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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most frequent major complication of antiplatelet therapy. In patients at low bleeding risk, however, clinically overt gastrointestinal bleeding is relatively uncommon. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the effects of different antiplatelet regimens on gastrointestinal mucosal injury using a novel magnetically-controlled capsule endoscopy system in patients at low bleeding risk. METHODS: Patients (n=505) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in whom capsule endoscopy demonstrated no ulcerations or bleeding (although erosions were permitted) after 6 months of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were randomly assigned to aspirin plus placebo (n=168), clopidogrel plus placebo (n=169), or aspirin plus clopidogrel (n=168) for an additional 6 months. The primary endpoint was the incidence of gastrointestinal mucosal injury (erosions, ulceration, or bleeding) at 6-month or 12-month capsule endoscopy. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal mucosal injury through 12 months was less with single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) compared with DAPT (94.3% vs. 99.2%, P=0.02). Aspirin and clopidogrel monotherapy had similar effects. Among 68 patients without any gastrointestinal injury at randomization (including no erosions), SAPT compared with DAPT caused less gastrointestinal injury (68.1% vs. 95.2%, P=0.006), including fewer new ulcers (8.5% vs. 38.1%, P=0.009). Clinical gastrointestinal bleeding between 6 and 12 months was less with SAPT compared with DAPT (0.6% vs. 5.4%, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite being at low risk of bleeding, nearly all patients receiving antiplatelet therapy developed gastrointestinal injury, although overt bleeding was infrequent. DAPT for 6 months followed by SAPT with aspirin or clopidogrel between 6 and 12 months resulted in less gastrointestinal mucosal injury and clinical bleeding compared with DAPT through 12 months.

2.
Integr Zool ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767280

RESUMO

Food supply is one of the major drivers of animal behaviour and the gut microbiome is an important mediator between food supply and its effects on physiology. However, predicting the outcome of diet change on microbiome and consequences for the animal has proven extremely challenging. We propose this reflects processes occurring at different scales. Inadequate accounting for the multi-level complexity of nutrition (nutrients, foods, diets) obscures the diet influence on microbiome and subsequently animal. Here we present a detailed year-round, multi-level analysis of diet and microbiome changes in a wild population of a temperate primate, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Total daily food and nutrient intake of six male and six female macaques was monitored in each the four seasons (total 120 days observations). For each individual we found significant variation in the microbiome between all four seasons. This response was more strongly correlated with changes in macronutrient intake than with food items and much of the response could be explained at the level of six ecological guilds - sets of taxa sharing similar responses to nutrient intake. We conclude that study of diet, microbiome and animal performance in ecology will more effectively identify patterns if diet is recorded at the level of nutrient intake. Although microbiome response to diet does show variation in species-level taxa in response to food items, there is greater commonality in response at the level of guilds. A goal for microbiome researchers should be to identify genes encoding microbial attributes that can define such guilds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Macromol Biosci ; : e2100361, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761522

RESUMO

The double network (DN) hydrogel has attracted great attention due to its wide applications in daily life. However, synthesis DN hydrogel with excellent mechanical properties is still a big challenge. Here, polyacrylamide/copper-alginate double network (PAM/Cu-alg DN) hydrogel electrolyte is successfully synthesized by radiation-induced polymerization and cross-linking process of acrylamide with N, N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide and subsequent cupric ion (Cu2+ ) crosslinking of alginate. The content of sodium alginate, absorbed dose, and the concentration of Cu2+ are investigated in detail for improving the overall properties of PAM/Cu-alg DN hydrogel electrolyte. The PAM/Cu-alg DN hydrogel electrolyte synthesizes by radiation technique and Cu2+ crosslinking shows superior mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 2.25 ± 0.02 MPa, excellent energy dissipation mechanism, and the high ionic conductivity of 4.08 ± 0.17 mS cm-1 . PAM/Cu-alg DN hydrogel is characterized with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and the reason for the improvement of mechanical properties is illustrated. Furthermore, PAM/Cu-alg DN hydrogel electrolyte exhibits excellent strain-sensitivity, cyclic stability, and durability. This work paves for the new way for the preparation of DN hydrogel electrolytes with excellent properties.

