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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 686177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603095

RESUMO

Background: Since the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged, Internet usage has increased among adolescents. Due to this trend, the prevalence of Internet addiction disorder (IAD) may have increased within this group. This study examined the prevalence of IAD and its correlates among clinically stable adolescents with psychiatric disorders in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Method: A multi-center, cross-sectional study was carried out between April 29 and June 9, 2020 in three major tertiary mental health centers in China. IAD and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively. Results: A total of 1,454 adolescent psychiatric patients were included in final analyses. The prevalence of IAD was 31.2% (95% CI: 28.8-33.6%) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that poor relationships with parents (P < 0.001, OR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.49-3.68) and elevated total PHQ-9 scores (P < 0.001, OR = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.16-1.21) were significantly associated with higher risk for IAD while longer daily physical exercise durations (P = 0.04, OR = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.46-0.98) and rural residence (P = 0.003, OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.46-0.85) were significant correlates of lower risk for IAD. Conclusions: IAD was common among adolescent patients with clinically stable psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic; regular physical exercise, healthy relationships with parents and fewer symptoms of depression were associated with lower risk within this population.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a prognostic marker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, little is known about the characterization of CTCs in mCRC at the single-cell level using RNA sequencing. The purpose of this study was to validate the capability to detect and isolate single CTCs for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and to identify clinical significance at a single CTC level. METHODS: Single CTCs from 27 mCRC patients were collected by CTC-FIND, which is comprised of filter separation and immunomagnetic depletion to collect ultra-pure CTC samples. To address tumor heterogeneity, CTCs were collected without relying on any traditional CTC markers, such as epithelial and mesenchymal cell antigens, and were undertaken by scRNA-seq using SMART-Seq v4. RESULTS: We identified 59 single CTCs which were classified into four groups by epithelial, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell-related gene expression. Patients receiving second or later-line treatment who had EMT gene expressing CTCs had a significantly shorter PFS and OS. CONCLUSIONS: Exploiting CTC-FIND with SMART-Seq v4 showed that scRNA-seq of CTCs may shed new insight into tumor heterogeneity of mCRC and that the presence of CTCs expressing EMT-related genes at the single-cell level could have prognostic value in mCRC patients.

4.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491097

RESUMO

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) is a perennial herb native to South and South East Asia, which widely used as a traditional herbal medicine against indigestion, diarrhea, cold, fever, vomiting and headache in China (Swamy and Sinniah, 2015). In September 2020, a new basal stem and root rot disease of patchouli was observed in three cultivated fields of Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province. Symptoms included sudden discoloration, chlorosis and wilting of the leaves and severe rot associated with external and internal browning at the basal part of stems and roots that results in the death of approximately 2 to 5% of plants in each field. To determine the causal agent, symptomatic roots with typical lesions were cut into small pieces, then surface sterilized in 2.5% NaClO for 1 min, rinsed three times in distilled water, and then inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. A fungus with same morphological characteristics was consistently isolated from disease tissue. The mycelia initially white to cream, later turning pale brown to black with age on PDA. To induce the sporulation, the isolated fungi were transferred to synthetic nutrient-poor agar (SNA) with autoclaved pine needles and ten pure cultures were obtained by single spores. Masses of black, hard and oblong microsclerotia (av. 171.2×136.5 µm, n=50) were observed on SNA. Conidia hyaline, ellipsoid to obovoid, smooth, enclosed in a mucous sheath, 15.9~32.5×7.7~11.9 µm (av. 23.9 × 9.6 µm, n=100). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions as well as the partial translation elongation factor (EF-1α) and ß-tubulin (TUB) genes of two representative isolates GHX-1 and CHX-2 were sequenced, using primer pairs ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), EF-688F/EF-986R (Carbone and Kohn 1999), and Bt2a/Bt2b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), respectively. The obtained sequences were submitted to GenBank under the following accession numbers: ITS, MZ375360 and MZ375361; EF-1α, MZ393804 and MZ393805; and TUB, MZ393806 and MZ393807. BLASTn searches revealed that 100% identity with the existing sequences of ex-type culture CGMCC3.19503 of Macrophomina vaccinii (ITS, MK687450; EF-1α, MK687426; and TUB, MK687434), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Neighbour-Joining method in Mega7.0 with concatenated sequences of ITS, EF-1α and TUB showed that the isolates clustered in the clade of M. vaccinii with high bootstrap support values. Based on both of the morphological and molecular results, the isolates were identified as M. vaccinii (Zhao et al., 2019). To confirm the pathogenicity of the two isolates, 5-mm-diameter mycelial agar plus from the margins of 5-day-old PDA cultures were placed on the wounded basal stem of 2-month-old patchouli seedlings in each pot. Five separate pots were used for each isolate and plants inoculated with sterile agar plus were served as controls. All plants were covered with plastic bags to maintain 90% relative humidity and kept at 26°C with a photoperiod of 12 h in a greenhouse conditions. The patchouli plants developed similar necrotic symptoms on basal stem and root to those observed in the field after 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the control plants were asymptomatic. M. vaccinii was reisolated from inoculated plants and identify by morphological and molecular characteristics, fulfill the Koch's postulates and identify. Recently, stem blight on blueberry caused by M. vaccinii was reported in China (Zhao et al. 2019). To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. vaccinii causing basal stem and root rot on patchouli in China and worldwide.

