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1.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(10): 770, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601793

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy with late detection and acquired chemoresistance. Advanced understanding of the pathophysiology and novel treatment strategies are urgently required. A growing body of proteomic investigations suggest that phosphorylation has a pivotal role in the regulation of ovarian cancer associated signaling pathways. Matrine has been extensively studied for its potent anti-tumor activities. However, its effect on ovarian cancer cells and underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Herein we showed that matrine treatment inhibited the development and progression of ovarian cancer cells by regulating proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, invasion and angiogenesis. Matrine treatment retarded the cancer associated signaling transduction by decreasing the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, MEK1/2, PI3K, Akt, mTOR, FAK, RhoA, VEGFR2, and Tie2 in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, matrine showed excellent antitumor effect on chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. No obvious toxic side effects were observed in matrine-administrated mice. As the natural agent, matrine has the potential to be the targeting drug against ovarian cancer cells with the advantages of overcoming the chemotherapy resistance and decreasing the toxic side effects.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566703

RESUMO

The current cross-sectional study examined the relationship between affiliate stigma and externalizing and internalizing problems by investigating the role of family cohesion among adolescents having a parent with serious mental illness (SMI). One hundred sixty-four adolescents were recruited from two community mental health centers. Family cohesion, affiliate stigma, and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed. A significant relationship was found between adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems and family cohesion (r = -0.462, p < 0.01 and r = -0.534, p < 0.001, respectively) and affiliate stigma (r = 0.512, p < 0.01 and r = 0.656, p < 0.001, respectively). Family cohesion partially mediated the relation between affiliate stigma and externalizing problems (Z = -4.97, p < 0.001) and fully mediated the relation between affiliate stigma and internalizing problems (Z = -5.18, p < 0.001). The current study highlights the need for effective interventions aimed at families to support parents with SMI in their parenting role and enhance family cohesion. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.].

3.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with HF are at a higher risk of rehospitalisation and, as such, significant costs to our healthcare system. A non-invasive method to collect body fluids and measure Gal-3 could improve the current management of HF. In this study, we investigated the potential prognostic utility of salivary Galectin-3 (Gal-3) in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS: We collected saliva samples from patients with HF (n = 105) either at hospital discharge or during routine clinical visits. Gal-3 concentrations in saliva samples were measured by ELISA. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis and Cox proportional regression model were used to determine the potential prognostic utility of salivary Gal-3 concentrations. RESULTS: The primary end point was either cardiovascular death or hospitalisation. Salivary Gal-3 concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients with HF who subsequently experienced the primary endpoint compared to those who did not. HF patients with salivary Gal-3 concentrations > 172.58 ng/mL had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher cumulative risk of the primary endpoint compared to those with lower salivary Gal-3 concentrations. In patients with HF, salivary Gal-3 concentration was a predictor of the primary endpoint even after adjusting for other covariates. CONCLUSIONS: In our pilot study, HF patients with salivary Gal-3 concentrations of > 172.58 ng/mL demonstrated a higher cumulative risk of the primary outcome compared to those with lower Gal-3 levels, even after adjusting for other variables. Confirming our findings in a larger multi-centre clinical trial in the future would enable salivary Gal-3 measurements to form part of routine management for patients with HF.

4.
Oncogene ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570787

RESUMO

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with reflux and is implicated the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Apoptosis induces cell death through mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which is considered an irreversible step in apoptosis. Activation of MOMP to levels that fail to reach the apoptotic threshold may paradoxically promote cancer-a phenomenon called "Minority MOMP." We asked whether reflux-induced esophageal carcinogenesis occurred via minority MOMP and whether compensatory resistance mechanisms prevented cell death during this process. We exposed preneoplastic, hTERT-immortalized Barrett's cell, CP-C and CP-A, to the oncogenic bile acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), for 1 year. Induction of minority MOMP was tested via comet assay, CyQuant, annexin V, JC-1, cytochrome C subcellular localization, caspase 3 activation, and immunoblots. We used bcl-2 homology domain-3 (BH3) profiling to test the mitochondrial apoptotic threshold. One-year exposure of Barrett's cells to DCA induced a malignant phenotype noted by clone and tumor formation. DCA promoted minority MOMP noted by minimal release of cytochrome C and limited caspase 3 activation, which resulted in DNA damage without apoptosis. Upregulation of the antiapoptotic protein, Mcl-1, ROS generation, and NF-κB activation occurred in conjunction with minority MOMP. Inhibition of ROS blocked minority MOMP and Mcl-1 upregulation. Knockdown of Mcl-1 shifted minority MOMP to complete MOMP as noted by dynamic BH3 profiling and increased apoptosis. Minority MOMP contributes to DCA induced carcinogenesis in preneoplastic BE. Mcl-1 provided a balance within the mitochondria that induced resistance complete MOMP and cell death. Targeting Mcl-1 may be a therapeutic strategy in EAC.