4.
Eur J Med Chem ; : 113984, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794818

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the most attractive target for drug research in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There have been three generation drugs developed to treat of NSCLC. The third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) Rociletinib and Osimertinib (AZD9291) achieved remarkable clinical efficacy. However, due to the inhibitory activity against the wild-type EGFR, the side effect of associated skin rash and gastrointestinal toxicity appeared. Thus, there is still an urgent need to develop novel inhibitors with potent inhibitory activity and high selectivity for T790M-containing EGFR over EGFRWT. Herein, guided by the molecular dynamic simulation results, a series of potent and selective Osimertinib derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated. The promising compounds 7f, 7g, 7k, 7m and 7n demonstrated excellent kinase inhibitory activity and high selectivity for EGFRT790M/L858R mutant. The selectivity of 7m to EGFRT790M/L858R was the highest in the current known compounds near to 2500-fold. In addition, the compound 7m showed considerable activity against NCI-H1975 and HCC827 cells, arrested NCI-H1975 cell cycle at the G2/M stage and significantly induced apoptosis in NCI-H1975 cell. These encouraged results indicated that 7m will be used as a candidate targeting EGFRT790M/L858R for further pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies, and all these studies provide important clues for the discovery of potent EGFRT790M/L858R inhibitors with high selectivity.

5.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(46): 9547-9552, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761793

RESUMO

Cellular disease and senescence are often accompanied by an imbalance in the local oxygen supply. Under hypoxia, mitochondrial NADH and FADH2 cannot be oxidized by the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which leads to the accumulation of reducing equivalents and subsequent reduction stress. Detecting changes in intracellular NADH levels is expected to allow an assessment of stress. We synthesized a red fluorescent probe, DPMQL1, with high selectivity and sensitivity for detecting NADH in living cells. The probe DPMQL1 has strong anti-interference abilities toward various potential biological interferences, such as metal ions, anions, redox species, and other biomolecules. In addition, its detection limit can reach the nanomolar level, meaning it can display small changes in NADH levels in living cells, so as to realize the evaluation of cell-based hypoxic stress.

6.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825931

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of action of nucleotide oligomerization domain receptor 1 (NOD1) in ovarian cancer. Results showed that the expressions of NOD1 and receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2) were notably upregulated in non-metastatic and metastatic ovarian tumors compared with matched non-tumor tissues, and their expression in metastatic tumor tissues was higher than that in non-metastatic tumors. Overexpression of NOD1 facilitated the expression of proliferation-related proteins (PCNA and Ki67) and proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of NOD1 promoted NF-κB expression and phosphorylation. Importantly, NOD1 bound with RIPK2, and silencing of RIPK2 partly rescued the promotion of NOD1 to NF-κB expression and its phosphorylation. The promotion of NOD1 to ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion was partly reversed by RIPK2 silencing. Results from our in vivo study indicate that overexpression of NOD1 accelerated the growth of ovarian cancer tumors, expression of proliferation-related proteins, and activation of NF-κB. However, silencing of NOD1 suppressed tumor growth. In summary, NOD1 facilitates ovarian cancer progression by activating NF-κB signaling by binding to RIPK2. We suggest a new strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

7.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 709923, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722501

RESUMO

Vertebrate erythropoiesis involves nuclear and chromatin condensation at the early stages of terminal differentiation, which is a unique process to distinguish mature erythrocytes from erythroblasts. However, the underlying mechanisms of chromatin condensation during erythrocyte maturation remain elusive. Here, we reported a novel zebrafish mutant cas7 with erythroid maturation deficiency. Positional cloning showed that a single base mutation in tprb gene, which encodes nucleoporin translocated promoter region (Tpr), is responsible for the disrupted erythroid maturation and upregulation of erythroid genes, including ae1-globin and be1-globin. Further investigation revealed that deficient erythropoiesis in tprb cas7 mutant was independent on HIF signaling pathway. The proportion of euchromatin was significantly increased, whereas the percentage of heterochromatin was markedly decreased in tprb cas7 mutant. In addition, TPR knockdown in human K562 cells also disrupted erythroid differentiation and dramatically elevated the expression of globin genes, which suggests that the functions of TPR in erythropoiesis are highly conserved in vertebrates. Taken together, this study revealed that Tpr played vital roles in chromatin condensation and gene regulation during erythroid maturation in vertebrates.