5.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 36(4): 715-722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of age and trabecular microstructure on peri-implant strain in aging and young mice models under compressive load. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen 4-week-old female C57BL/6 mice (n = 6) were subjected to a 1.2% calcium content diet (young normal calcium group), and 7-month-old mice (n = 12) were randomly subjected to 0.01% and 1.2% calcium content diets (aging low and normal calcium groups, respectively) for 3 weeks. Histomorphometric and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analyses were used to investigate local alveolar bone microstructure. One maxilla segment from each group was reconstructed using micro-CT images to highlight the trabecular microstructure. A finite element analysis based on a computational model of the maxilla segment was performed to investigate peri-implant strain. Implants with three different diameters (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mm) were analyzed in these models. RESULTS: The aging low calcium group showed worse cancellous microstructure in hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, significantly increased osteoclast numbers (P < .05), and reduced bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness compared with the aging normal calcium group (P < .05). However, the young normal calcium group presented no difference in trabecular microstructure and osteoclast numbers compared with the aging normal calcium group. The aging low calcium group demonstrated increased strain intensity compared with the aging normal calcium group, whereas the young normal calcium and aging normal calcium groups showed comparable strain magnitude. The strain intensity of peri-implant bone increased with worse cancellous microstructure. When the diameter increased from 0.3 mm to 0.4 mm, the percentages of pathologic overload decreased regardless of bone microstructure. CONCLUSION: Deteriorated bone microstructure induced by a low calcium diet determined higher strain intensity, whereas, whenever age had no significant effect on trabecular microstructure, consequently, there was no substantial influence on strain. An increase of implant diameters can improve the strain distribution. Clinical decision-making should take into consideration the patient-specific and site-specific trabecular microstructure in preoperative assessment.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Envelhecimento , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Maxila , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microtomografia por Raio-X
6.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA ; : e1686, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342388

RESUMO

Inferring competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) sponge modules is a challenging and meaningful task for revealing ceRNA regulation mechanism at the module level. Modules in this context refer to groups of miRNA sponges which have mutual competitions and act as functional units for achieving biological processes. The recent development of computational methods based on heterogeneous data provides a novel way to discern the competitive effects of miRNA sponges on human complex diseases. This article aims to provide a comprehensive perspective of miRNA sponge module discovery methods. We first review the publicly available databases of cancer-related miRNA sponges, as the miRNA sponges involved in human cancers contribute to the discovery of cancer-associated modules. Then we review the existing computational methods for inferring miRNA sponge modules. Furthermore, we conduct an assessment on the performance of the module discovery methods with the pan-cancer dataset, and the comparison study indicates that it is useful to infer biologically meaningful miRNA sponge modules by directly mapping heterogeneous data to the competitive modules. Finally, we discuss the future directions and associated challenges in developing in silico methods to infer miRNA sponge modules. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Small Molecule-RNA Interactions Regulatory RNAs/RNAi/Riboswitches > Regulatory RNAs.

