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1.
Hum Pathol ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926212

RESUMO

Immunotherapies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) axis have been emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat lung cancer. PD-1 is preferentially expressed by activated T lymphocytes; but whether/how its expression by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in lung adenocarcinoma remains elusive. Herein, we investigate the frequency of PD-1 expression on TAMs in mouse allografts by flow cytometry analysis and evaluate the spatial distribution and clinicopathological significance of PD-1+ TAMs in 213 cases of human lung adenocarcinoma specimens by immunohistochemical staining. We find the expression of PD-1 by both mouse and human TAMs. Mouse PD-1+ TAMs possess unique transcriptional profile as compared to PD-1- TAMs. Furthermore, PD-1 is preferentially expressed by CD163+ TAMs in the tumor stroma than those in the tumor islets of lung adenocarcinoma. Stromal PD-1+ TAM infiltration is an independent predictor of reduced survival as determined by univariate (p < 0.001) and multivariate (p = 0.023) analysis. Moreover, patients with high stromal PD-1+ TAMs but low tumor cell PD-L1 expression have the shortest survival (p = 0.0001). Our study demonstrates that PD-1+ TAMs have unique gene expression characteristics and PD-1+ TAMs in the tumor stroma is a potential prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma, suggesting that a better understanding of PD-1+ TAMs will be beneficial for immunotherapy of lung adenocarcinoma patients.

2.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e918811, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study aimed to develop a risk prediction model for prolonged length of stay (LOS) in stroke patients in 50 inpatient rehabilitation centers in 20 provinces across mainland China based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Generic Set case mix on admission. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this cohort study, 383 stroke patients were included from inpatient rehabilitation settings of 50 hospitals across mainland China. Independent predictors of prolonged LOS were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A prediction model was established and then evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. RESULTS Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the type of medical insurance and the performance of daily activities (ICF, d230) were associated with prolonged LOS (P<0.05). Age and mobility level measured by the ICF Generic Set demonstrated no significant predictive value. The prediction model showed acceptable discrimination shown by an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.699 (95% CI, 0.646-0.752) and calibration (χ²=11.66; P=0.308). CONCLUSIONS The risk prediction model for prolonged LOS in stroke patients in 50 rehabilitation centers in China, based on the ICF Generic Set, showed that the scores for the type of medical insurance and the performance of daily activities (ICF, d230) on admission were independent predictors of prolonged LOS. This prediction model may allow stakeholders to estimate the risk of prolonged LOS on admission quantitatively, facilitate the financial planning, treatment regimens during hospitalization, referral after discharge, and reimbursement.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903502

RESUMO

The article 'Addition of glyceryl monostearate affects the crystallization behavior and polymorphism of palm stearin', written by Liyan Liu, Lin Li, Liting Wan, Linlu Mao, Bing Li, Xia Zhang, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 14 December 2019 with open access.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e17908, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914010

RESUMO

This study is to determine accuracy of abdominal ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for placenta accreta in the second and third trimester of pregnancy and to define the most relevant features of abdominal ultrasound and MRI for placenta accreta prediction.Between September 2012 and September 2018, 245 high risk of placenta accreta in the second trimester of pregnancy were prenatal diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound and MRI and they were followed up until the end of pregnancy.Forty-six patients at the second trimester of pregnancy and 40 patients at the third trimester of pregnancy were confirmed as placenta accreta. For the second and third trimester of pregnancy, the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) of abdominal ultrasound were 95.65% versus 97.50%, 91.78% versus 90.70%, 88% versus 83%, and 97% versus 99%, respectively, while the Se, Sp, PPV, and NPV of MRI were 89.13% versus 92.50%, 87.67% versus 8721%, 82% versus 77%, and 93% versus 96%, respectively. Five features having significant statistical differences between normal placentation women and placenta accreta patients in second or third trimester of pregnancy, including loss of the normal retroplacental clear space, thinning or disappearance of the myometrium, increased vascularization at the uterine serosa-bladder wall interface, and vascularization perpendicular to the uterine wall on abdominal ultrasound, and uterine bulging and dark intraplacental bands on MRI.Abdominal ultrasound and MRI for placenta accreta in the second and third trimester of pregnancy could provide meaningful imaging evidences.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893500

