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1.
Ophthalmic Genet ; : 1-5, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coats plus syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder, and is also a telomere-related disorder caused by CTC1 gene mutation. We reported ophthalmic findings in a Chinese child with genetically confirmed Coats plus syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The comprehensive ophthalmic findings were presented, as well as treatment history and systemic manifestations. In addition, genetic testing was performed to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS: Examination under anesthesia showed notable retinal vasculopathy, including vascular tortuosity and dilation, abnormal vascular anastomosis, retinal telangiectasias and mild exudation, extensive peripheral avascularity, as well as the presence of retinal neovascularization. The patient developed vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment, and then underwent vitrectomy. Meanwhile, the patient was noted to have growth retardation and leukoencephalopathy. Gene testing identified a compound heterozygous mutation in CTC1 gene: a novel splicing site mutation (c.33 + 1 G > T) and a deletion mutation (c.2954_2956del, p.C985del), which were inherited from his mother and father, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present report expanded the genotype and phenotype spectrum of CTC1 gene associated with Coats plus syndrome.

2.
Toxicol Sci ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017471

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease (CHD), the leading birth defect worldwide, has a largely unknown etiology, likely to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors during heart development, at a time when the heart adapts to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Crucial among these is the regulation of cardiomyocyte development and postnatal maturation, governed by dynamic changes in DNA methylation. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that exposure to the environmental toxicant tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) disrupts several molecular networks responsible for heart development and function. To test the hypothesis that the disruption caused by TCDD in the heart results from changes in DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of cardiomyocytes, we established a stable mouse embryonic stem cell line expressing a puromycin resistance selectable marker under control of the cardiomyocyte-specific Nkx2-5 promoter. Differentiation of these cells in the presence of puromycin induces the expression of a large suite of cardiomyocyte specific markers. To assess the consequences of TCDD treatment on gene expression and DNA methylation in these cardiomyocytes, we subjected them to transcriptome and methylome analyses in the presence of TCDD. Unlike control cardiomyocytes maintained in vehicle, the TCDD-treated cardiomyocytes showed extensive gene expression changes, with a significant correlation between differential RNA expression and DNA methylation in 111 genes, many of which are key elements of pathways that regulate cardiovascular development and function. Our findings provide an important clue towards the elucidation of the complex interactions between genetic and epigenetic mechanisms after developmental TCDD exposure that may contribute to CHD.

3.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026009

RESUMO

In this work, uniform ultra-small core-shell Au-Pt nanoparticles (denoted as USCS Au-Pt NPs) with Au-decorated Pt surfaces are successfully prepared by Fe(ii)-assisted one-pot co-reduction of Au(iii) ions and Pt(ii) ions in a citrate solution. The as-prepared USCS Au38.4@Au9.3Pt52.3 NPs have an average diameter of 2.3 ± 0.5 nm. It is found that the morphology, composition and size of Au-Pt NPs are highly dependent on the reaction conditions including the addition sequence of the precursors, and the concentrations of Fe(ii) ions, Au(iii) ions and Pt(ii) ions. In addition, USCS Au38.4@Au9.3Pt52.3-NP/C catalysts (USCS Au38.4@Au9.3Pt52.3 NPs loaded on the Vulcan XC-72R carbon black) exhibit excellent electrocatalytic performance towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media due to the higher electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) and electronic effect between Pt and Au. For instance, USCS Au38.4@Au9.3Pt52.3-NP/C catalysts exhibited greatly enhanced HER activity in terms of overpotential (16 mV at a current density of -10 mA cm-2) and are better than commercial Pt/C catalysts (31 mV at a current density of -10 mA cm-2) reported in the literature thus far, to the best of our knowledge. Strikingly, their mass activity is about 13.1-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Moreover, they also show an improved ORR activity, Eonset = 1.015 V and E1/2 = 0.896 V, which are positively shifted by nearly 28 mV and 21 mV than those of commercial Pt/C catalysts (0.987 V and 0.875 V), respectively. In addition, they also showed a higher kinetic current density (12.85 mA cm-2 at 0.85 V) and a better long-term durability. Our synthetic strategy presented here may be extended to the preparation of ultra-small Au-based bimetallic or multi-metallic NPs.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16119, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999343

RESUMO

Obesity is common comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported that homocysteine (Hcy) is increased in schizophrenia. However, no study has reported the association between BMI and Hcy levels in schizophrenia. This cross-sectional naturalistic study aimed to evaluate the relationship between BMI, Hcy and clinical symptoms in Chinese Han patients with chronic schizophrenia. Clinical and anthropometric data as well as plasma Hcy level and glycolipid parameters were collected. Psychopathology was measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Our results showed that compared with the low BMI group, the high BMI group had a higher PANSS general psychopathology subscore, higher levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (all p < 0.05). Hcy levels were negatively associated with BMI in patients (p < 0.001). Hcy level, the PANSS general psychopathology subscale, total cholesterol and education (all p < 0.05) were the influencing factors of high BMI. Our study suggest that Hcy level may be associated with BMI in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, patients with high BMI show more severe clinical symptoms and higher glucose and lipid levels.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009695