7.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 26(1): 37, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron overload can promote the development of osteoporosis by inducing apoptosis in osteoblasts. However, the mechanism by which miRNAs regulate apoptosis in osteoblasts under iron overload has not been elucidated. METHOD: The miRNA expression profile in MC3T3-E1 cells under iron overload was detected by next generation sequencing. qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression of miR-3074-5p in MC3T3-E1 cells under iron overload. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was tested using CCK-8 assays, and apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry. The miRanda and TargetScan databases were used to predict the target genes of miR-3074-5p. Interaction between miR-3074-5p and the potential target gene was validated by qRT-PCR, luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. RESULTS: We found that iron overload decreased the cell viability and induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results of next generation sequencing analysis showed that miR-3074-5p expression was significantly increased in MC3T3-E1 cells under iron overload conditions, which was confirmed by further experiments. The inhibition of miR-3074-5p attenuated the apoptosis of iron-overloaded MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, the expression of Smad4 was decreased and was inversely correlated with miR-3074-5p expression, and overexpression of Smad4 partially reversed the viability inhibition of iron-overloaded MC3T3-E1 cells by relieving the suppression of ERK, AKT, and Stat3 phosphorylation, suggesting its regulatory role in the viability inhibition of iron-overloaded MC3T3-E1 cells. The luciferase reporter assay results showed that Smad4 was the target gene of miR-3074-5p. CONCLUSION: miR-3074-5p functions as an apoptosis promoter in iron-overloaded MC3T3-E1 cells by directly targeting Smad4.

8.
Int J Med Robot ; 17(5): e2309, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, surgical robots have become an indispensable part of the medical field. Surgical robots are increasingly being used in the areas of gynaecological surgery, urological surgery, orthopaedic surgery, general surgery and so forth. In this paper, the development of surgical robots in different operations is reviewed and analysed. In the type of master-slave surgical robotic system, the robotic surgical instrument arms were located in the execution terminal of a surgical robot system, as one of the core components, and directly contact with the patient during the operation, which plays an important role in the efficiency and safety of the operation. In clinical, the arm function and design in different systems varies. Furtherly, the current research progress of robotic surgical instrument arms used in different operations is analysed and summarised. Finally, the challenge and trend are concluded. METHODS: According to the classification of surgical types, the development of surgical robots for laparoscopic surgery, neurosurgery, orthopaedics and microsurgery are analysed and summarised. Then, focusing on the research of robotic surgical instrument arms, according to structure type, the research and application of straight-rod surgical instrument arm, joint surgical instrument arm and continuous surgical instrument arm are analysed respectively. RESULTS: According to the discussion and summary of the characteristics of the existing surgical robots and instrument arms, it is concluded that they still have a lot of room for development in the future. Therefore, the development trends of the surgical robot and instrument arm are discussed and analysed in the five aspects of structural materials, modularisation, telemedicine, intelligence and human-machine collaboration. CONCLUSION: Surgical robots have shown the development trend of miniaturisation, intelligence, autonomy and dexterity. Thereby, in the field of science and technology, the research on the next generation of minimally invasive surgical robots will usher in a peak period of development.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
9.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 649091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276585

RESUMO

Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel ablation technique that is based on high-intensity electric voltage to achieve tumour-killing effect in the target region, and increasingly considered for treating tumours of the liver, kidneys and other organs with rich blood supply. This study aims to observe effect of nsPFE treatment on serum metabolites and gut microbiota. The serum and faecal specimens of the pigs were collected pre- and post-treatment. The gut microbiota of pigs was sequenced by Illumina Miseq platform for analysing the diversity and alterations of gut microbiota. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabonomic analysis and Pearson coefficient method were also used to construct the interaction system of different metabolites, metabolic pathways and flora. A total of 1,477 differential metabolites from the serum were identified by four cross-comparisons of different post-operative groups with the control group. In addition, an average of 636 OTUs per sample was detected. Correlation analysis also revealed the strong correlation between intestinal bacteria and differential metabolites. The nsPEF ablation of the liver results in a degree of liver damage that affects various metabolic pathways, mainly lipid metabolism, as well as gut microbiota. In conclusion, our study provided a good point for the safety and feasibility of applying nsPEF on liver through the integrated analysis of metabolomics and microbiomes, which is beneficial for the improvement of nsPEF in clinical use.

