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1.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 763984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722687

RESUMO

We evaluated the metabolic profile in pig hearts at postnatal day 1, 3, 7, and 28 (P1, P3, P7, and P28, respectively) using a targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay. Our data showed that there is a clear separation of the detected metabolites in P1 vs. P28 hearts. Active anabolisms of nucleotide and proteins were observed in P1 hearts when cardiomyocytes retain high cell cycle activity. However, the active posttranslational protein modification, metabolic switch from glucose to fatty acids, and the reduced ratio of collagen to total protein were observed in P28 hearts when cardiomyocytes withdraw from cell cycle.

2.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832530

RESUMO

Novel genotypes of hepatitis E virus (HEV), i.e., HEV-5, HEV-7, and HEV-8, have been identified in wild boar, dromedary camels, and Bactrian camels, respectively, and they transmit to cynomolgus monkeys in a trans-species manner, raising the potential for zoonotic infection. Rabbits are the natural reservoir for rabbit HEV, but they are also susceptible to HEV-3 and HEV-4. It has been unknown whether rabbits are susceptible to HEV-5, HEV-7, and HEV-8. To investigate the infectivity of novel HEVs in rabbits and to assess whether rabbits are appropriate animal models for these HEVs, we inoculated Japanese white rabbits with HEV-5, HEV-7, and HEV-8, respectively. We observed that viral RNA was present in the fecal specimens of the HEV-8-inoculated rabbits and anti-HEV IgG antibodies were present in its sera, although anti-HEV IgM was undetectable and no significant elevation of ALT was observed. These results indicated that HEV-8 crossed species and infected the rabbits. No evidence for replication was observed in HEV-5 and HEV-7, suggesting that rabbits are not susceptible to these genotypes. The antibodies elicited in the HEV-8-infected rabbits did not protect them from the rabbit HEV challenge, suggesting that the antigenicity differs between HEV-8 and rabbit HEV. Antigenic analyses demonstrated that anti-HEV-8 antibodies reacted more strongly with homologous HEV-8 virus-like particles (VLPs) compared to heterologous rabbit HEV VLPs, but anti-rabbit HEV antibody had similar reactivity to the VLPs of rabbit HEV and HEV-8, suggesting that HEV-8 lacks some epitope(s) that exist in rabbit HEV and induced the neutralizing antibodies against rabbit HEV.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(21): 24271-24289, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747716

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated the role of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in promoting melanoma progression. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) treatment dramatically extended the survival outcomes for advanced melanoma patients. Nevertheless, immunologic and immunotherapy implications of NLRP3 mutations in melanoma were obscure. Herein, we utilized publicly genomic data of 750 melanoma patients to explore the association of NLRP3 mutations with immunologic and genomic features. In addition, we curated 336 advanced/metastatic melanoma patients treated with ICI agents from 6 published studies to analyze the response rate and survival outcome in relation to NLRP3 mutations. We observed that patients with NLRP3 mutations had a significantly higher tumor mutation burden (P < 0.001) and neoantigen burden (P < 0.001). Moreover, significantly lower tumor heterogeneity (P = 0.048) and purity (P = 0.022) were also observed in this mutated subgroup. Elevated infiltration of immune-response cells, decreased enrichment of immune-suppressive cells, and immune response-related circuits were markedly enriched in patients with NLRP3 mutations. In the pooled ICI-treated cohort, NLRP3 mutations were linked with the higher response rate (P = 0.031) and preferable survival outcome (P = 0.006). NLRP3 mutations were identified to associate with the elevated mutational burden, favorable immune infiltration, and preferable ICI efficacy. Findings derived from our study suggest that NLRP3 mutations may serve as a potential biomarker for evaluating melanoma immunotherapy response.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(21): 24136-24154, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747718