RESUMO

Active oxygen species (AOS) play key roles in many important catalytic reactions relevant to clean energy and environment. However, it remains challenging to characterize the active sites for producing AOS and to image the surface properties of AOS, especially on multicomponent metallic catalyst surfaces. Herein, we utilize tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) to probe the local generation and diffusion of OH radicals on a Pd/Au(111) bimetallic catalyst surface. The reactive OH radicals can be catalytically generated from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at the metal surface, which then oxidizes the surface adsorbed thiolate, a reactant that is used as the TERS probe. By TERS imaging of the spatial distribution of unreacted thiolate molecules, we demonstrate that the Pd surface is active for generation of OH radicals and the Pd step edge shows much higher activity than the Pd terrace, whereas the Au surface is inactive. Furthermore, we find that the locally generated OH radicals at the Pd step edge could diffuse to both the Au and the Pd surface sites to induce oxidative reactions, with a diffusion length estimated to be about 5.4 nm. Our TERS imaging with few-nanometer spatial resolution not only unravels the active sites but also characterizes in real space the diffusion behavior of OH radicals. The results are highly valuable to understand AOS-triggered catalytic reactions. The strategy of using reactants with large Raman cross sections as TERS probes may broaden the application of TERS for studying catalysis with reactive small molecules.

6.
Lab Invest ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949244

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by highly invasive growth, which leads to extensive infiltration and makes complete tumor excision difficult. Since cytoskeleton proteins are related to leading processes and cell motility, and through analysis of public GBM databases, we determined that an actin-interacting protein, zyxin (ZYX), may involved in GBM invasion. Our own glioma cohort as well as the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), Rembrandt, and Gravendeel databases consistently showed that increased ZYX expression was related to tumor progression and poor prognosis of glioma patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments further confirmed the oncogenic roles of ZYX and demonstrated the role of ZYX in GBM invasive growth. Moreover, RNA-seq and mass-spectrum data from GBM cells with or without ZYX revealed that stathmin 1 (STMN1) was a potential target of ZYX. Subsequently, we found that both mRNA and protein levels of STMN1 were positively regulated by ZYX. Functionally, STMN1 not only promoted invasion of GBM cells but also rescued the invasion repression caused by ZYX loss. Taken together, our results indicate that high ZYX expression was associated with worse prognosis and highlighted that the ZYX-STMN1 axis might be a potential therapeutic target for GBM.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 2671-2678, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899615

RESUMO

Transition-metal sulfides have been considered as promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high theoretical specific capacity and superior electrochemical performance. However, the large volume change during the discharge/charge process causes structural pulverization, resulting in rapid capacity decline and the loss of active materials. Herein, we report Co1-xS hollow spheres formed by in situ growth on reduced graphene oxide layers. When evaluated as an anode material for LIBs, it delivers a specific capacity of 969.8 mAh·g-1 with a high Coulombic efficiency of 96.49% after 90 cycles. Furthermore, a high reversible capacity of 527.2 mAh·g-1 after the 107th cycle at a current density of 2.5 A g-1 is still achieved. The results illustrate that in situ growth on the graphene layers can enhance conductivity and restrain volume expansion of cobalt sulfide compared with ex situ growth.