10.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 631486, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235141

RESUMO

Liquid-liquid Phase Separation (LLPS) of proteins and nucleic acids has emerged as a new paradigm in the study of cellular activities. It drives the formation of liquid-like condensates containing biomolecules in the absence of membrane structures in living cells. In addition, typical membrane-less condensates such as nuclear speckles, stress granules and cell signaling clusters play important roles in various cellular activities, including regulation of transcription, cellular stress response and signal transduction. Previous studies highlighted the biophysical and biochemical principles underlying the formation of these liquid condensates. The studies also showed how these principles determine the molecular properties, LLPS behavior, and composition of liquid condensates. While the basic rules driving LLPS are continuously being uncovered, their function in cellular activities is still unclear, especially within a pathological context. Therefore, the present review summarizes the recent progress made on the existing roles of LLPS in cancer, including cancer-related signaling pathways, transcription regulation and maintenance of genome stability. Additionally, the review briefly introduces the basic rules of LLPS, and cellular signaling that potentially plays a role in cancer, including pathways relevant to immune responses and autophagy.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11835, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088935

RESUMO

There is still a lack of competing risk analysis of patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) following surgery. We performed the cumulative incidence function (CIF) to estimate the absolute risks of cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) of pRCC over time, and constructed a nomogram predicting the probability of 2-, 3- and 5-year CSM based on competing risk regression. A total of 5993 pRCC patients who underwent nephrectomy between 2010 and 2016 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The 2-, 3-, 5-year CSM rates were 3.2%, 4.4% and 6.5%, respectively, and that of OCM were 3.2%, 5.0% and 9.3%, respectively. The estimates of 5-year cumulative mortality were most pronounced among patients aged > 75 years in OCM (17.0%). On multivariable analyses, age, tumor grade, T stage, N stage, and with or without bone, liver and lung metastases were identified as independent predictors of CSM following surgery and were integrated to generate the nomogram. The nomogram achieved a satisfactory discrimination with the AUCt of 0.730 at 5-year, and the calibration curves presented impressive agreements. Taken together, age-related OCM is a significant portion of all-cause mortality in elderly patients and our nomogram can be used for decision-making and patient counselling.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12191, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108518

RESUMO

KRAS status serves as a predictive biomarker of response to treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We hypothesize that complex interactions between multiple pathways contribute to prognostic differences between KRAS wild-type and KRAS mutant patients with mCRC, and aim to identify polymorphisms predictive of clinical outcomes in this subpopulation. Most pathway association studies are limited in assessing gene-gene interactions and are restricted to an individual pathway. In this study, we use a random survival forests (RSF) method for identifying predictive markers of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in mCRC patients treated with FOLFIRI/bevacizumab. A total of 486 mCRC patients treated with FOLFIRI/bevacizumab from two randomized phase III trials, TRIBE and FIRE-3, were included in the current study. Two RSF approaches were used, namely variable importance and minimal depth. We discovered that Wnt/ß-catenin and tumor associated macrophage pathway SNPs are strong predictors of OS and PFS in mCRC patients treated with FOLFIRI/bevacizumab independent of KRAS status, whereas a SNP in the sex-differentiation pathway gene, DMRT1, is strongly predictive of OS and PFS in KRAS mutant mCRC patients. Our results highlight RSF as a useful method for identifying predictive SNPs in multiple pathways.

13.
Oncogene ; 40(30): 4894-4905, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163031

RESUMO

Frequent mutations of genes in the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (KMT2) family members were identified in gastric cancers (GCs). Understanding how gene mutations of KMT2 family affect cancer progression and tumor immune microenvironment may provide new treatment strategies. A total of 1245 GCs were analyzed using next-generation sequencing, whole transcriptome sequencing, immunohistochemistry (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ). The overall mutation rate of genes in the KMT2 family was 10.6%. Compared to KMT2-wild-type GCs, genes involved in epigenetic modification, receptor tyrosine kinases/MAPK/PI3K, and DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways had higher mutation rates in KMT2-mutant GCs (p < 0.05). Significantly higher rates of high tumor mutational burden, microsatellite instability-high/mismatch-repair deficiency (dMMR), and PD-L1 positivity were observed in KMT2-mutant GCs (p < 0.01), compared to KMT2-wild-type GCs. The association between PD-L1 positivity and KMT2 mutations remained significant in the proficient-MMR and microsatellite stable subgroup. Based on transcriptome data from the TCGA, cell cycle, metabolism, and interferon-α/ß response pathways were significantly upregulated in KMT2-mutant GCs than in KMT2-wild-type GCs. Patients with KMT2 mutation treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors had longer median overall survival compared to KMT2-wild-type patients with metastatic solid tumors (35 vs. 16 months, HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.62-0.87, p = 0.0003). In conclusion, this is the largest study to investigate the distinct molecular features between KMT2-mutant and KMT2-wild-type GCs to date. Our data indicate that GC patients with KMT2 mutations may benefit from ICIs and drugs targeting DDR, MAPK/PI3K, metabolism, and cell cycle pathways.