RESUMO

Recently several studies have demonstrated the implications of mutations in DNA damage response (DDR) pathways for immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment. However, smaller sample sizes, lesser cancer types, and the lack of multivariate-adjusted analyses may produce unreliable results. From the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) cohort, we curated 1363 ICB-treated patients to evaluate the association of DDR mutations with immunotherapy prognosis. Besides, 4286 ICB-treated-naive patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort were used to explore the intrinsic prognosis of DDR mutations. Factors in the microenvironment regarding DDR mutations were also assessed. We found that patients with DDR mutations exhibited a significantly prolonged immunotherapy overall survival via multivariate Cox model in the MSKCC cohort (HR: 0.70, P < 0.001). Specific cancer analyses revealed that patients with DDR mutations could obtain the better ICB prognosis in bladder cancer and colorectal cancer (HR: 0.59 [P = 0.034] and 0.33 [P = 0.006]). Stratified analyses showed that age >60, male gender, high mutation burden, and PD-1/PD-L1 treatment were the positive conditions for ICB survival benefits of DDR mutations (all P < 0.01). Mutations of 4 DDR genes, including MRE11A, MSH2, ATM, and POLE could predict favorable ICB prognoses (all P < 0.01). A better immune microenvironment was observed in DDR mutated patients. Mutations in DDR pathways or single DDR genes were associated with preferable ICB efficacy in specific cancers or subpopulations. Findings from our study would provide clues for tailing clinical trials and immunotherapy strategies.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(21): 24155-24170, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747719

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone cancer, mainly diagnosed in children and adolescents. So far, no reliable molecular biomarkers have been identified to effectively evaluate OS prognosis and immune infiltration. Herein, we curated transcriptome profiles and clinical information from the publicly available OS cohorts to establish an immune-related prognostic signature. Besides, immunotherapeutic cohorts of urothelial cancer and melanoma patients were also employed to infer immunotherapy prediction roles of the identified signature. Lymphocytes infiltration, immune response-related pathways and signatures in the microenvironment were assessed according to distinct risk subgroups. Based on the univariate Cox analysis and further feature selection implemented by the LASSO regression model in the TARGET cohort, a 21-immune-gene signature was identified by combing the expression values and corresponding coefficients. We observed that the low-risk score of this signature was significantly linked with the preferable survival outcome (Log-rank test P < 0.001). The consistent results of better prognoses of the low-risk group were also obtained in subsequent two validation cohorts. Immunology analyses showed that favorable immune infiltration and elevated enrichment of immune response signals may contribute to the better outcome of the low-risk OS subgroup. The immunotherapeutic efficacy analyses demonstrated that low-risk patients harbored significantly enhanced response rates and improved immunotherapy survival outcomes. Together, our established signature could evaluate survival risk and represent the immune microenvironment status of OS, which promotes precision treatment and provides a potential biomarker for prognosis prediction and immunotherapy efficacy assessment.

6.
Small ; : e2104824, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816586

RESUMO

Pt-based catalysts are currently the most efficient electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), but the scarcity and high cost of Pt limit industrial applications. Downsizing Pt nanoparticles (NPs) to single atoms (SAs) can expose more active sites and increase atomic utilization, thus decreasing the cost. Here, a solar-irradiation strategy is used to prepare hybrid SA-Pt/MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) that demonstrate excellent HER activity (the overpotential at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 (η10 ) of 44 mV, and Tafel slope of 34.83 mV dec-1 in acidic media; η10 of 123 mV, and Tafel slope of 76.71 mV dec-1 in alkaline media). Defects and deformations introduced by thermal pretreatment of the hydrothermal MoS2 NSs promote anchoring and stability of Pt SAs. The fabrication of Pt SAs and NPs is easily controlled using different Pt-precursor concentrations. Moreover, SA-Pt/MoS2 produced under natural sunlight exhibits high HER performance (η10 of 55 mV, and Tafel slope of 43.54 mV dec-1 ), which indicates its viability for mass production. Theoretical simulations show that Pt improves the absorption of H atoms and the charge-transfer kinetics of MoS2 , which significantly enhance HER activity. A simple, inexpensive strategy for preparing SA-Pt/MoS2 hybrid catalysts for industrial HER is provided.

7.
Vet Microbiol ; 263: 109275, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798367

RESUMO

Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected among rabbits and recently isolated from immunocompromised patients, suggesting zoonotic transmission. In this study, HEV infection among feral rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was assessed by detection of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA. The prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in sera was of 33 % (20/60) and HEV RNA was detected from only one of fecal swabs (1.7 %, 1/58). Furthermore, one naïve rabbit was intravenously inoculated with the suspension of the HEV-positive fecal specimen, exhibiting persistent HEV shedding in feces, intermittent viremia, seroconversion to anti-HEV IgM and IgG, and high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values, indicating persistent HEV infection. The isolate JP-59 had a length of 7,282 bp excluding a poly (A) tail and possessed the characteristic 93 bp-insertion in ORF1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that JP-59 formed a cluster with other rabbit HEV isolates from rabbits and human origin. The JP-59 shared the nucleotide sequence identities less than 87 % with other rabbit HEVs, suggesting that a novel rabbit HEV strain was circulating in Japan.