8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(10): 1002-1007, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the characteristics of immune function of healthy full-term infants at the age of 3 months, and to analyze the relationship of immune function with feeding pattern and sex. METHODS: A total of 84 healthy full-term infants born in four hospitals in Beijing and Hohhot, China were prospectively recruited. Their feeding patterns remained unchanged within 4 months after birth. They were divided into a breast-feeding group and a milk powder feeding group according to their feeding patterns. At the age of 3 months after birth, peripheral venous blood samples of the two groups were collected to evaluate cellular immunity and humoral immunity and perform routine blood test. The laboratory indices were compared between infants with different feeding patterns and sexes. RESULTS: Compared with the milk powder feeding group, the breast-feeding group had significantly lower proportion of T cell second signal receptor CD28, immunoglobulin M, and proportion and absolute count of neutrophils (P<0.05) and significantly higher expression and proportion of HLA-DR, a surface activation marker of CD8+ T cells, and proportion of lymphocytes (P<0.05). The male infants had a significantly lower white blood cell count and a significantly higher proportion of eosinophils compared with the female infants (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sex has no significant effect on the proportion of lymphocyte subsets in 3-month-old full-term infants, but feeding patterns are associated with the proportion of CD28+ T cells (lymphocyte functional subset) and HLA-DR+ T cells (lymphocyte activation subset), suggesting that feeding patterns have a certain effect on the development of immune function in 3-month-old full-term infants.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Antígenos HLA-DR , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 611-615, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821093

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanism of curcumol (CC) on liver function and fibrosis in rats of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: The rat models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) combined with liver fibrosis were constructed by high-fat diet. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into blank control group, model group (NASH), NASH + Compound Biejiarangan Troche (CBT) group (positive control group), and NASH + CC groups (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) , 10 rats in each group. The percentage of liver to body weight, and the levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured. The liver fibrosis was observed by HE staining. The expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and positive staining of nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of α-SMA, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), NF-κB p65 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were detected by Western blot. The expression levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Compared with blank control group, the contents of HDL and IL-10 and the expression level of MMP-1 protein were decreased in model group significantly (P<0.05), while the levels of TG, ALT and AST, the positive rate of P65, α-SMA, TIMP-1, TLR4, TAK1, NF-κB p65, VCAM-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1ß were increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with model group, the levels of HDL, IL-10 and MMP-1 protein were significantly increased after treatment with CBT and CC (P<0.05), while the levels of TG, ALT, and AST, the positive rate of P65, α-SMA, TIMP-1, TLR4, TAK1, NF-κB p65, VCAM-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1ß were decreased significantly (P<0.05). The improvement in model+high- concentration CC group was the most significant, and which in all concentration groups was lower than that in model+CBT group (P<0.05). Conclusion: CC can reduce inflammation response and improve liver function by regulating TLR4, TAK1 and NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway, and thus alleviating liver fibrosis, showing concentration-dependence within certain range.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Fibrose , Fígado , NF-kappa B , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sesquiterpenos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
10.
Nat Plants ; 7(11): 1505-1515, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782772

RESUMO

Protein homoeostasis in plastids is strategically regulated by the protein quality control system involving multiple chaperones and proteases, among them the Clp protease. Here, we determined the structure of the chloroplast ClpP complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by cryo-electron microscopy. ClpP contains two heptameric catalytic rings without any symmetry. The top ring contains one ClpR6, three ClpP4 and three ClpP5 subunits while the bottom ring is composed of three ClpP1C subunits and one each of the ClpR1-4 subunits. ClpR3, ClpR4 and ClpT4 subunits connect the two rings and stabilize the complex. The chloroplast Cpn11/20/23 co-chaperonin, a co-factor of Cpn60, forms a cap on the top of ClpP by protruding mobile loops into hydrophobic clefts at the surface of the top ring. The co-chaperonin repressed ClpP proteolytic activity in vitro. By regulating Cpn60 chaperone and ClpP protease activity, the co-chaperonin may play a role in coordinating protein folding and degradation in the chloroplast.

11.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779902

RESUMO

In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybridized high internal phase emulsions were developed and polymerized as porous carriers for aptamer (5'/5AmMC6/-AGT CCG TGG TAG GGC AGG TTG GGG TGA CT-3') modification to enrich human α-thrombin from serum. The structure and properties of the materials were confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The adsorption ability and selectivity were studied and the thrombin was detected with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The adsorption of thrombin onto the sorbent was achieved within 30 min and the desorption was realized using 5.0 mL of acetonitrile/water (80/20, v/v). The thrombin was quantified by LC-MS according to its characteristic peptide sequence of ELLESYIDGR.

