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1.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105668, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298307

RESUMO

To extend the shelf life and retain bioactive proteins in milk, this study utilized microfiltration (MF) combined with ultrasonication to treat skim milk and investigated its efficiency in removing bacteria and retaining bioactive proteins compared with HTST pasteurization and microfiltration alone. Results showed that microfiltration combined with ultrasonication at 1296 J/mL could completely remove the bacteria in skim milk. Ultrasonication further extended the shelf life (4 °C) of microfiltered skim milk, which could reach at least 40 days when MF was combined with ˃1296 J/mL ultrasonication. In addition, ELISA showed that HTST pasteurization significantly decreased the levels of IgG by ~30%, IgA by ~ 50%, IgM by ~60%, and lactoferrin by ~40%, whereas the activity of the enzymes lactoperoxidase and xanthine oxidase were also decreased by ~ 20%. Compared with HTST, MF alone or combined with ultrasonication retained these bioactive proteins to a larger degree. On the other hand, proteomics indicated both damage to casein micelle and fat globule structures in milk when ultrasonication at >1296 J/mL was applied, as shown by increases in caseins and milk fat globular proteins. Simultaneously, this ultrasound intensity also decreased levels of bioactive proteins, such as complement factors. Taken together, this study provided new insights that may help to implement this novel combination of non-thermal technologies for the dairy industry aimed at improving milk quality and functionality.


Assuntos
Filtração , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Leite/química , Proteínas/química , Sonicação , Animais , Temperatura
2.
Adv Mater ; 33(36): e2100601, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302397

RESUMO

Room-temperature chiral light sources whose optical helicity can be electrically switched are one of the most important devices for future optical quantum information processing. The emerging valley degree of freedom in monolayer semiconductors allows generation of chiral luminescence via valley polarization. However, relevant valley-polarized light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have only been achieved at low temperatures (typically below 80 K). Here, a room-temperature chiral LED with strained transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers is realized. Spatially resolved polarization spectroscopy reveals that strain effects are crucial to yielding robust valley-polarized electroluminescence. The broken threefold rotational symmetry of strained monolayers induce inequivalent valley drifts at the K/K' valleys, resulting in different amounts of spin recombination driven by electric fields. Based on this scenario, ideally strained conditions are designed for LEDs on flexible substrates, in which the helicity of room-temperature valley-polarized electroluminescence is electrically tuned. The results provide a new pathway for practical chiral light sources based on monolayer semiconductors.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146768

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are poisonous secondary fungal toxic metabolites and harmful to human health. Traditional Chinese medicinal materials (TCMs), including more than two hundred functional foods, are vulnerably bred fungi, causing spoilage and multi-mycotoxins contamination. This study established a simultaneous analytical method by using multi-mycotoxins immunoaffinity column (multi-IAC) and HPLC-MS/MS to evaluate mycotoxins' contamination levels and natural incidence in TCMs. Aflatoxins (AFs, including AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and T-2 toxins in three TCMs or functional foods of Polygalae Radix (PR), Coicis Semen (CS) and Eupolyphaga Steleophaga (ES) were detected. The systematically investigated results of 30 batch AFB1 positive samples revealed co-occurrence and correlation of multi-mycotoxins are significant differences in various matrices. All the samples in this study contain more than 5 mycotoxins. AFB1-AFs, AFB1-FBs, AFB1-DON, and AFB1-T-2 are the most observed co-occurrence, AFB1-OTA is also of concern due to its synergistic toxicity. This study's results can be used to establish guidelines for screening mycotoxin contaminants and limitations on acceptable levels in TCMs. Simultaneously, mycotoxin's correlation results in different matrices can also provide a reference for the standardization of TCM production and processing.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Micotoxinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
J Mol Model ; 27(7): 205, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160692

