soil bins to investigate the effects of the application method on the wetting front, major cations in the leachate during the process of water infiltration and soluble and exchangeable cations in the soil profile after infiltration. The results showed that the wetting fronts in the band treatments were denser in the horizontal direction than in the vertical direction, but the blend and control treatments only had vertical migration. The main channel of the stream in the band treatment was concentrated below the application site of FGD gypsum. The orders of desalting capacity were blend treatment, dual-band treatment and single-band treatment for the same volume of outlet water. There was no water outflow in the control treatment even after 115 days of leaching. The dual-band treatment significantly decreased the soil sodicity of the 0-40 cm soil profile, while the single-band treatment only effectively reclaimed (horizontally) half of the soil. In the blend treatment, the exchangeable sodium percentages were 21.3 % and 34.7 % at depths of 30-35 cm and 35-40 cm, respectively, and were close to zero at a depth of 0-30 cm. Compared with blend treatment, band application could be a better way to reclaim sodic soil with FGD gypsum due to its advantages of long-term and efficient amelioration with low consumption.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Sulfato de Cálcio , Rios , Água
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16409, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385484

RESUMO

We recently showed that NOTUM, a liver-secreted Wnt inhibitor, can acutely promote browning of white adipose. We now report studies of chronic overexpression of NOTUM in liver indicating that it protects against diet-induced obesity and improves glucose homeostasis in mice. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors were used to overexpress GFP or mouse Notum in the livers of male C57BL/6J mice and the mice were fed an obesifying diet. After 14 weeks of high fat, high sucrose diet feeding, the AAV-Notum mice exhibited decreased obesity and improved glucose tolerance compared to the AAV-GFP mice. Gene expression and immunoblotting analysis of the inguinal fat and brown fat revealed increased expression of beige/brown adipocyte markers in the AAV-Notum group, suggesting enhanced thermogenic capacity by NOTUM. A ß3 adrenergic receptor agonist-stimulated lipolysis test suggested increased lipolysis capacity by NOTUM. The levels of collagen and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in the epididymal white adipose tissue of the AAV-Notum mice were significantly reduced, suggesting decreased fibrosis and inflammation, respectively. RNA sequencing analysis of inguinal white adipose of 4-week chow diet-fed mice revealed a highly significant enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) functional cluster among the down-regulated genes in the AAV-Notum group, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to improved glucose homeostasis. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that recombinant human NOTUM protein blocked the inhibitory effects of WNT3A on brown adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, NOTUM attenuated WNT3A's effects on upregulation of TGF-ß signaling and its downstream targets. Overall, our data suggest that NOTUM modulates adipose tissue function by promoting thermogenic capacity and inhibiting fibrosis through inhibition of Wnt signaling.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Esterases/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Termogênese/fisiologia , Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Lipólise/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Orthop Surg ; 13(6): 1922-1933, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To highlight the characteristics of the most highly cited articles and propose the research interests over the past decades in the field of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and labral tear. METHODS: The ISI Web of Science database (Clarivate Analytics, New York, the United States) was utilized for the identification of articles on 15 December 2020. FAI and labral tear-related articles (1138 articles) were retrieved, of which the 100 most-cited articles (top 100) were identified. Subsequent analysis included citation density (citations/article age), authorship, institution, journal, geographic distribution, level of evidence, and theme. RESULTS: The number of citations per article ranged from 66 to 1189 with a mean of 163.31. The majority of articles were published in the United States (all articles/top 100 = 655/57) and Switzerland (85/22). University of Bern (n = 10) was the most prolific institution. The journal with the most of articles was Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery. The most prolific coauthor (all articles) or first authors (top 100) was Domb (n = 109) and Philippon (n = 6), respectively. The evidence with the most articles is level IV (n = 41). The top three most popular topics of research article were outcomes of surgery (n = 23), imaging diagnosis (n = 18), and comparison of surgery (n = 8). The top four most prevalent themes of review were labral tears (n = 3), FAI (n = 3), comparison of surgery imaging diagnosis, and outcomes of surgery (both n = 2). Six keywords with the newest average publication year, including FAI syndrome (average publication year = 2019.50), patient-reported outcomes (2019.43), femoroplasty (2018.60), clinical outcomes (2018.17), borderline dysplasia (2018.00), and capsule (2018.00). Five keywords with the highest average citations, including outcome (average citations = 88.50), alpha angle (58.00), complications (55.86), revision hip arthroscopy (49.00), and systematic review (46.14). CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes research is the most popular research interest and patient-reported outcome instruments might be further and widely used in the emerging articles in the near future. The field of FAI and labral tear has shown an obvious trend of development and is steadily evolving. It could be predicted that there will be an increasing number of publications in the following years, with the United States and Switzerland maintaining leadership in this field.