5.
Pathobiology ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective antiretroviral therapy extends the survival of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, but these patients remain at higher risk for heart diseases compared with the general population. Previous studies have suggested that HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) may be associated with heart disease. However, the underlying mechanisms by which HIV-1 gp120-mediated myocardial injury occurs remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to uncover the mechanism of C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) coreceptor (R5) HIV-1 gp120-induced myocardial injury. METHODS: Morphology analysis, determination of the percentage of cell apoptosis, as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) assays were used to analyze whether R5 HIV-1 gp120 induced myocardial cell injury. We analyzed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) with the CCR5 antagonist D-Ala-peptide T-amide (DAPTA) and NMDA receptor antagonist MK801, detected LDH and CK assays with p38 MAPK antagonist SB203580 (SB), and detected the percentage of cell apoptosis and death with DAPTA to investigate the mechanism of R5 HIV-1 gp120-induced myocardial cell injury. RESULTS: R5 HIV-1 gp120 damaged myocardial cells and induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. SB blocked R5 HIV-1 gp120-induced myocardial cell injury. DAPTA blocked R5 HIV-1 gp120-mediated p38 MAPK phosphorylation, while MK801 did not. DAPTA inhibited R5 HIV-1 gp120-induced myocardial cell injury. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that R5 HIV-1 gp120 activated p38 MAPK to trigger myocardial cell injury by the CCR5 coreceptor.

6.
Neurosci Lett ; : 134535, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586698

RESUMO

The Schizophrenia Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC) has identified the rs1625579 polymorphism in the MIR137 gene, which encodes miR-137, as the strongest new association with schizophrenia in the European population. However, whether the influence of rs1625579 on schizophrenia in the Asian population is consistent with these results remains unclear. A total of 21 studies (9878 schizophrenic patients and 9447 control subjects) that met the inclusion criteria were included in our meta-analysis. Pooled analysis, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were performed. The T allele, TT genotype and TT + GG genotype were associated with schizophrenia as risk factors. Subgroup analysis shows that no heterogeneity existed in the European and Asian populations. Our meta-analysis found that the rs1625579 polymorphism in the MIR137 gene was associated with the risk of schizophrenia. The current findings provide a reference for case-control studies of schizophrenia in the future.

7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between leisure activities, examining each activity separately and in combination, and all-cause mortality among the Chinese oldest-old (≥80 years) population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Community-living, the oldest-old from 22 provinces in China. PARTICIPANTS: We included 30,070 Chinese individuals aged ≥80 years (mean age: 92.7 years) from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 1998 to 2014. MEASUREMENTS: Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relationships between leisure activities and all-cause mortality, adjusting for covariates including sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, self-reported medical history, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: During 110,278 person-years of follow-up, 23,661 deaths were documented. Participants who engaged in watching TV or listening to the radio, playing cards or mah-jong, reading books or newspapers, gardening, keeping domestic animals or pets, or attending religious activities "almost every day" had a significantly lower mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratios ranged from 0.82 to 0.89; P < .01 for all) than did participants who "never" engaged in those activities. Furthermore, engagement in multiple leisure activities was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (P for the trend < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Frequent participation in leisure activities might help decrease the risk of death in the Chinese oldest-old population. This finding has important implications for public health policy and encourages the incorporation of a broad range of leisure activities into the daily lives of oldest-old individuals.