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into high-value multi-carbon (C2+) chemical feedstocks offers a promising avenue to liberate the chemical industry from fossil-resource dependence and eventually close the anthropogenic carbon cycle, but is severely impeded by the lack of high-performance catalysts. Herein, aiming to break the linear scaling relationship of intermediates binding and minimize the kinetic barrier of CO2 reduction reactions (CO2 RR), ternary Cu-Au/Ag nanoframes are fabricated to decouple the two pivotal functions of CO generation and C-C coupling, where the former is greatly promoted by the alloyed Ag/Au substrate and the latter is elegantly facilitated by the highly strained and positively charged Cu domains. Thereby, extraordinary Faradic efficiencies of 69 ± 5% and 77 ± 2% on C2H4 production in H-cell and flow cell, respectively, are achieved with great electrocatalytic stability and material durability. In-situ IR and DFT calculations unveil two competing pathways for C2H4 generation, of which the direct CO dimerization is energetically favored. By integrating the tandem effect, electronic modulation, and defect engineering, the current study offers a paradigm in catalyst design to break the linear scaling relationship towards improved C2H4 production.

6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3078-3081, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018655

RESUMO

Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) translate neural signals into digital commands to control external devices. During the use of BMI, neurons may change their activity corresponding to the same stimuli or movement. The changes are represented by the neural tuning parameters which may change gradually and abruptly. Adaptive algorithms were proposed to estimate the time-varying parameters in order to keep decoding performance stable. The existing methods only searched new parameters locally which failed to detect the abrupt changes. Global search helps but requires the known boundary of estimated parameter which is hard to be defined in many cases. We propose to estimate the neural modulation parameter by the global search using adaptive point process estimation. This neural modulation parameter represents the similarity between the kinematics and the neural preferred hyper tuning direction with finite range [0,1]. The preferred hyper tuning direction is then decoupled from the neural modulation parameter by gradient descent method. We apply the proposed method on real data to detect the abrupt change of the neural tuning parameter when the subject switched from manual control to brain control mode. The proposed method demonstrates better tracking on the neural hyper tuning parameters than local searching method and validated by KS statistical test.

7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3086-3089, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018657

RESUMO

Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) provides a promising way to help disabled people restore their motor functions. The patients are able to control the external devices directly from their neural signals by the decoder. Due to various reasons such as mental fatigue and distraction, the distribution of the neural signals might change, which might lead to poor performance for the decoder. In this case, we need to calibrate the parameters before each session, which needs the professionals to label the data and is not convenient for the patient's usage at home. In this paper, we propose a covariant cluster transfer mechanism for the kernel reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm to speed up the adaptation across sessions. The parameters of the decoder will adaptively change according to a reward signal, which could be easily set by the patient. More importantly, we cluster the neural patterns in previous sessions. The cluster represents the conditional distribution from neural patterns to actions. When a distinct neural pattern appears in the new session, the nearest cluster will be transferred. In this way, the knowledge from the old session could be utilized to accelerate the learning in the new session. Our proposed algorithm is tested on the simulated neural data where the neural signal's distribution differs across sessions. Compared with the training from random initialization and a weight transfer policy, our proposed cluster transfer mechanism maintains a significantly higher success rate and a faster adaptation when the conditional distribution from neural signals to actions remains similar.

8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3351-3354, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018722

RESUMO

Reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm interprets neural signals into movement intentions with the guidance of the reward in Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). Current RL algorithms generally work for the tasks with immediate rewards delivery, and lack of efficiency in delayed reward task. Prefrontal cortex, including medial prefrontal cortex(mPFC), has been demonstrated to assign credit to intermediate steps, which reinforces preceding action more efficiently. In this paper, we propose to simulate the functionality of mPFC activities as intermediate rewards to train a RL based decoder in a two-step movement task. A support vector machine (SVM) is adopted to verify if the subject expects a reward due to the accomplishment of a subtask from mPFC activity. Then this discrimination result will be utilized to guide the training of the RL decoder for each step respectively. Here, we apply the Sarsa-style attention-gated reinforcement learning (SAGREL) as the decoder to interpret motor cortex(M1) activity to action states. We test on in vivo primary motor cortex (M1) and mPFC data collected from rats, where the rats need to first trigger the start and then press lever for rewards using M1 signals. SAGREL using intermediate rewards from mPFC activities achieves a prediction accuracy of 66.8% ± 2.0.% (mean ± std) %, which is significantly better than the one using the reward by the end of trial (45.9.% ± 1.2%). This reveals the potentials of modelling mPFC activities as intermediate rewards for the delayed reward tasks.