Assuntos
Autoria , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Articular/cirurgia , Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico por imagem , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Publicações/tendências , Bibliometria , Cartilagem Articular/lesões , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 330, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) caused psychological stress in Chinese adults population. But we are unaware of whether the pandemic causes psychological stress on children. METHODS: We used the Children's Impact of Event Scale questionnaire (CRIES-13) to investigate the degree of Post-traumatic Stress (PTSD) symptoms caused by the pandemic in students selected from schools in Sichuan, Jiangsu, Henan, Yunnan, and Chongqing provinces of China. RESULTS: A total of 7769 students(3692 male and 4077 female), aged 8-18 years, were enrolled in the study, comprising 1214 in primary schools, 2799 in junior high schools and 3756 in senior high schools. A total of 1639 students (21.1%) had severe psychological stress reactions. A large proportion of senior high school students (23.3%) experienced severe psychological stress, and they had the highest median total CRIES-13 score. Female students were more likely to experience severe psychological stress and had higher median CRIES-13 total scores than males. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has placed psychological stresses on primary and secondary school students in China. These stresses are more likely to reach severe levels among female students and senior high school students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Depressão , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
NAR Genom Bioinform ; 3(3): lqab060, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235432

RESUMO

Genome-wide association study data analyses often face two significant challenges: (i) high dimensionality of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes and (ii) imputation of missing values. SNPs are not independent due to physical linkage and natural selection. The correlation of nearby SNPs is known as linkage disequilibrium (LD), which can be used for LD conceptual SNP bin mapping, missing genotype inferencing and SNP dimension reduction. We used a stochastic process to describe the SNP signals and proposed two types of autocorrelations to measure nearby SNPs' information redundancy. Based on the calculated autocorrelation coefficients, we constructed LD bins. We adopted a k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN) to impute the missing genotypes. We proposed several novel methods to find the optimal synthetic marker to represent the SNP bin. We also proposed methods to evaluate the information loss or information conservation between using the original genome-wide markers and using dimension-reduced synthetic markers. Our performance assessments on the real-life SNP data from a rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) population and a rice HapMap project show that the new methods produce satisfactory results. We implemented these functional modules in C/C++ and streamlined them into a web-based pipeline named PIP-SNP (https://bioinfo.noble.org/PIP_SNP/) for processing SNP data.

16.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103490, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythm disturbance is common postoperatively in older patients with hip fractures, which may contribute to the development of postoperative delirium (POD). As a reliable biomarker of endogenous circadian rhythms, melatonin regulates the sleep-wake cycle and environmental adaptation, and its secretory rhythm may be modified by anaesthesia and surgery. This study compared the impact of subarachnoid anaesthesia (SA) and general anaesthesia (GA), on the peak of melatonin secretion (primary outcome), the circadian rhythm of melatonin, cortisol and sleep, and the POD incidence (secondary outcome). METHODS: In this prospective cohort observational study, hip fracture surgery patients were enrolled and assigned to receive either SA or GA. Postoperative plasma melatonin and cortisol levels were dynamically measured every six hours on seven time-points, and the circadian rhythm parameters including mesor, amplitude, and acrophase were calculated. Subjective and objective sleep assessments were performed by sleep diaries and sleep trackers, respectively. The Confusion Assessment Method was used twice daily by a specific geriatrician to screen for POD occurrence. FINDINGS: In a cohort of 138 patients who underwent hip fracture surgery, the circadian rhythm disruption of the patients in the GA group (n=69) was greater than the SA group (n=69). Compared with SA, GA provided the lower peak concentration, mesor, and amplitude of melatonin secretion on postoperative day 1 (p < 0.05). Patients in the GA group experienced higher awakenings, more sleep deprivation, and poor sleep quality on surgery day (p < 0.05). A proportion of 12 patients in the SA group (17.4%) and 24 patients in the GA group (34.8%) experienced POD (p = 0.020). INTERPRETATION: These results suggest that SA may be superior to GA in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery as SA is associated with less impairment of the melatonin rhythm and sleep patterns, and fewer POD occurrences. FUNDING: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81971012, 81873726, 81901095, 81701052, and 81801070), Key Clinical Projects of Peking University Third Hospital (BYSYZD2019027), and Peking University "Clinical Medicine plus X" Youth Project (PKU2020LCXQ016).

17.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 684279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212021