8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944546

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the safety of a higher starting dose of basal insulin in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This 16-week, randomised, multicentre, open-label trial enrolled adults with T2D (body mass index 25-40 kg/m2 ) and suboptimal glycaemic control (HbA1c 7.5-11.0% and fasting plasma glucose [FPG] >9.0 mmol/L) with 2-3 oral antihyperglycaemic drugs at 51 centres in China. Patients were randomised (1:1) to a higher (0.3 U/kg) or standard (0.2 U/kg) starting dose of insulin glargine 100 U/mL, which was then titrated to achieve a self-monitored fasting blood glucose (SM-FBG) of 4.4-5.6 mmol/L. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with ≥1 episode of overall confirmed hypoglycaemia (≤3.9 mmol/L or severe). RESULTS: At the end of study (n=866), 11.0% patients treated with 0.3 U/kg starting insulin dose experienced overall confirmed hypoglycaemia versus 8.6% of patients treated with 0.2 U/kg (estimated difference 2.1%; 95% confidence interval: -1.68%, 5.89%). The proportions of patients with symptomatic (9.8% vs 7.0%, P = .128) and nocturnal hypoglycaemia (2.7% vs 1.2%, P = .102) were similar between the two groups. There were no events of severe hypoglycaemia or fasting blood glucose <3.0 mmol/L during the 16-week treatment, and achievement of HbA1c <7.0% (37.1% vs 37.1%) or FPG <5.6 mmol/L (15.9% vs 16.3%), <6.1 mmol/L (27.6% vs 26.1%), or <7.0 mmol/L (48.8% vs 48.3%) without hypoglycaemia were comparable between groups. Moreover, mean time (4.53, 3.95 and 2.74 weeks vs 5.51, 5.21 and 3.64 weeks) and number of titrations (3.5, 3.0 and 2.0 versus 4.3, 4.0 and 2.8) to first achieve SM-FBG targets of <5.6, <6.1, and <7.0 mmol/L were shorter and fewer in the higher versus standard insulin group (all P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Among overweight/obese patients with T2D, a higher insulin starting dose was as safe as the standard starting dose, and SM-FBG targets were achieved earlier with the higher versus standard dose. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e028593, 2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe distributions of the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis and identify the potential risk factors by gender in a Chinese rural population. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 8475 participants (18-79 years) were obtained from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus for each individual was measured by ultrasonic bone density apparatus. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of potential risk factors with prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of prevalence of osteoporosis which included eight studies was conducted to confirm this study results. RESULTS: The mean of BMD were 0.42 and 0.32 g/cm2 for men with osteopenia and osteoporosis (p<0.001), as well as 0.40 and 0.30 g/cm2 (p<0.001) for women with osteopenia and osteoporosis, respectively. The overall age-standardised prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis were 42.09% and 11.76% in all participants. The age-standardised prevalence of osteopenia in men (45.98%) was significantly higher than that in women (39.73%), whereas the age-standardised prevalence of osteoporosis in men (7.82%) was lower than that in women (14.38%). Meta-analysis results displayed pooled prevalence of osteoporosis of 18.0% (10.1%-25.8%) in total sample, 7.7% (5.7%-9.7%) in men and 22.4% (17.1%-27.6%) in women. Multivariable logistic regression models showed that ageing, women, low education level or income, drinking or underweight was related to increased risk for osteopenia or osteoporosis. CONCLUSIONS: About one-sixth of the participants suffered osteoporosis in rural China, and the prevalence in women was higher than men. Although the results were lower than that of meta-analysis, osteoporosis still accounts for huge burden of disease in rural population due to limited medical service and lack of health risk awareness rather than urban area. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-OOC-15006699; Pre-results).

10.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(3): 2836-2846, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535366

RESUMO

Malathion (MAL) is a common organophosphorus pesticide and affects both animal and human reproduction. However, the mechanisms regarding how MAL affects the mammalian oocyte quality and how to prevent it have not been fully investigated. In this study, we used porcine oocyte as a model and proved that MAL impaired porcine oocyte quality in a dose-dependent manner during maturation. MAL decreased the first polar body extrusion, disrupted spindle assembly and chromosome alignment, impaired cortical granules (CGs) distribution, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in oocytes. RNA-seq analysis showed that MAL exposure altered the expression of 2,917 genes in the porcine maturated oocytes and most genes were related to ROS, the lipid droplet process, and the energy supplement. Nevertheless, these defects could be remarkably ameliorated by adding melatonin (MLT) into the oocyte maturation medium. MLT increased oocyte maturation rate and decreased the abnormities of spindle assembly, CGs distribution and ROS accumulation in MAL-exposed porcine oocytes. More important, MLT upregulated the expression of genes related to lipid droplet metabolism (PPARγ and PLIN2), decreased lipid droplet size and lipid peroxidation in MAL-exposed porcine oocytes. Finally, we found that MLT increased the blastocysts formation and the cell numbers of blastocysts in MAL-exposed porcine oocytes after parthenogenetic activation, which was mediated by reduction of ROS levels and maintaining lipid droplet metabolism. Taken together, our results revealed that MLT had a protective action against MAL-induced deterioration of porcine oocyte quality.