8.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 17: 3325-3343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795484

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize and critically assess the reliability of the methodological quality and outcome measures from systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses (MAs) and provide an overall verdict about the therapeutic value of acupuncture for perimenopausal insomnia (PMI). Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search for SRs/MAs of seven major databases (English and Chinese). For each included review, the methodological quality was appraised according to the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR-2), the evidence quality was classified on the basis of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), and reporting quality was evaluated complying with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2009 (PRISMA-2009). Veritas plots were used to quantify the quality of included SRs/MAs. Results: Nine SRs/MAs were deemed eligible for the present overview. Considering the assessment of results from the AMSTAR-2 checklist, the methodological quality of one SR/MA was considered low, and the remaining eight were critically low. Major methodological deficiencies were concentrated on item 2 (the lack of protocol and/or registration information), item 7 (the lack of a list of excluded studies), and item 10 (the lack of reports on funding sources for individual studies included in the SRs/MAs). For the GRADE system, of the 25 outcomes, only three (12%) were rated as moderate-quality, while the remaining 22 were rated between low- and very low-quality. The PRISMA-2009 statement indicated three major reporting quality limitations in most SRs/MAs, namely: 1) only search terms without specific retrieval strategy; 2) incomplete descriptions for study characteristics, particularly the specific dosage and frequency of interventions in treatment/control groups; and 3) inadequate investigation and explanation of the source of high heterogeneity among original randomized control trials included. According to Veritas plots, quality rank scores of included SRs/MAs ranged from 3.3 to 8.3, with an average score of 6.4 ± 1.7. Conclusion: Acupuncture appears to be beneficial for PMI management, but the quality of evidence is weakened by the unsatisfactory quality of both SRs/MAs and original trials included.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 721409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795662

RESUMO

Background: Despite the acknowledged sex-related differences in immune response and immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) efficacy, little is known about the sex disparities in melanoma of novel genomic determinants for ICI therapies. Methods: Pretreatment genomic profiles and clinical characteristics of 631 melanoma patients treated with ICIs (i.e., inhibitors of CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1, or both) were comprehensively curated. Genomic factors, i.e., significantly mutated genes (SMGs), mutational signatures, and molecular subtypes were identified, and their associations with ICI treatment efficacy in male and female patients were evaluated. Results: Of the 15 SMGs identified in this study, three genes (i.e., CFH, DGKG, and PPP6C) were found to exhibit sex differences with respect to ICI efficacy. Among these, CFH mutations exhibited both response rate and survival benefits in male, but not in female patients. A total of four mutational signatures (i.e., signatures 1, 4, 7, and 11) were extracted. Male patients with signature 4 (also known as smoking-related signature) had an inferior ICI response rate and overall survival. However, this association was not significant in females. An immune subtype based on mutational activities was found to be significantly associated with poor ICI survival in female patients. Conclusion: We uncovered several sex-dependent genomic correlates of response to ICI treatment, such as male-biased CFH mutations and signature 4 and the female-biased immune resistance subtype. The findings derived from this research provide clues for exploring different immunotherapeutic approaches in male and female patients with melanoma.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6331, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732724

RESUMO

Hydrogels have been extensively used in many fields. Current synthesis of functional hydrogels requires incorporation of functional molecules either before or during gelation via the pre-organized reactive site along the polymer chains within hydrogels, which is tedious for polymer synthesis and not flexible for different types of hydrogels. Inspired by sandcastle worm, we develop a simple one-step strategy to functionalize wet hydrogels using molecules bearing an adhesive dibutylamine-DOPA-lysine-DOPA tripeptide. This tripeptide can be easily modified with various functional groups to initiate diverse types of polymerizations and provide functional polymers with a terminal adhesive tripeptide. Such functional molecules enable direct modification of wet hydrogels to acquire biological functions such as antimicrobial, cell adhesion and wound repair. The strategy has a tunable functionalization degree and a stable attachment of functional molecules, which provides a tool for direct and convenient modification of wet hydrogels to provide them with diverse functions and applications.