RESUMO

Porcine astroviruses (PAstVs) are prevalent in pigs worldwide, and five genotypes have been reported to circulate in China. However, little is known about the coinfection status of PAstVs. For differential and simultaneous diagnoses of these five genotypes of PAstVs, a multiplex RT-PCR method was established on the basis of the ORF2 gene of type 1 PAstV, and the ORF1ab genes of type two to five PAstVs. This quintuple PCR system was developed through optimization of multiplex PCR and detection sensitivity and specificity. The results showed that this multiplex RT-PCR method could specifically detect all the five PAstV genotypes without cross-reaction to any other major viruses circulating in Chinese pig farms. The detection limit of this method was as low as 10 pg of standard plasmids of each PAstV genotype. In addition, a total of 275 fecal samples collected from different districts of Guangxi, China, between April 2019 and November 2020, were tested by this newly established multiplex RT-PCR. Moreover, the sensitivity and specificity of monoplex and multiplex RT-PCR methods were compared by detecting the same set of clinical positive samples. The results revealed that PAstV1 (31/275), PAstV2 (49/275), PAstV3 (36/275), PAstV4 (41/275), and PAstV5 (22/275) were all detected, and dual (PAstV1+PAstV2, PAstV1+PAstV3, PAstV2+PAstV3, PAstV2+PAstV4, PAstV3+PAstV4, and PAstV4+PAstV5) or triple genotypes (PAstV1+PAstV2+PAstV3 and PAstV2+PAstV3+PAstV4) of coinfections were also unveiled in this study. The detection result of multiplex PCR was consistent with that of monoplex PCR. Compared with monoplex PCR, this multiplex PCR method showed obvious advantages such as time and cost efficiency and high sensitivity and specificity. This multiplex RT-PCR method offered a valuable tool for the rapid and accurate detection of PAstV genotypes circulating in pig herds and will facilitate the surveillance of PAstV coinfection status.

18.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(14): 1720-1725, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geriatric hip fracture patients receiving clopidogrel are a surgical challenge. In China, most of these patients undergo delayed surgical treatment after clopidogrel withdrawal for at least 5 to 7 days. However, delayed surgery is associated with increased complications and mortality in the older adults. This retrospective paralleled comparison study investigated the safety of early surgery for geriatric hip fracture patients within 5 days of clopidogrel withdrawal. METHODS: Acute hip fracture patients (≥65 years) who were hospitalized in the orthogeriatric co-management ward of Beijing Jishuitan Hospital between November 2016 and April 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty patients taking clopidogrel before injury and discontinued <5 days before surgery constituted the clopidogrel group. The control group constituted 60 patients not taking antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs and matched 1:1 with the clopidogrel group for sex, fracture type, operative procedure, and time from injury to operation (±10 h). The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss and the secondary outcomes were transfusion requirement, complications, and mortality. The Student's t test or Wilcoxon signed rank sum test was used for continuous variables and the Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. RESULTS: Age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and percentage undergoing general anesthesia were comparable between the groups (P > 0.050). The percentages of patients with coronary heart disease (61.7% vs. 18.3%; P < 0.001) and cerebrovascular disease (45.0% vs. 15.0%; P < 0.010) were significantly higher in the clopidogrel vs. control groups, respectively. The median clopidogrel discontinuation time before operation was 73.0 (range: 3.0-120.0) h. There was no significant difference in the estimated perioperative blood loss between the clopidogrel group (median: 745 mL) and control group (median: 772 mL) (P = 0.866). The intra-operative transfusion rate was higher in the clopidogrel group (22/60, 36.7%) than that in the control group (12/60, 20.0%) (P < 0.050). However, there was no significant difference in the blood transfusion rate during the entire perioperative period (26/60, 43.3% vs. 20/60, 33.3%; clopidogrel group vs. control group, respectively; P > 0.050). There was no significant difference in perioperative complications, and 30-day and 1-year mortality rates between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early hip fracture surgery is safe for elderly patients within 5 days of clopidogrel withdrawal, without increased perioperative blood loss, transfusion requirement, complications, and mortality compared with patients not taking antiplatelet drugs.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Ticlopidina , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Fraturas do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ticlopidina/efeitos adversos
20.
Transl Oncol ; 14(10): 101169, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243013

RESUMO

Etoposide is a semi-synthetic glycoside derivative of podophyllotoxin, also known as VP-16. It is a widely used anticancer medicine in clinics. Unfortunately, high doses or long-term etoposide treatment can induce therapy-related leukemia. The mechanism by which etoposide induces secondary hematopoietic malignancies is still unclear. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms of etoposide induced therapy-related leukemia. Etoposide related leukemogenesis is known to depend on reactive oxidative metabolites of etoposide, notably etoposide quinone, which interacts with cellular proteins such as topoisomerases II (TOP2), CREB-binding protein (CREBBP), and T-Cell Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (TCPTP). CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolize etoposide to etoposide catechol, which readily oxidizes to etoposide quinone. As a poison of TOP2 enzymes, etoposide and its metabolites induce DNA double-stranded breaks (DSB), and the accumulation of DSB triggers cell apoptosis. If the cell survives, the DSB gives rise to the likelihood of faulty DNA repair events. The gene translocation could occur in mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene, which is well-known in leukemogenesis. Recently, studies have revealed that etoposide metabolites, especially etoposide quinone, can covalently bind to cysteines residues of CREBBP and TCPTP enzymes, . This leads to enzyme inhibition and further affects histone acetylation and phosphorylation of the JAK-STAT pathway, thus putatively altering the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In brief, current studies suggest that etoposide and its metabolites contribute to etoposide therapy-related leukemia through TOP2 mediated DSB and impairs specific enzyme activity, such as CREBBP and TCPTP.

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