8.
Ultrasonics ; 100: 105990, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479968

RESUMO

Through-mask electrochemical micromachining (TMEMM) is the primary method to fabricate micro pits with controlled size, location, and density. In order to improve the machining localization and deep etching capability in TMEMM process, a novel method which combined megasonic vibration to TMEMM process is presented in this paper. Firstly, the coupling relationship between sound field, gas-liquid two-phase flow field and electrolytic process was theoretically analyzed. Theoretical analysis results indicate that acoustic wave agitation can promote the electrolytic process by increasing the conductivity of the electrolyte. Based on this theory, a numerical simulation method was used to predict anodic profiles under different megasonic intensity. The simulation results show that the addition of megasonic agitation can obviously improve the machining localization and deep etching capability in TMEMM process. Etching depth of the micro pit increased from 48.22 µm to 77.98 µm with megasonic agitation compared to the without megasonic one. Depth-diameter ratio of the micro pit increased from 0.30 to 0.45. Meanwhile, the etching factor (EF) increased from 1.55 to 2.10. Then, a megasonic electrolyser at 1 MHz was set up, micro pits were etched under different megasionc intensity. The experiment results show that megasonic assisted through-mask electrochemical micromachining (MA-TMEMM) had best process performance when it worked with the increase of megasionc intensity. When the megasonic intensity was 8 W/cm2, micro pits with average diameter of 167.77 µm and 79.62 µm in depth were successfully fabricated. The average depth-diameter ratio of the micro pits was as high as 0.47, and the EF was as high as 2.35. The working mechanism of megasonic in MA-TMEMM process was analyzed too.

9.
Mol Biol Cell ; : mbcE19020108, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509492

RESUMO

Matrix attachment regions (MARs) can mediate the replication of vector episomes in mammalian cells; however, the molecular mode of action remains unclear. Here, we assessed the characteristics of MARs and the mechanism that mediates episomal vector replication in mammalian cells. Five shortened sub-fragments of ß-interferon MAR fragments were cloned and transferred into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and transgene expression levels, presence of the gene, and the episomal maintenance mechanism were determined. Three shortened MAR derivatives (position 781-1320, 1201-1740 and 1621-2201) retained full MAR activity and mediated episomal vector replication. Moreover, the three shortened MARs showed higher transgene expression levels, greater efficiency in colony formation, and more persistent transgene expression compared to those of the original pEPI-1 plasmid and three functional truncated MARs can bind to SAF-A MAR-binding protein (MBP). These results suggest that shortened MARs are sufficient for replication and maintenance of episomes in CHO cells.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478324

RESUMO

Photothermal therapy at the NIR-II biowindow (1000-1350 nm) is drawing increasing interest because of its large penetration depth and maximum permissible exposure. Now, the supramolecular radical dimer, fabricated by N,N'-dimethylated dipyridinium thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole radical cation (MPT.+ ) and cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]), achieves strong absorption at NIR-II biowindow. The supramolecular radical dimer (2MPT.+ -CB[8]) showed highly efficient photothermal conversion and improved stability, thus contributing to the strong inhibition on HegG2 cancer cell under 1064 nm irradiation even penetrating through chicken breast tissue. This work provides a novel approach to construct NIR-II chromophore by tailor-made assembly of organic radicals. It is anticipated that this study provides a new strategy to achieve NIR-II photothermal therapy and holds promises in luminescence materials, optoelectronic materials, and also biosensing.

11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 225: 115236, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521274

RESUMO

Alpha-1,3-glucan is often synthesized on the surface of pathogenic filamentous fungi cell walls to block pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) generation by host plant enzymes and the subsequent immune system response of the plant. Here, Botrytis cinerea susceptibility was assessed in tomato fruit to determine whether the fruit could recognize this camouflage and mount an immune response to it. The results showed that local mechanical wounds treated with dextran and laminarin, except amylopectin, could locally and then systemically activate disease resistance against B. cinerea infection in tomato fruit. Dextran treatment effectively elicited fruit callose deposition and phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis to a greater extent than α-glucanase activity relative to the mock group surface wounds. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide provided some help in improving host disease resistance. Taken together, these results demonstrate that tomato fruit can perceive α-1,3-glucan as a kind of PAMPs but have limited ability to degrade it.