12.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677537

RESUMO

Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) represent a key component in various electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the effects of structural changes of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) on the bulk membrane and interface properties as a function of solution pH. The variations in the physico/electrochemical properties, including ion exchange capacity, swelling degree, fixed charge density, zeta potentials as well as membrane and interface resistances of two commercial AEMs and cation exchange membranes (CEMs, as a control) were systematically investigated in different pH environments. Structural changes of the membrane surface were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Most notably, at high pH (pH > 10), the membrane (Rm) and the diffusion boundary layer resistances (Rdbl) increased for the two AEMs, whereas the electrical double layer resistance decreased simultaneously. This increase in Rm and Rdbl was mainly attributed to the deprotonation of the tertiary amino groups (-NR2H+) as a membrane functionality. Our results show that the local pH at the membrane-solution interface plays a crucial role on membrane electrochemical properties in IEM transport processes, particularly for AEMs.

13.
Mol Ther Oncolytics ; 23: 107-123, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703880

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming is a core hallmark of cancer and is key for tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Investigation of metabolic perturbation by anti-cancer compounds would allow a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these agents and identification of new anti-cancer targets. Here, we demonstrated that the administration of oleanolic acid (OA) rapidly altered cancer metabolism, particularly suppressing the purine salvage pathway (PSP). PSP restoration significantly opposed OA-induced DNA replication and cell proliferation arrest, underscoring the importance of this pathway for the anti-cancer activity of OA. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), two metabolic enzymes essential for PSP activity, were promptly degraded by OA via the lysosome pathway. Mechanistically, OA selectively targeted superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and yielded reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)/macroautophagy pathway, thus eliciting lysosomal degradation of HGPRT and 5'-NT. Furthermore, we found that the PSP was overactivated in human lung and breast cancers, with a negative correlation with patient survival. The results of this study elucidated a new anti-cancer mechanism of OA by restraining the PSP via the SOD1/ROS/AMPK/mTORC1/macroautophagy/lysosomal pathway. We also identified the PSP as a new target for cancer treatment and highlighted OA as a potential therapeutic agent for cancers with high PSP activity.

14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9967334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621467

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are key risk factors in human food and animal feed. Most of food-origin mycotoxins could easily enter the organism and evoke systemic toxic effects, such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA). For the last decade, the researches have provided much evidences in vivo and in vitro that the brain is an important target organ on mycotoxin-mediated neurotoxic phenomenon and neurodegenerative diseases. As is known to all, glial cells are the best regulator and defender of neurons, and a few evaluations about the effects of mycotoxins on glial cells such as astrocytes or microglia have been conducted. The fact that mycotoxin contamination may be a key factor in neurotoxicity and glial dysfunction is exactly the reason why we reviewed the activation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function changes of glial cells under mycotoxin infection and summarized the mycotoxin-mediated glial cell proliferation disorders, death pathways, and inflammatory responses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze various pathways in which common food-derived mycotoxins can induce glial toxicity and provide a novel perspective for future research on the neurodegenerative diseases.

15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 911: 174555, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1)/ß-catenin signaling pathway is a main oxidative defense pathway, which plays essential roles in the regulation of osteoporosis (OP). The natural products possess quality therapeutic effects and few side effects. It is used as a novel strategy in the treatment of OP. However, there is no systematic study in the natural antioxidant drug based on the FoxO1/ß-catenin signaling pathway. This paper aims to discover pro-osteogenesis natural antioxidants for the prevention and treatment of OP. METHODS: Systems pharmacology; combined with reverse drug targeting, systems-ADME process, network analysis and molecular docking, was used to screen natural antioxidants based on the FoxO1/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Then in vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the osteogenesis effects of screened natural antioxidants. RESULTS: Kaempferide was screened as the most potential antioxidant to improve osteogenesis by the regulation of the FoxO1/ß-catenin signaling pathway. In vitro experiments showed that kaempferide significantly increased the expression of antioxidant genes and promoted osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, kaempferide also improved the osteogenic differentiation inhibited by H2O2 through the enhancement of antioxidant capacity. Notably, kaempferide promoted cell antioxidant capacity by the increased nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and ß-catenin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that kaempferide is the natural antioxidant to promote osteogenesis effectively through the FoxO1/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Natural antioxidant therapy maybe a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of OP.