11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 607-613, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: α-Dicarbonyl compounds are widely generated in the Maillard reaction, caramelization and oil oxidation during heat treatment. These compounds can readily react with lysine and arginine residues of a protein, whereas the influence of these compounds on protein structure and quality has seldom been revealed. This study compared influence of glycation by glucose and α-dicarbonyl compounds on amyloid-like aggregation of ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG), both fibrillation kinetics and conformation of aggregates were studied. RESULTS: Compared with glycation by glucose, the glycation by α-dicarbonyl compounds resulted in faster reduction of free amino group, sulfydryl group, and the relative content of ß-sheet secondary structure, according to the ultraviolet (UV) spectra or circular dichroism (CD) spectra results. Based on the analysis of fibrillation kinetics using thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay, the glycation by α-dicarbonyls were more efficient in suppressing the growth of fibrillar aggregates. In addition, glycation by α-dicarbonyl resulted in amorphous oligomers, which were compared with the amyloid-like aggregates in control and glucose-glycated samples, based on the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. CONCLUSIONS: Glycation by α-dicarbonyl compounds induced larger decline in the ß-sheet structure of ß-LG than glycation by glucose, and thus largely suppressed the amyloid-like aggregation of ß-LG and changed the morphology of aggregates. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Animais , Bovinos , Dicroísmo Circular , Glucose/química , Glicosilação , Temperatura Alta , Agregados Proteicos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
12.
Food Chem ; 306: 125563, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606626

RESUMO

The storage stability of two kinds of interesterified blend-based fast-frozen special fats (PS:SO-IBSF, PS:RO-IBSF) with varied triacylglycerols (TAGs) compositions under different temperatures for 4 weeks was investigated. Rancimat and peroxide values experiments indicated that both IBSFs display good oxidation stability throughout a 4-week storage. As for the physical properties of both IBSFs, the solid fat content and hardness decreased with the increase of storage temperature, and IBSFs still exhibited a viscoelastic solid-like behavior. X-ray diffraction results showed that crystal transformation from ß'- to ß-form was more serious when stored at 25 °C. The more content of ECN 50-type TAGs in PS:RO-IBSF is helpful to reduce its crystal transformation from ß'-to ß-form compared to PS:SO-IBSF. On the other hand, storage at 4 °C was beneficial for both IBSFs to keep their crystal network integrity, and the PS:RO-IBSF maintained better quality under the same storage conditions.


Assuntos
Gorduras/química , Cristalização , Esterificação , Congelamento , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Temperatura Ambiente , Difração de Raios X
13.
Food Chem ; 307: 125554, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648176

RESUMO

The reaction of Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) with eight kinds of non-flavonoid o-benzoquinones and five kinds of flavonoid o-benzoquinones were investigated by cyclic voltammetry at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 and scan rate of 10, 50 and 100 mV/s. The reactivity of o-benzoquinones towards CML is weakened by the electron-donating substituent and strengthened by the electron-withdrawing substituent on the o-benzoquinone rings. The steric hindrance of the substituents on o-benzoquinone rings also weakens the quinone reactivity. Reaction of 4-methylbenzoquinone with CML (38.0 ±â€¯1.3%) was found to be faster than that with l-lysine (31.3 ±â€¯1.5%) and Nα-acetyl-l-lysine (14.5 ±â€¯0.1%) but slower than that with l-cysteine (≥100.0%) and Nα-acetyl-l-cysteine (≥100.0%) at pH 7.0 and scan rate of 10 mV/s. Products obtained by the reaction of CML with o-benzoquinones were found to include a CML-quinone adduct according to the cyclic voltammetry and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/química , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Catecóis , Cisteína/química , Flavonoides , Lisina/química
14.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(12): 1347-50, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820614