14.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 2164-2174, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098850

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common tumor of the oral cavity. Studies have shown that exosomal miRNAs from cancer cells play an important role in mediating the cellular environment. The objective was to investigate the effect of OSCC-derived exosomes microRNA-221 (miR-221) in OSCC. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting to determine PIK3R1 and miR-221 expressions in OSCC tissue or peripheral blood serum. Exosomes of OSCC cell line CAL27 were extracted and characterized. Exosomal miR-221 expression was detected by qRT-PCR. Dual-luciferase was performed to validate the targeted regulatory relationship of miR-221 on PIK3R1. Transwell and tube formation assay were applied to detect the effect of OSCC-derived exosomal miR-221 on HUVEC migration and angiogenesis. qRT-PCR confirmed that PIK3R1 expression was downregulated in OSCC tissue and cell line, while miR-221 expression was upregulated. miR-221 expression in OSCC cell line-derived exosome elevated. miR-221 could target and negatively regulate PIK3R1 expression. In addition, OSCC-derived miR-221 could promote HUVEC migration and angiogenesis. In conclusion, OSCC-derived exosomal miR-221 could target and negatively regulate PIK3R1 expression, as well as promote vascular endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 577517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084158

RESUMO

Background: Extracellular traps (ETs) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells can contribute to disease progression. The clinical significance of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages and related extracellular traps in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to explore the prognostic value of tumor infiltration and ET formation by neutrophils and macrophages in pNETs. Methods: A total of 135 patients with radical resection of nonfunctional pNETs were analyzed retrospectively. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were utilized to stain tumor tissue sections. The recurrence-free survival (RFS) of subgroups determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis was compared with the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent prognostic factors. A nomogram was established to predict 3-year RFS. Results: Patients with high tumor-infiltrating neutrophils or macrophages or positive expression of neutrophils ETs or macrophage ETs displayed worse RFS (all p<0.05). Moreover, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and ETs were independent prognostic factors for RFS (all p<0.05). A combined parameter including WHO grade, TNM stage, tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages, and neutrophil and macrophage ETs had the highest C-index (0.866) and lowest Akaike information criteria (326.557). The calibration plot of nomogram composed of the combined parameter exhibited excellent prognostic values for 3-year RFS. Conclusions: Infiltration and ETs by neutrophils and macrophages can be used as biological indicators of patient prognosis, suggesting the treatment potential for targeting those in nonfunctional pNETs.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/imunologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Nomogramas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071895

RESUMO

Silver nanowire (AgNW)-coated thin films are widely proposed for soft electronics application due to their good conductivity, transparency and flexibility. Here, we studied the microwave welding of AgNW-based soft electrodes for conductivity enhancement. The thermal effect of the microwave to AgNWs was analyzed by dispersing the nanowires in a nonpolar solution, the temperature of which was found to be proportional with the nanowire diameters. AgNWs were then coated on a thin film and welded under microwave heating, which achieved a film conductivity enhancement of as much as 79%. A microwave overheating of AgNWs, however, fused and broke the nanowires, which increased the film resistance significantly. A soft electrode was finally demonstrated using the microwave-welded AgNW thin film, and a 1.13 µA/mM sensitivity was obtained for glucose sensing. Above all, we analyzed the microwave thermal effect on AgNWs to provide a guidance to control the nanowire welding effect, which can be used for film conductivity enhancement and applied for soft and bio-compatible electrodes.