16.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669083

RESUMO

Early studies have indicated that the risk of migraine is contributed by both genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to evaluate the association between the risk of migraine and genetic polymorphisms in the ANKDD1B gene in a large sample of Chinese Han populations. A total of 882 patients with MO and 1,784 age-matched controls were recruited. A list of 12 tag SNPs located within the ANKDD1B gene region was genotyped. Distributions of SNP genotypes and alleles between patients and controls were examined to investigate the associations between the risk of migraine and genetic polymorphisms. The GTEx database was used to examine the effects of the significant SNPs on gene expressions. A stop-gain SNP, rs34358, was discovered to be significantly related with the risk of migraine (χ2 = 25.02, P = 5.66 × 10-7). The A allele of this SNP was significantly associated with a decreased risk of migraine (OR [95% CI] = 0.73 [0.65-0.83]). A dose-dependent pattern was identified in the genotypic analyses. The OR with 95% confidence interval for genotype AA versus GG was 0.55 [0.42-0.72], while for AG versus GG it was 0.74 [0.62-0.88]. Further bioinformatics analysis showed multiple significant signals (20 out of 47) for the association between SNP rs34358 and gene expression levels of ANKDD1B. In conclusion, we have provided population-based evidence for the association between genetic polymorphisms of the ANKDD1B gene and the risk of migraine. A protein-truncating variant was significantly associated with a decreased risk of migraine in the samples recruited from the Chinese Han population.

17.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682246

RESUMO

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the most devastating pathogens in Brassica napus and causes huge economic loss worldwide. Though around one hundred putative effectors have been predicted in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum genome, their functions are largely unknown. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel effector, SsERP1 (ethylene pathway repressor protein 1), in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. SsERP1 is a secretory protein highly expressed at the early stages of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection. Ectopic overexpression of SsERP1 in plant leaves promoted Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection, and the knockout mutants of SsERP1 showed reduced pathogenicity but retained normal mycelial growth and sclerotium formation, suggesting that SsERP1 specifically contributes to the pathogenesis of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Transcriptome analysis indicated that SsERP1 promotes Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection by inhibiting plant ethylene signaling pathway. Moreover, we showed that knocking down SsERP1 by in vitro synthesized double-strand RNAs was able to effectively inhibit Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection, which verifies the function of SsERP1 in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogenesis and further suggests a potential strategy for Sclerotinia disease control.

19.
Open Med (Wars) ; 16(1): 1286-1298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541327

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of baicalin on diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats and podocytes and its mechanism. Methods: The rat models with DN were established by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) and weight of rats in each group were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Their biochemical indicators, expression of inflammatory, and antioxidant factors were measured using an automatic biochemical analyzer together with ELISA. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and periodic acid-schiff staining were used to observe the morphological changes in the kidneys of rats in each group. Finally, the expressions of related molecules and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway proteins in renal tissues and podocytes were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Compared with the DN group, the FBG and weight, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, microalbumin, and albumin/creatinine ratio were all significantly decreased in the Baicalin treatment groups in a concentration-dependent manner. The levels of inflammatory factors in kidney tissue and podocytes were decreased. In addition, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde in tissue were decreased, while the superoxide dismutase was increased. The pathological sections showed that glomerular atrophy and glomerular basement membrane thickening caused by hyperglycemia were improved in the Baicalin treatment groups. Meanwhile, baicalin inhibited the downregulation of Nephrin and Podocin expressions and upregulation of Desmin expression caused by DN, and inhibited the expressions of p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR proteins. Conclusion: Baicalin slows down podocyte injury caused by DN by inhibiting the activity of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

20.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550537

RESUMO

A potential use of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes has recently generated a great interest. sEVs, when purified directly from various tissues with proper procedures, can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the organism. However, the quality of sEV is affected by many factors during isolation, including separation of sEV from cell and tissues debris, the use of enzymes for tissue digestion, and the storage state of tissues. In the present study, we established an assay for the isolation and purification of liver cancer tissues-derived sEVs (tdsEVs) and cultured explants-derived sEVs (cedsEVs) by comparing the quality of sEVs derived from different concentration of digestion enzyme and incubation time. The nano-flow cytometry (NanoFCM) showed that the isolated tdsEVs by our method are purer than those obtained from differential ultracentrifugation. Our study thus establishes a simple and effective approach for isolation of high-quality sEVs that can be used for analysis of their constituents.

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