RESUMO

Benefiting from the new strategy of oxidative azo coupling of the N-NH2 moiety, a series of energetic nitrogen-rich molecules with long catenated nitrogen chains have been successfully synthesized. As one of them, the synthesized 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole shows excellent thermal stability, great explosive performance, and special photochromic properties, which has caused widespread concern. To further characterize its performance, the structural, electronic, vibrational, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole were investigated based on the first-principles density functional theory calculations. The obtained structural parameters are consistent with previous results. We used the band structure, density of states, Mulliken charges, bond populations, and electron density to analyze the electronic properties and chemical bonding. The vibrational frequency regions (396.51-3210.12 cm-1) were assigned to the corresponding vibrational modes. Furthermore, mechanical properties of 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole are also calculated. Finally, the thermodynamic properties of 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole were calculated, including the specific heat at constant volume Cv, temperature*entropy TS, enthalpy H, Gibbs free energy G, and Debye temperature ΘD.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1883-1892, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982496

RESUMO

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Assuntos
Materia Medica , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1893-1900, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982497

RESUMO

Nitrogen is one of the most frequently used fertilizers in growth of Chinese medicinal plants(CMP). As in many other ecosystems, CMP ecosystem is also composed of plant-herbivore-natural enemy(tritrophic) interactions. Nitrogen fertilizer influences the growth and reproduction of CMP, and it is also able to heavily shape the ecosystem functions of CMP ecosystem through bottom-up forces. Understanding the specific effects of nitrogen fertilizer towards each trophic level will be beneficial to improve the resistance of CMP to herbivore and enhance the control efficiency of nature enemies to herbivore, and eventually, maximize the yield and quality of CMP. Most papers published on nitrogen use in plants focused mainly on the impact of nitrogen fertilization on CMP yield and quality. Influences of nitrogen application on CMP ecosystem get little attention at present. Therefore, this review summed up the potential effects of nitrogen fertilization on CMP ecosystem from perspectives of soil and tritrophic interactions. First of all, nitrogen fertilizer might decrease soil microbial biomass and altered the community structures of soil bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were found on biodiversity of soil bacteria and protozoa. Different fungi species respond differently to nitrogen fertili-zers. Nitrogen deposition can also decrease the soil pH. Decreases in soil microbial diversity and soil acidification can cause negative effects on CMP growth. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer could regulate the pest resistance of CMP including constitutive and inducible resistance. Both positive and negative effects of nitrogen application were found on pest resistance of CMP. Moreover, the development and predation of natural enemies were influenced by nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen influences natural enemies in many ways including plant volatiles, plant nutrient and structure and the supplementary food quality. Nectar and honeydew of plants and preys serve as important food source for natural enemies especially in early season when preys are still not available. Finally, the interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies were also shaped by nitrogen fertilizer in many aspects like increasing the nutritional content of prey and changing control efficiency of natural enemies. Some herbivores have evolved a strategy to sequester secondary metabolites which they absorbed from plant during their feeding. Studies showed that sequestration efficiency of secondary metabolites in prey could also be regulated by nitrogen. Parasitic, emergence, reproduction rate and longevity of parasites were found positively correlated with nitrogen deposition. Hopefully this study will shed light on practicable and economical application of nitrogen in cultivation of CMP.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plantas Medicinais , China , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Solo
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1901-1909, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982498

RESUMO

Nitrogen fertilizers play an important role in the regulation of plant stress resistance. Impacts of nitrogen fertilizers on abiotic stress resistance and biotic stress resistance of Chinese materia medica(CMM) were summarized in this study. Adequate nitrogen application improves the abiotic stress resistance and weed resistance of CMM, however adverse effect appears when excess nitrogen is used. Generally, pest resistance decreases along with nitrogen deposition, while effects of nitrogen application on disease resistance vary with different diseases. Mechanisms underlying the impact of nitrogen fertilizers on plant stress resistance were also elucidated in this study from three aspects including physical defense mechanisms, biochemistry mechanisms and molecular defense mechanisms. Nitrogen availability modulates physical barrier of CMM like plant growth, formation of lignin and wax cuticle, and density of stomata. Growth of CMM promoted by nitrogen fertilizer may cause some decrease in pest resistance of CMM due to an increase in hiding places for pest along with plant growth. High ambient humidity caused by excessive plant growth facilitates the growth and development of CMM pathogen. Nitrogen application can also interfere with the accumulation of lignin in CMM which makes CMM more vulnerable to pest and pathogen attack. Stomatal closing delays due to nitrogen application is also a causal factor of increasing pathogen infection after nitrogen deposition. Biochemical defenses of plants are mainly achieved through nutrient elements, secondary metabolites, defense-related enzymes and proteins. Nutritional level of CMM and various antioxidant enzymes and resistance-related protein activities are elevated along with nitrogen deposition. These antioxidant enzymes can reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species content produced by plant in response to adversity and therefore enhance stress resistance of CMM. Researches showed that nitrogen application could also cause an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. Nitrogen-mediated molecular defense mechanisms includes multiple plant hormones and nitric oxide signals. Plant hormones related to plant defense like salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid can be modulated by nitrogen application. Negative effect of nitrogen deposition was found on salicylic acid accumulation and the expression of related plant disease resistance genes. However, jasmonic acid level can be elevated by nitrogen. Nitric oxide signals constitute an important part of nitrogen mediated defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide signaling is related to many aspects of plant immunity. The roles of nitrogen fertilizers in CMM stress resistance are complex and may vary with different CMM varieties and environments. Further studies are urgently needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of how to improve stress resistance of CMM by using fertilizers.