12.
Cell Cycle ; 18(20): 2800-2813, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478454

RESUMO

Myotubularin related protein 7 (MTMR7), a key member of the MTMR family, depicts phosphatase activity and is involved in myogenesis and tumor growth. We have previously identified MTMR7 in the proteomic profile of mouse spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) maturation and differentiation, implying that MTMR7 is associated with neonatal testicular development. In this study, to further explore the distribution and function of MTMR7 in mouse testis, we studied the effect of Mtmr7 knockdown on neonatal testicular development by testicular and SSC culture methods. Our results revealed that MTMR7 is exclusively located in early germ cells. Deficiency of MTMR7 by morpholino in neonatal testis caused excessive SSC proliferation, which was attributable to the aberrant PI3K/AKT signaling activation. Altogether, our study demonstrates that MTMR7 maintains SSC homeostasis by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling activation.

13.
Appl Opt ; 58(24): 6693-6699, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503602

RESUMO

This paper investigated how a polarization state influences frequency noise measurement accuracy of the short-delayed self-homodyne interference method. An autopolarization control method was demonstrated to mitigate polarization-induced fading (PIF) in a 120-deg phase difference Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI). This method used a feedback adjustment with simulated annealing algorithm, which had the advantages of a short control period, high accuracy, and easy implementation. Frequency fluctuations' power spectral density and linewidth results measured by the improved MZI were consistent with the results of the Michelson interferometer, which used the Faraday rotator mirrors (FRMs) to overcome PIF. The novel MZI structure is unrestricted to FRMs and can extend the capability of the short-delayed self-homodyne interference technique for many special bands' laser frequency noise measurements such as visible bands.

14.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 104: 109925, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500066

RESUMO

Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals, and its polymer, collagen fibrils, regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Low antigenicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability make collagen fibrils suitable functional scaffolds for tissue engineering. In a previous study, we found that the type I atelocollagen purified from the swim bladder of Bester sturgeon (swim bladder collagen, SBC) showed high fibril-forming ability, producing thicker fibrils faster than porcine collagen. In this study, we report a novel method to coat cell culture wells with highly aligned collagen fibrils using the SBC. Two types of fibrils with different thicknesses were prepared by changing the crosslinking treatment timing. The oriented, thick collagen fibrils induced pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1, pre-adipocytic 3T3-L1, pre-myocytic C2C12, and fibroblastic L929 cells to align in the same direction, whereas the oriented, fine fibrils made a cell network with their long pseudopods. Cellular proliferation was inhibited on both fibrils. Furthermore, both fibrils induced the early differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells without differentiation stimuli. In contrast, the morphology of pre-chondrocytic ATDC5 cells on both fine and thick fibrils extended very short pseudopods and continued to maintain a spherical shape without stretching, suggesting a distinct effect by the fibrils. The newly developed fibril coatings are in the form of a thin film, thereby providing good visibility of the cell structure, including cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, using a phase contrast microscope. The fibril coatings have high potential as a useful tool for tissue engineering research.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486708

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the results of two- versus three-staged laparoscopic anorectoplasty (LARP) in children with rectoprostatic and bladder neck fistulas. Materials and Methods: The present study was retrospectively initiated among 32 consecutive patients who underwent two-staged LARP from October 2010 to December 2012. The associated defects, age at the operation, operative time, complications, length of the postoperative hospital stay, total hospitalization cost, and functional results (according to the Krickenbeck scoring system) were evaluated. The results were compared with those of 19 cases who underwent three-staged LARP from October 2008 to September 2010. Results: The average age at the second operation was 4.5 ± 1.2 months in the two-staged group, and 4.2 ± 1.3 months in the three-staged group. In the two-staged group, there were statistically shorter overall operative time and postoperative hospital stay duration. Also, a significantly lower total hospitalization cost was achieved. There was no anastomotic leak in either group. The rates of perineal wound infection, recurrent fistula, and rectal prolapse were 3.85% versus 0% (P = 1.000), 0% versus 5.3% (P = .422), and 11.5% versus 15.8% (P = .686), respectively (two-staged versus three-staged group). The median follow-up time was 67 (range, 54-80) months and 88 (range, 81-104) months, respectively. No significant difference in functional outcome was observed. Conclusions: Two-staged LARP is feasible, safe, and more cost-effective, with comparable incidences of complications and functional outcomes with respect to a three-staged procedure.