RESUMO

The current usage and the existing problems in the implementability of clinical practice guidelines for acupuncture-moxibustion were investigated by questionnaire survey, aiming to provide reference for the development or update of clinical practice guidelines for acupuncture-moxibustion in the future. The results showed most of the acupuncture-moxibustion clinicians did not have a deep understanding of the guidelines, but they had a strong will of uniform standards and related guidelines. Although the published clinical practice guidelines for acupuncture-moxibustion achieved some success, they still had not got rid of the shackles of the previous textbook. The main existing problems in the guidelines included insufficient promotion, poor credibility, no evaluation criteria for curative effect, and lack of consideration for patients' will, etc. As the guidelines for acupuncture-moxibustion were based on the latest evidence of current clinical research, it reflected the low quality of current clinical research on acupuncture-moxibustion and lacking of evidence-based concept among acupuncture-moxibustion clinicians. The implementability of clinical practice guidelines is a key step in evidence-based translational medicine, while the research on the implementability of acupuncture-moxibustion guidelines is still blank. More attention should be paid to this field in the future.

15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1180: 277-295, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784969

RESUMO

Numerous antidepressants are available for the treatment of the major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately, the disadvantages of these antidepressive medications, including inadequate treatment response, the therapeutic lag between drug administration and the onset of symptoms alleviation, and the safety consideration limit their clinical use and accelerate the exploration of advanced antidepressants with novel action mechanisms/newer targets, with fewer side effects. In this chapter, a series of compounds showing clinical potent in the treatment of MDD has been reviewed based on their reported results from different phase clinical trials. Although the majority of these strategies currently only lead to a systematic approach in the aspects of treatment resistant depression, some of them would be a routine clinical practice which is usable in the treatment of MDD, such as ketamine. Additionally, beyond the mechanism of action for novel therapeutic molecules involving glutamatergic, opiate, cholinergic receptors, and neuroplasticity, some supplemental procedures such as polyunsaturated fatty acids were also included in this chapter due to their solid property against MDD.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831430

RESUMO

A highly sensitive and selective optical fiber-based enzymatic biosensor has been proposed in the present study for detection of uric acid (UA) in human serum. The working mechanism of sensor depends on surface plasma property and localized surface plasmon resonance technique. For this purpose, a micro-ball fiber sensor probe of 350 µm diameter was fabricated using advanced fusion-splicer and coated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and graphene oxide (GO) in order to enhance its sensitivity. UV-Visible spectrophotometer and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) were used to characterize the AuNPs solution and GO aqueous dispersion. The absorbance spectrum of AuNPs and GO are recorded at 519 nm and 230 nm, respectively. The coating of AuNPs and GO over fiber surface were verified by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Thereafter, sensor probe was functionalized with the specific enzyme i.e. uricase for the UA detection. The linearity response of uricase/GO/AuNPs-coated micro-ball optical fiber sensor is reported in the range of 10 µM - 1 mM UA concentrations. The reflectance of sensor linearly decreases with the increasing UA concentrations. Sensitivity of the sensor is 2.1 %/mM with a good slope of linearity with detection limit of 65.60 µM. To test the accuracy of proposed sensor, UA concentration in serum samples have also tested by using proposed sensor and A5800 Automatic Biochemical Analyzer. The results of the developed sensor are consistent with the results of A5800 Automatic Biochemical Analyzer. Thus, proposed sensor can be successfully utilized for UA detection in human serum samples.

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 112019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834867

RESUMO

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene, RSV) is a natural potential anti-aging polyphenolic compound frequently used as a nutritional supplement against several diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms by which resveratrol regulates postovulatory aging of oocytes are still insufficiently known. In this study, we found that resveratrol could delay postovulatory aging and improve developmental competence of oocytes through activating selective mitophagy in the mouse. Resveratrol could maintain spindle morphology but it disturbed cortical granule (CG) distribution during oocyte aging. This might be due to upregulated mitophagy, since blocking mitophagy by cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment affected oocyte quality by damaging mitochondrial function and it decreased embryonic development. In addition, we also observed an involvement of FoxO3a in regulating mitophagy in aging oocytes following resveratrol treatment. Taken together, our results provide evidence that mitophagy induced by resveratrol is a potential mechanism to protect against postovulatory oocyte aging.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838608