Assuntos
Materia Medica , Ácido Abscísico , China , Nitrogênio , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(10): 2467-2473, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047092

RESUMO

Plants have a memory function for the environmental stress they have suffered. When they are subjected to repeated environmental stress, they can quickly and better activate the response and adaptation mechanism to environmental stress, thus realizing long-term stable reproduction. However, most of the relevant studies are applied to crops and Arabidopsis thaliana rather than medicinal plants about the improvement of plant growth status and the effect on phytoalexin biosynthesis. In this study, yeast extract(YE) was used as an elicitor to simulate biotic stress, and the changes in biomass and the content of some secondary metabolites were measured by giving repeated stresses to Sorbus aucuparia suspension cell(SASC). The results showed that the accumulation levels of biomass and some secondary metabolites in SASC subjected to repeated stress are significantly increased at some time points compared with single stress. A phenomenon that SASC can memorize biotic stress is confirmed in this study and influences phytoalexin accumulation in SASC. Furthermore, the work laid the groundwork for research into the transgenerational stress memory mechanism of medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Sorbus , Células Cultivadas , Metabolismo Secundário , Estresse Fisiológico
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(9): 2133-2141, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047113

RESUMO

Atractylodis Rhizoma(AR) is a traditional Chinese medicinal material for food and medicine, with the functions of eli-minating dampness, strengthening the spleen, expelling wind evil and dispersing cold. AR contains a variety of compounds, including sesquiterpenoids, alkynes, triterpenoids, aromatic glycosides, polysaccharides and so on. At present, the researches on AR mainly focus on volatile components, with relatively fewer researches on non-volatile components. Polysaccharide from Atractylodis Rhizoma(ARP) is an important material basis among non-volatile components for the efficacy. Due to its many biological activities such as immunomodulatory activity, anti-tumors, anti-virus and anti-oxidation, ARP has certain research value and potential. The diversity of the polysaccharide structure is the basis for biological functions, but it also increases the difficulty of carbohydrate research. The research on the extraction, separation, purification, structure and activity of ARP is in the preliminary exploration stage, still with many shortcomings. Herein, recent advancements in the extraction, purification, structural characteristics and biological activities of ARP were summarized in this article to provide scientific reference for the in-depth systematic research of ARP and the development of AR resources.


Assuntos
Atractylodes , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Triterpenos , Polissacarídeos , Rizoma
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1920-1926, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982500