17.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(6): 455-462, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The route of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has challenged dentistry to improve the safety for patients and the dental team during various treatment procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of dental evacuation systems in reducing aerosols during oral prophylactic procedures in a large clinical setting. METHODS: This was a single-center, controlled clinical trial using a split-mouth design. A total of 93 student participants were recruited according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Aerosol samples were collected on blood agar plates that were placed around the clinic at 4 treatment periods: baseline, high-volume evacuation (HVE), combination (HVE and intraoral suction device), and posttreatment. Student operators were randomized to perform oral prophylaxis using ultrasonic scalers on 1 side of the mouth, using only HVE suction for the HVE treatment period and then with the addition of an intraoral suction device for the combination treatment period. Agar plates were collected after each period and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hours. Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were determined using an automatic colony counter. RESULTS: The use of a combination of devices resulted in significant reductions in CFUs compared with the use of the intraoral suction device alone (P < .001). The highest amounts of CFUs were found in the operating zone and on patients during both HVE and combination treatment periods. CONCLUSIONS: Within limitations of this study, the authors found significant reductions in the amount of microbial aerosols when both HVE and an intraoral suction device were used. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The combination of HVE and intraoral suction devices significantly decreases microbial aerosols during oral prophylaxis procedures.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , COVID-19 , Controle de Infecções Dentárias , Aerossóis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Opt Express ; 29(8): 11570-11581, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984934

RESUMO

The Vernier effect magnifies optical sensitivity by the superposition of two spectra with slightly shifted frequencies from a sensing interferometer (SIM) and a reference interferometer (RIM). In this study, we demonstrate that the Vernier effect can be obtained through a single interferometer, which detects the changed signal and provides an artificial reference spectrum (ARS) to be superposed with the changed signal spectrum. The ARS extracted by spatial frequency down-conversion of one sensing spectrum in the signal processing is not affected by environmental changes and can be detuned at an arbitrarily small amount with the measured signal spectrum. This approach is simpler and accurate and provides ultrahigh sensitivity. To validate the principle, a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer based on a dual-mode microfiber was designed for sensing the refractive index (RI) change magnification, and a high sensitivity of 71354.58 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) was obtained with good linearity.

19.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 133-142, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are primarily maintained by a network of pluripotency transcription factors (PTFs). Given a close relationship of CSC regulation with epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor signalling, we investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PTF genes are related to the efficacy of cetuximab and/or bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Genomic and clinical data from three independent clinical trial cohorts were tested: cetuximab cohort (FOLFIRI/cetuximab arm in FIRE-3, n = 129), bevacizumab cohort 1 (FOLFIRI/bevacizumab arm in FIRE-3, n = 107) and bevacizumab cohort 2 (FOLFIRI/bevacizumab arm in TRIBE, n = 215). Genomic DNA extracted from blood samples was genotyped, and ten SNPs were tested for association with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: In the cetuximab cohort, four SNPs were significantly associated with progression-free survival in univariate analysis: NANOG rs11055767 (any A allele vs C/C, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42-0.94, p = 0.02), NANOG rs10744044 (any A allele vs G/G, HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.39-0.90, p = 0.01), NANOGP8 rs2168958 (any C allele vs A/A, HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.36-3.29, p < 0.001) and NANOGP8 rs2279066 (any C allele vs T/T, HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68, p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis confirmed the significant associations for NANOGP8 rs2168958 and NANOGP8 rs2279066. In either bevacizumab cohort, no significant associations were observed in univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Germ line polymorphisms in the PTF genes could be predictive markers for cetuximab in mCRC.

20.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211002043, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844600

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a malignant tumor that occurs mostly in children. However, the underlying mechanisms of ES are still unknown. Analyzing the results of two previous miRNA array reports, we found that miR-146b-5p might be an onco-miRNA in ES progression. To test this hypothesis, we detected the expression levels of miR-146b-5p by real-time PCR and observed the effects of miR-146b-5p on the progression of ES cells by CCK8 and transwell assays. Bioinformatics and luciferase assays were used to identify the target genes of miR-146b-5p. It showed that the expression levels of miR-146b-5p were upregulated in ES cell lines compared with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Up- or downregulation of miR-146b-5p in ES cell lines could effectively promote or block the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ES cells, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BTG2 was one of the target genes and mediated the effects of miR-146b-5p in ES cells. Interestingly, we also found that miR-146b-5p was partly involved in the anticancer effects of pemetrexed in ES cells. Our study revealed that miR-146b-5p affected the progression of ES by suppressing BTG2, which might shed light on anticancer drug development and ES treatment in the future.

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