16.
Elife ; 82019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509107

RESUMO

Herbivore natural enemies protect plants by regulating herbivore populations. Whether they can alter the behavior of their prey to increase predation success is unknown. We investigate if and how infection by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora changes the behavior of healthy larvae of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), a major pest of maize. We found that nematode-infected rootworm cadavers are attractive to rootworm larvae, and that this behavior increases nematode reproductive success. Nematode-infected rootworms release distinct volatile bouquets, including the unusual volatile butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). BHT alone attracts rootworms, and increases nematode reproductive success. A screen of different nematode and herbivore species shows that attraction of healthy hosts to nematode-infected cadavers is widespread and likely involves species-specific volatile cues. This study reveals a new facet of the biology of herbivore natural enemies that boosts their predation success by increasing the probability of host encounters.

17.
J Chem Phys ; 151(11): 114902, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542010

RESUMO

Ion-mediated interactions are very important for the properties of colloids and biomacromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. In this work, the ion-mediated interactions between equally and oppositely charged spherical polyelectrolytes (SPEs) in symmetrical divalent electrolytes have been investigated by Monte Carlo simulations, and an unexpected apparent repulsion was observed at high divalent salt concentration. Our investigations also show that the effective repulsion becomes more pronounced for SPEs with higher charge densities and for counterions with larger sizes and was found to be tightly accompanied with the over-neutralization to SPEs by condensed counterions and their release upon the approach of SPEs. Such attractive interaction can be reproduced by our proposed modified Poisson-Boltzmann model and is mainly attributed to the increase in the electrostatic repulsion between on charged SPE and the over-neutralized counterions around the other oppositely SPE with the approach of the two SPEs.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556585

RESUMO

A charge-reversal amphiphilic pillar[5]arene, P5NH-DCA, bearing 10 charge-reversal headgroups is reported. It targets the cell membrane of cancer cells and selectively destroys the cancer cells by disrupting the membrane. In the acidic tumor microenvironment, the headgroup charge of P5NH-DCA reversed from negative to positive owing to hydrolysis of the acid-labile amide group. The hydrolyzed product bearing multiple positive charges can bind to the cell membrane and then disrupt the membrane of cancer cells with high efficiency. However, under the neutral microenvironment of healthy cells, the negatively charged P5NH-DCA remains stable and the cytotoxicity is considerably reduced. The strategy killing the cancer cells by membrane disruption may represent a new route of cancer chemotherapy.

19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 519(2): 366-371, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519324

RESUMO

Zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) is a transcription factor that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and neoplastic development. It is also involved in the function of steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone and the peptide hormone prolactin in mammary epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated whether and how ZFHX3 regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis in mammary epithelial cells. We found that ZFHX3 affected both store operated calcium entry and store independent calcium entry (SOCE and SICE). Simultaneously, the expression of the calcium channel TRPV6 was regulated by ZFHX3, as demonstrated by expression analysis and luciferase reporter assay. In cells with knockdown of ZFHX3, calcium entry was partially rescued by the overexpression of wild type but not the pore mutants of TRPV6. In addition, overexpression of TRPV6 promoted differentiation of the MCF10A mammary epithelial cells in three-dimensional culture, which is consistent with our previous findings that ZFHX3 is essential for mammary gland differentiation. These findings suggest that ZFHX3 plays an important role in intracellular calcium homeostasis in mammary epithelial cells, at least in part, by regulating TRPV6.

20.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121091, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472465

RESUMO

In this study, we proposed to apply an integrated process which is comprised of in situ ozonation, ceramic membrane filtration (CMF) and biologically active carbon (BAC) filtration to wastewater reclamation for indirect potable reuse purpose. A pilot-scale (20 m3/d) experiment had been run for ten months to validate the prospect of the process in terms of treatment performance and operational stability. Results showed that the in situ O3 + CMF + BAC process performed well in pollutant removal, with chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus and turbidity levels in the treated water being 5.1 ±â€¯0.9, 0.05 ±â€¯0.01, 10.5 ±â€¯0.8, <0.06 mg/L, and <0.10 NTU, respectively. Most detected trace organic compounds were degraded by>96%. This study demonstrated that synergistic effects existed in the in situ O3 + CMF + BAC process. Compared to pre-ozonation, in situ ozonation in the membrane tank was more effective in controlling membrane fouling (maintaining operational stability) and in degrading organic pollutants, which could be attributed to the higher residual ozone concentration in the tank. Because of the removal of particulate matter by CMF, water head loss of the BAC filter increased slowly and prolonged the backwashing interval to 30 days. BAC filtration was also effective in removing ammonia and N-nitrosodimethylamine from the ozonated water.

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