11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 706380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733858

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish and validate the nomograms to predict the mortality risk of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using routine clinical indicators. This retrospective study included a development cohort enrolled 2,119 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and a validation cohort included 1,504 patients with COVID-19. The demographics, clinical manifestations, vital signs, and laboratory tests of the patients at admission and outcome of in-hospital death were recorded. The independent factors associated with death were identified by a forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis and used to construct the two prognostic nomograms. The nomogram 1 was a full model to include nine factors identified in the multivariate logistic regression and nomogram 2 was built by selecting four factors from nine to perform as a reduced model. The nomogram 1 and nomogram 2 showed better performance in discrimination and calibration than the Multilobular infiltration, hypo-Lymphocytosis, Bacterial coinfection, Smoking history, hyper-Tension and Age (MuLBSTA) score in training. In validation, nomogram 1 performed better than nomogram 2 for calibration. We recommend the application of nomogram 1 in general hospitals which provide robust prognostic performance though more cumbersome; nomogram 2 in the out-patient, emergency department, and mobile cabin hospitals, which depend on less laboratory examinations to make the assessment more convenient. Both the nomograms can help the clinicians to identify the patients at risk of death with routine clinical indicators at admission, which may reduce the overall mortality of COVID-19.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1530, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790736

RESUMO

Background: B7 family molecules affect both immune responses and cancer progression via immunological and non-immunological pathways. However, the specific expression and prognostic value of B7 members in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unclear; hence, an investigation using online bioinformatics databases is required. Methods: In this study, we explored the expression of B7 molecules using the ONCOMINE, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis 2 (GEPIA2), and UALCAN databases, while the prognostic value of B7 molecules in AML was analyzed using the LinkedOmics, GEPIA2, UALCAN, and TCGAportal databases. Additionally, genetic alteration and gene co-expression analysis of the B7 family was performed via the cBioPortal and LinkedOmics databases, while functional and pathway enrichment analyses were conducted using the Metascape databases for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses. Results: The message RNA (mRNA) levels of B7 family members varied in AML patients, and aberrant highly expressed B7 members were correlated with poor prognosis in AML, including B7.1, B7-DC, B7-H3, B7-H5, and B7-H7. B7-H6 acted as a protective molecule for overall survival (OS), while B7-H1 overexpression was inclined to predict poor prognosis. B7 family gene alteration occurred frequently in AML, and the altered B7 group seemed to exhibit a trend towards worse OS. The co-expression genes and relative signaling pathways of the B7 family might be involved in oncogenesis and be associated with prognosis in AML. Conclusions: Our study showed that aberrantly expressed B7 family molecules affected the prognosis of AML patients, and thus, could be promising prognostic biomarkers and new therapeutic targets.

13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1442093, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825000

RESUMO

Introduction: miR-199a has been reported as an oncogene of various cancers. However, the biological function and regulatory mechanism of miR-199a in keratinocytes of cholesteatoma are still unclear. Methods: Detection by qRT-PCR was conducted on miR-199a's expression in both thirty pairs of cholesteatoma tissues and normal skins. For characterizing the function of miR-199a, this research adopted transwell assay, wound healing assay, and CCK8 assays. Under the support of qRT-PCR, efforts were made to investigate the relative expression of candidate target genes. Moreover, the evaluation of the targeting relationship between miR-199a and the candidate target gene was conducted with the dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results: The upregulation of miR-199a was found in cholesteatoma tissues, which facilitated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HaCaT cells, while its downregulation caused opposite results. Conclusions: The findings of the present research offer more insights into the molecular mechanism of cholesteatoma progression.