RESUMO

The ecological environment is closely related to the growth and quality of authentic medicinal materials. Ginseng is very strict with its natural environment and grows mostly in the damp valleys of forests, and the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng under different growth environments are very different. This article reviews the effects of different ecological factors(including light, temperature, altitude, moisture, soil factors, etc.)on the appearance and chemical composition(mainly ginsenosides) of ginseng. Through systematic review, it is found that soil physical factors are the most important ecological factors that affect the appea-rance of ginseng, and soil bulk density plays a key role; temperature affects ginsenosides in ginseng medicinal materials The dominant ecological factors for the accumulation of chemical ingredents; strong light, high altitude, high soil moisture, low soil nutrient and strong acid soil can influence the accumulation of secondary metabolites in ginseng. Environmental stress can also stimulate the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Appropriate low temperature stress, high or low water stress, acid or alkali stress can also promote the accumulation of ginsenosides. This article systematically reviews the ecological factors that affect the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng, and clarifies the dominant ecological factors and limiting factors for the formation of ginseng's appearance and quality, as well as beneficial environmental stress factors, in order to provide a theoretical basis for ginseng ecological planting and ginseng quality improvement.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Plantas Medicinais , Florestas , Solo
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(8): 708-724, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent investigation showed that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is 12.8% among individuals of Han ethnicity. Gut microbiota has been reported to play a central role in T2DM. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats show differences in gut microbiota compared to non-diabetic rats. Previous studies have indicated that berberine could be successfully used to manage T2DM. We sought to understand its hypoglycaemic effect and role in the regulation of the gut microbiota. AIM: To determine whether berberine can regulate glucose metabolism in GK rats via the gut microbiota. METHODS: GK rats were acclimatized for 1 wk. The GK rats were randomly divided into three groups and administered saline (Mo), metformin (Me), or berberine (Be). The observation time was 8 wk, and weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. Pancreatic tissue was observed for pathological changes. Additionally, we sequenced the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region of the gut microbiota and analysed the structure. RESULTS: Compared with the Mo group, the Me and Be groups displayed significant differences in FBG (P < 0.01) and GLP-1 (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in weight and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance was noted in the Be group compared with those in the Me group (P < 0.01). The pancreatic islets of the Me- and Be-treated rats showed improvement in number, shape, and necrosis compared with those of Mo-treated rats. A total of 580 operational taxonomic units were obtained in the three groups. Compared to the Mo group, the Me and Be groups showed a shift in the structure of the gut microbiota. Correlation analysis indicated that FBG was strongly positively correlated with Clostridia_UCG-014 (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with Allobaculum (P < 0.01). Body weight showed a positive correlation with Desulfovibrionaceae (P < 0.01) and a negative correlation with Akkermansia (P < 0.01). Importantly, our results demonstrated that Me and Be could significantly decrease Bacteroidetes (P < 0.01) and the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Muribaculaceae (P < 0.01; P < 0.05) was significantly decreased in the Me and Be groups, and Allobaculum (P < 0.01) was significantly increased. CONCLUSION: Berberine has a substantial effect in improving metabolic parameters and modulating the gut microbiota composition in T2DM rats.


Assuntos
Berberina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperglicemia , Animais , Berberina/farmacologia , Berberina/uso terapêutico , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6620677, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33552385

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease has become one of the main causes of human death. In addition, many cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by a series of irreversible damages that lead to organ and vascular complications. In recent years, the potential therapeutic strategy of natural antioxidants in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases through mitochondrial quality control has received extensive attention. Mitochondria are the main site of energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells, including myocardial and vascular endothelial cells. Mitochondrial quality control processes ensure normal activities of mitochondria and cells by maintaining stable mitochondrial quantity and quality, thus protecting myocardial and endothelial cells against stress. Various stresses can affect mitochondrial morphology and function. Natural antioxidants extracted from plants and natural medicines are becoming increasingly common in the clinical treatment of diseases, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Natural antioxidants can effectively protect myocardial and endothelial cells from stress-induced injury by regulating mitochondrial quality control, and their safety and effectiveness have been preliminarily verified. This review summarises the damage mechanisms of various stresses in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells and the mechanisms of natural antioxidants in improving the vulnerability of these cell types to stress by regulating mitochondrial quality control. This review is aimed at paving the way for novel treatments for cardiovascular diseases and the development of natural antioxidant drugs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Food Chem ; 343: 128506, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153811