RESUMO

Low crystallization-rate and formation of crystalline clusters makes palm stearin unpopular in fat-based products especially in their post-processing stage. Addition of emulsifiers is commonly used to overcome these drawbacks, since they are believed to induce or stabilize specific polymorphs of palm stearin. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) was applied in palm stearin (1%, 2%, and 4% w/w) in this study, and the mechanisms on crystallization of palm stearin were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and polarized light microscopic (PLM) method. Data showed that GMS prompted the isothermal crystallization (15-30 °C) in a dose-dependent manner. Crystallization turned to low super-cooling sporadic nucleation at 30 °C. Besides, GMS led to an earlier onset of crystallization during cooling. GMS-palm stearin blends crystallized to form α polymorphs at first and subsequently underwent polymorphic transition to become ß' polymorphs. Addition of 4% w/w GMS in palm stearin significantly decreased the size of crystals, which is helpful to reduce the grainy mouth feel of fat products in practice.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823444

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lurasidone for the treatment of Chinese schizophrenic patients. METHODS: Hospitalized schizophrenia patients aged 18-65 were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind, double-dummy, flexible-dose treatment with lurasidone (40 or 80 mg/day) or risperidone (2, 4 or 6 mg/day). Efficacy was evaluated using a non-inferiority comparison of lurasidone relative to risperidone based on week 6 change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. Safety assessments included adverse events, clinical laboratory measures, and electrocardiograms. RESULTS: 444 patients were screened to obtain an intent-to-treat sample of 384 patients, of whom 54 patients discontinued treatment prior to 6 weeks. Lurasidone met the criteria for non-inferiority versus risperidone on the PANSS total score. Adjusted mean (SE) change at week 6 on the PANSS total score was -31.2 (1.0) and - 34.9 (1.0) in the lurasidone and risperidone group, respectively. The mean difference score was 3.7, and the upper boundary of the 95%-confidence interval (1.0-6.3) was less than the prespecified margin of 7.0. No clinically meaningful between-treatment group differences were evident on secondary efficacy measures, including PANSS positive, PANSS negative, Clinical Global Impression scale - Severity, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia scales. The incidence of adverse events was lower for lurasidone vs. risperidone for extrapyramidal symptoms (17.0% vs. 38.2%), akathisia (7.2% vs. 13.6%), prolactin increase (3.1% vs. 14.1%), and weight increase (0.5% vs. 5.2%). CONCLUSION: Lurasidone was found to be non-inferior to risperidone on the primary endpoint with minimal effects on weight, metabolic parameters, or prolactin levels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To assess the associations of sedentary time, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 DNA methylation with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and further identify the role of SOCS3 methylation in mediating the association of sedentary time with T2DM in a Chinese rural population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-control study including 1032 participants from the Henan Rural Cohort study was conducted. Restricted cubic spline analysis and logistic regression model were performed to evaluate the associations between sedentary time, SOCS3 methylation and T2DM. The mediation effect of SOCS3 methylation on the association between sedentary time and T2DM was assessed. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by excluding individuals with diagnosed T2DM. Linear dose-response relationships were found between sedentary time, methylation level of Chr17:76356190 (one novel site on SOCS3) and T2DM. Compared with the first quartile (less than 5 h/d) of sedentary time, the adjusted odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval, 95%CI) for those in the third (7-10 h/d) and fourth (≥10 h/d) quartiles were 1.87 (1.22-2.85) and 3.54 (2.14-5.85), respectively. Participants in the fourth quartile of methylation level of Chr17:76356190 had lower risk of T2DM than those in the first quartile (OR (95%CI): 0.23 (0.14-0.38)). Mediation analysis showed 9.66% (6.38%-14.80%) of the association between sedentary time and T2DM was attributable to Chr17:76356190. The comparable effect estimates were observed between sedentary time, methylation level of Chr17:76356190 and undiagnosed T2DM. CONCLUSION: Sedentary time and methylation level of Chr17:76356190 were both independently associated with T2DM in the Chinese rural population. Furthermore, Chr17:76356190 appeared to partially mediate the effect of sedentary time on T2DM. CHINESE CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699 (URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=11375).

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