14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 705862, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604350

RESUMO

Aims: The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic role of derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) after PCI. Methods: A total of 3,561 post-PCI patients with CHD were retrospectively enrolled in the CORFCHD-ZZ study from January 2013 to December 2017. The patients (3,462) were divided into three groups according to dNLR tertiles: the first tertile (dNLR < 1.36; n = 1,139), second tertile (1.36 ≥ dNLR < 1.96; n = 1,166), and third tertile(dNLR ≥ 1.96; n = 1,157). The mean follow-up time was 37.59 ± 22.24 months. The primary endpoint was defined as mortality (including all-cause death and cardiac death), and the secondary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). Results: There were 2,644 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 838 patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) in the present study. In the total population, the all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiac mortality (CM) incidence was significantly higher in the third tertile than in the first tertile [hazard risk (HR) = 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2-2.8), p = 0.006 and HR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.23-3.8), p = 0.009, respectively]. Multivariate Cox regression analyses suggested that compared with the patients in the first tertile than those in the third tertile, the risk of ACM was increased 1.763 times (HR = 1.763, 95% CI: 1.133-2.743, p = 0.012), and the risk of CM was increased 1.763 times (HR = 1.961, 95% CI: 1.083-3.550, p = 0.026) in the higher dNLR group during the long-term follow-up. In both ACS patients and CCS patients, there were significant differences among the three groups in the incidence of ACM in univariate analysis. We also found that the incidence of CM was significantly different among the three groups in CCS patients in both univariate analysis (HR = 3.541, 95% CI: 1.154-10.863, p = 0.027) and multivariate analysis (HR = 3.136, 95% CI: 1.015-9.690, p = 0.047). Conclusion: The present study suggested that dNLR is an independent and novel predictor of mortality in CHD patients who underwent PCI.

15.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(10): 627-637, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672772

RESUMO

Objective: Diabetic nephropathy (DN), the most severe complication of diabetes mellitus, is characterized by albuminuria and progressive loss of kidney function. Dapagliflozin (DAP), a sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor, is an oral medication that improves blood glucose control in diabetic patients. However, the effects and mechanisms of DAP on DN remain unclear. Materials and Methods: The effect of DAP was based on a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent 2-year surveillance, and the concentration of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, glomerular filtration rate, and serum creatinine were collected after treatment with DAP. To investigate the underlying mechanisms through which DAP reduces urinary albumin excretion, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze gene expression in human kidney 2 (HK-2) cells treated with DAP. Results: The retrospective cohort analysis indicated that DAP could reduce the excretion rate of urinary albumin in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment. The results of the RNA-seq experiments showed 349 differentially expressed genes between DAP-treated HK-2 cells and control cells. Gene ontology annotation enrichment analysis showed that DAP mainly affected the expression of integral component of membrane- and cell junction-related genes, while the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed that DAP primarily downregulated the expression of gene clusters associated with cyclic adenosine monophosphate, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-protein kinase G signaling pathways, which play critical roles in the progression of DN. Conclusion: Our results shed light on the mechanism by which DAP controls DN progression and provide a theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of DN.

17.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1823-1863, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675729

RESUMO

Comorbid depression and insomnia are ubiquitous mental complaints among women going through the perimenopausal stage of life and can result in major decline in quality of life. Antidepressive agents combined with/without hypnotics, and/or hormone therapy are currently the most common treatment for perimenopausal depression (PMD) and insomnia (PMI). Balancing the benefits of these pharmacotherapies against the risk of adverse events (AEs) is a difficult task for both clinicians and women. There has been a growing body of research regarding the utilization of acupuncture for treatment of PMD or PMI, whereas no studies of acupuncture for comorbid PMD and PMI have appeared. In this review, we summarize the clinical and preclinical evidence of acupuncture as a treatment for PMD or PMI, and then discuss the potential mechanisms involved and the role of acupuncture in helping women during this transition. Most clinical trials indicate that acupuncture ameliorates not only PMD/PMI but also climacteric symptoms with minimal AEs. It also regulates serum hormone levels. The reliability of trials is however limited due to methodological flaws in most studies. Rodent studies suggest that acupuncture prolongs total sleep time and reduces depression-like behavior in PMI and PMD models, respectively. These effects are possibly mediated through multiple mechanisms of action, including modulating sex hormones, neurotransmitters, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis/hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis, oxidative stress, signaling pathways, and other cellular events. In conclusion, acupuncture is a promising therapeutic strategy for comorbid depression and insomnia during perimenopause. Neuroendocrine modulation is likely to play a major role in mediating those effects. High-quality trials are required to further validate acupuncture's effectiveness.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 706567, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691092