RESUMO

In this study, stable isotopes and multi-element signatures combined with chemometrics were used to distinguish conventional and organic Chinese yams based on field trials. Four light stable isotopes δD, δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, and 20 elements (e.g. Li, Na, Mn) were determined, then evaluated using significance analysis and correlation analysis, and modeling of various chemometrics methods. Consequently, the RandomForest model showed the best performance with AUC value of 0.972 and predictive accuracy of 97.3%, and Mn, Cr, Se, Na, δD, As, and δ15N were screened as significant variables. Moreover, many chemical components and antioxidant activity of yam samples were determined spectrophotometrically. The results indicated that organic yams had advantages in secondary metabolites such as polyphenol, flavonoid and saponin; conversely, conventional samples had more primary metabolites like protein and amino acids. Above all, this work provides a beneficial case in the authentication and quality evaluation of conventional and organic yams.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Dioscorea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Isótopos/química , Aprendizado de Máquina , Agricultura Orgânica
14.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153308, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) outbreak in more than 200 countries recently caused viral pneumonia that was extremely infectious and pathogenic. The Chinese government proposes that both Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine can be used in combination to treat pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV2, and TCM effectively provides continuous prevention and treatment. METHODS: The present review analyzes and summarizes the prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with TCM. A classified analysis of the efficacy and advantages of TCM for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 was performed, and the mechanisms of TCM in treating COVID-19 are summarized. RESULTS: TCM is effective in preventing COVID-19, and medical staff can prevent an iatrogenic infection by taking a decoction made based on the principles of TCM. As of March 13, 2020, new cases of COVID-19 in China have decreased in number to single digits. TCM's curative effect was outstanding, with a national participation rate of over 90%. More than 70,000 people were cured of COVID-19 and discharged from the hospital. Only approximately 10,000 patients are currently being treated, and the total treatment time is approximately 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: TCM is currently the best choice for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19, and it is expected that it will be promoted by countries around the world.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China/epidemiologia , Humanos
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113415, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987126

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Atractylodis Rhizoma (AR), mainly includes Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. (A. lancea) and Atractylodes chinensis (DC.) Koidz. (A. chinensis) is widely used in East Asia as a diuretic and stomachic drug, for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, digestive disorders, night blindness, and influenza as it contains a variety of sesquiterpenoids and other components of medicinal importance. AIM OF THE REVIEW: A systematic summary on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and quality control of AR was presented to explore the future therapeutic potential and scientific potential of this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature was performed by consulting scientific databases including Google Scholar, Web of Science, Baidu Scholar, Springer, PubMed, ScienceDirect, CNKI, etc. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List". RESULTS: Over 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from AR, notably sesquiterpenoids and alkynes. Various pharmacological activities have been demonstrated, especially improving gastrointestinal function and thus allowed to assert most of the traditional uses of AR. CONCLUSIONS: The researches on AR are extensive, but gaps still remain. The molecular mechanism, structure-activity relationship, potential synergistic and antagonistic effects of these components need to be further elucidated. It is suggested that further studies should be carried out in the aspects of comprehensive evaluation of the quality of medicinal materials, understanding of the "effective forms" and "additive effects" of the pharmacodynamic substances based on the same pharmacophore of TCM, and its long-term toxicity in vivo and clinical efficacy.


Assuntos
Atractylodes/química , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Controle de Qualidade , Rizoma
16.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 578086, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042192

RESUMO

Trichosanthis Radix (TR) is one of the most severely sulfur-fumigated herbs in the market, whose transformation mechanism of chemical compositions and sulfur-fumigation markers of TR have not been clarified. To excavate characteristic sulfur-fumigation markers of TR samples, this study brings up a practical protocol using both ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrum (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS)-based non-targeted metabolomics and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/quadrupole multiple-stage linear ion-trap mass spectrum (UPLC-ESI-QTRAP-MS/MS)-based widely targeted metabolomics. The results of study demonstrated that five characteristic markers are sulfur-containing components, which were identified as p-Hydroxybenzyl hydrogen sulfite, cucurbitacin D sulfite I, cucurbitacin D sulfite II, cucurbitacin B sulfite I, and cucurbitacin B sulfite II, respectively. Additionally, cucurbitacin B and D were also filtered and identified as the characteristic sulfur-fumigation markers. Meanwhile, the different sulfur-fumigation extent of TR samples was tested by chemical transformations analysis and sulfur dioxide residues test. Further, 58.16% (139 of 239) of the differential metabolites content significantly reduced in sulfur-fumigated TR samples. Besides, 20 kinds of non-sulfur marker metabolites were tested to evaluate the quality of TR samples before and after sulfur fumigation, predominantly including phenolic acids, amino acids, lipids and nucleotides. Taking TR as an example, this work provides a comprehensive practical protocol for the quality supervision of sulfur-fumigation herbs.