RESUMO

The asymmetric warming in diurnal and seasonal temperature patterns plays an important role in crop distribution and productivity. Asymmetric warming during the early growth periods of winter wheat profoundly affects its vegetative growth and post-anthesis grain productivity. Field experiments were conducted on winter wheat to explore the impact of night warming treatment in winter (Winter warming treatment, WT) or spring (Spring warming treatment, ST) on the senescence of flag leaves and yield of wheat plants later treated with night warming during grain filling (Warming treatment during grain filling, FT). The results showed that FT decreased wheat yield by reducing the number of grains per panicle and per 1,000-grain weight and that the yield of wheat plants treated with FT declined to a greater extent than that of wheat plants treated with WT + FT or ST + FT. The net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of the flag leaves of wheat plants treated with WT + FT or ST + FT were higher than those under the control treatment from 0 to 7 days after anthesis (DAA) but were lower than those under the control treatment and higher than those of wheat plants treated with FT alone from 14 to 28 DAA. The soluble protein and Rubisco contents in the flag leaves of wheat plants treated with WT + FT or ST + FT were high in the early grain-filling period and then gradually decreased to below those of the control treatment. These contents were greater in wheat plants treated with WT + FT than in wheat plants treated with ST + FT from 0 to 14 DAA, whereas the opposite was true from 21 to 28 DAA. Furthermore, WT + FT and ST + FT inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation by increasing superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and lowering phospholipase D (PLD), phosphatidic acid (PA), lipoxygenase (LOX), and free fatty acid levels in the early grain-filling period, but their inhibitory effects on membrane lipid peroxidation gradually weakened during the late grain-filling period. Night-warming priming alleviated the adverse effect of post-anthesis warming on yield by delaying the post-anthesis senescence of flag leaves.

19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 538, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The corpus callosum (CC) deficits have been well documented in chronic schizophrenia. However, the long-term impacts of antipsychotic monotherapies on callosal anatomy remain unclear. This cross-sectional study sought to explore micro- and macro-structural characteristics of the CC in never-treated patients and those with long-term mono-antipsychotic treatment. METHODS: The study included 23 clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients (CT-SCZ), 19 risperidone-treated schizophrenia patients (RT-SCZ), 23 never-treated schizophrenia patients (NT-SCZ), and 35 healthy controls (HCs). High resolution structural images and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data for each participant were obtained via a 3.0 T MR scanner. FreeSurfer was used to examine the volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the CC for each participant. RESULTS: There were significant deficits in the total and sub-regional CC volume and white matter integrity in NT-SCZ in comparison with healthy subjects. Compared with NT-SCZ, both CT-SCZ and RT-SCZ showed significantly increased FA values in the anterior CC region, while only RT-SCZ showed significantly increased volume in the mid-anterior CC region. Moreover, the volume of the mid-anterior CC region was significantly smaller in CT-SCZ compared to HCs. No correlations of clinical symptoms with callosal metrics were observed in schizophrenia patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insight into micro- and macro-structural characteristics of the CC in chronic schizophrenia patients with or without antipsychotics. These results suggest that the pathology itself is responsible for cerebral abnormalities in schizophrenia and that chronic exposure to antipsychotics may have an impact on white matter structure of schizophrenia patients, especially in those with risperidone treatment.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5898, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625571

RESUMO

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) induced infection calls for antibacterial agents that are not prone to antimicrobial resistance. We prepare protease-resistant peptoid polymers with variable C-terminal functional groups using a ring-opening polymerization of N-substituted N-carboxyanhydrides (NNCA), which can provide peptoid polymers easily from the one-pot synthesis. We study the optimal polymer that displays effective activity against MRSA planktonic and persister cells, effective eradication of highly antibiotic-resistant MRSA biofilms, and potent anti-infectious performance in vivo using the wound infection model, the mouse keratitis model, and the mouse peritonitis model. Peptoid polymers show insusceptibility to antimicrobial resistance, which is a prominent merit of these antimicrobial agents. The low cost, convenient synthesis and structure diversity of peptoid polymers, the superior antimicrobial performance and therapeutic potential in treating MRSA infection altogether imply great potential of peptoid polymers as promising antibacterial agents in treating MRSA infection and alleviating antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptoides/farmacologia , Polímeros/farmacologia , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biopolímeros/química , Biopolímeros/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptoides/química , Polimerização , Polímeros/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
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