17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 5430407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062142

RESUMO

Oxidative stress (OS) refers to the physiological imbalance between oxidative and antioxidative processes leading to increased oxidation, which then results in the inflammatory infiltration of neutrophils, increased protease secretion, and the production of a large number of oxidative intermediates. Oxidative stress is considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). At present, active components of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have been widely used for the treatment of CVD, including coronary heart disease and hypertension. Since the discovery of artemisinin for the treatment of malaria by Nobel laureate Youyou Tu, the therapeutic effects of active components of CHM on various diseases have been widely investigated by the medical community. It has been found that various active CHM components can regulate oxidative stress and the circulatory system, including ginsenoside, astragaloside, and resveratrol. This paper reviews advances in the use of active CHM components that modulate oxidative stress, suggesting potential drugs for the treatment of various CVDs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(14): 3489-3496, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726066

RESUMO

Chinese medicine polysaccharide is an important active biological macromolecule, which has a broad application prospect. However, there are still many deficiencies in the quality evaluation and control of polysaccharides. Based on the existing problems in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides, current review analyzes the methods of extraction, separation and purification, characteristic identification, content determination and structure analysis of Chinese medicine polysaccharides, and draws the following conclusions: ①Based on the clinical application of Chinese medicine, decoction is recommended as the extraction method in the basic study of effective substances of Chinese medicine polysaccharides; ②On the basis of impurity removal, HPGPC can achieve the separation, purification and content determination of Chinese medicine polysaccharides at the same time, supplemented by MS or NMR can achieve the quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese medicine polysaccharides; ③Based on the characteristic identification, select the suitable pure polysaccharide, dextran or monosaccharide reference; ④HPSEC-MALLS-RID is specific, accurate, and beneficial to the study of structure-activity mechanism of polysaccharides. The review suggested that the comprehensive evaluation and control of the quality of Chinese medicine polysaccharides should be based on extraction, separation and purification, on the premise of characteristic identification, on the basis of content determination, supplemented by structural analysis, which is to provide useful reference for the quality research of Chinese medicine polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Monossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Molecules ; 25(14)2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664629

RESUMO

Chemical diversification of type II topoisomerase (Topo II) inhibitors remains indispensable to extend their anti-tumor therapeutic values which are limited by their side effects. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel series of benzimidazole-chalcone hybrids (BCHs). These BCHs showed good inhibitory effect in the Topo II mediated DNA relaxation assay and anti-proliferative effect in 4 tumor cell lines. 4d and 4n were the most potent, with IC50 values less than 5 µM, superior to etoposide. Mechanistic studies indicated that the BCHs functioned as non-intercalative Topo II catalytic inhibitors. Moreover, 4d and 4n demonstrated versatile properties against tumors, including inhibition on the colony formation and cell migration, and promotion of apoptosis of A549 cells. The structure-activity relationship and molecular docking analysis suggested possible contribution of the chalcone motif to the Topo II inhibitory and anti-proliferative potency. These results indicated that 4d and 4n could be promising lead compounds for further anti-tumor drug research.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Desenho de Fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalcona/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/síntese química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/farmacologia
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 1969-1974, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495540

RESUMO

This paper analyzed life form, habitats and environmental stresses of medicinal plants and algal fungi collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015). ①It was found that only 0.94% of the medicinal plants mainly cultivated in field. The most common habitats of medicinal plants are divided into two types: those whose natural habitats are forest margins/undergrowth(about 42.53%) and those whose natural habitats are roadside, hillside, wasteland/sand(about 43.78%). The former mainly faces environmental stresses such as weak light, pests and diseases; the latter often faces the main environmental stresses of drought, strong light, ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, low temperature(day and night or annual temperature difference is large), nutrient deficiency, pests and so on. ②Based on analyzing the strategies of medicinal plants to adapt to environmental stresses, it is pointed out that the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites are the most important strategies of medicinal plants to protect against environmental stresses. In the process of long-term adaptation to specific stress, the accumulation of relevant genetic variation and epigenetic inheritance has become an important condition for the formation of quality of medicinal plants. ③It is proposed that "simulative habitat cultivation" has obvious advantages in balancing growth and secondary metabolism and guaranting the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Ecossistema , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Raios Ultravioleta
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