9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 132: 44-49, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been found to be higher in patients with schizophrenia. Older patients are the fastest-growing segment of the schizophrenia population. However, few studies have explored diabetes in older patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of factors associated with diabetes in Chinese patients with late-life schizophrenia (LLS), which has not been reported in previous studies. METHODS: A total of 289 inpatients aged 60 or above who met the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were recruited. The severity of psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Diabetes was diagnosed by fasting blood glucose tests, or oral glucose tolerance tests. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of diabetes in LLS patients was 25.3%. The prevalence of diabetes in female patients was significantly higher than that in male patients (35% vs. 21.53%). Other factors associated with diabetes included higher BMI, greater waistline (only for males), higher levels of triglyceride, and more severe positive symptoms. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the prevalence of diabetes in LLS patients is similar to that in the age-matched general population. Female gender, excess weight and abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and clinical symptoms can be potential risk factors of diabetes in the LLS patient group.

10.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 122: 104879, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049658

RESUMO

Abnormal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are involved in cognitive decline in patients with schizophrenia. The role of atypical antipsychotic risperidone in improving cognitive function remains unclear. The study aimed to investigate the effect of risperidone monotherapy on cognitive impairment in drug-naïve first-episode (DNFE) patients with schizophrenia and whether BDNF levels were correlated to the improvement of cognition. 354 DNFE patients and 152 healthy controls were recruited, and we compared their serum BDNF levels and cognition shown on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). High and low BDNF subgroups were defined by median split. Then, 211 patients were treated with risperidone monotherapy for 12 weeks, and their serum BDNF levels and cognition were measured again after treatment. DNFE patients had poorer cognitive functions and lower BDNF levels compared to controls. Lower BDNF levels were correlated with delayed memory in DNFE patients with high baseline BDNF levels. After 12 weeks of treatment, risperidone significantly improved immediate memory, delayed memory and RBANS total scores and BDNF levels were slightly increased. In patients with low-BDNF, BDNF levels were significantly increased after risperidone treatment, while in patients with high-BDNF, BDNF levels were significantly decreased. In addition, baseline BDNF levels were associated with improvement of delayed memory and were a prognostic factor for the improvement of the delayed memory and RBANS total score in patients with high-BDNF. Our result suggests risperidone treatment can partially improve certain domains of the cognitive impairment and baseline BDNF levels are related to cognitive response to risperidone in DNFE patients with schizophrenia.

11.
Opt Lett ; 45(20): 5832-5835, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057296

RESUMO

A microscopy scheme is proposed to simultaneously achieve optical scattering-absorption dual-contrast imaging of a transparent or semi-transparent specimen. This scheme is based on a transmission-mode photoacoustic microscope. We find that two peaks exist in the detected photoacoustic signal. One peak is caused by the optical absorption of the specimen, and the other is related to both the optical scattering and absorption of the specimen. Therefore, both the absorption and scattering information can be simultaneously extracted by analyzing the same photoacoustic signal excited by a single-shot laser pulse. After the microscope is validated by imaging a binary mixture consisting of particles with different optical properties, it successfully acquires dual images of red blood cells with different contrasts. Quantitative analysis reveals that the optical absorption and scattering properties of the specimen can be derived from the two images. The proposed dual-modal imaging method would be useful in revealing the structural and functional properties of tissues at the cell level or the clinical assessment of pathological sections.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058544

RESUMO

AIM: Previous evidence has suggested that schizophrenia patients may display sex differences in cognitive impairments and cognitive impairments are related to disrupted white matter (WM) microstructure. The current research aims to address the intriguing possibility for the sex-specific association between cognitive deficits and WM abnormalities in first-episode and drug-naïve schizophrenia. METHODS: Cognitive performance on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was measured in 39 FEND patients (females:males = 23:16) and 30 healthy controls (females:males = 17:13), together with whole-brain WM fractional anisotropy (FA) values determined using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging. Correlations between cognitive performance and FA values were assessed. RESULTS: Patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls in the total score and most of the subscores of MCCB. Female patients displayed better cognitive performance than male patients on the Trail Making A Test, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Spatial Span Test in the Wechsler Memory Scale. More importantly, sex-differential association between cognitive performance and FA values was found in patients, but not in healthy controls. In particular, FA values in the cerebellum were negatively correlated with the continuous performance and digital sequence scores in male patients but positively correlated with the performance on the Spatial Span Test in the Wechsler Memory Scale in female patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest sex-specific neurobiological substrates involved in cognitive deficits in early-onset schizophrenia and have important implications for differentially targeted interventions between males and females.

13.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 310, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major dose-limiting toxicity of paclitaxel, one of the most commonly used drugs to treat solid tumor, is painful neuropathy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying paclitaxel-induced painful neuropathy are largely unclarified. METHODS: Paw withdrawal threshold was measured in the rats following intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel. The qPCR, western blotting, protein or chromatin immunoprecipitation, ChIP-seq identification of NFATc2 binding sites, and microarray analysis were performed to explore the molecular mechanism. RESULTS: We found that paclitaxel treatment increased the nuclear expression of NFATc2 in the spinal dorsal horn, and knockdown of NFATc2 with NFATc2 siRNA significantly attenuated the mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel. Further binding site analysis utilizing ChIP-seq assay combining with gene expression profile revealed a shift of NFATc2 binding site closer to TTS of target genes in dorsal horn after paclitaxel treatment. We further found that NFATc2 occupancy may directly upregulate the chemokine CXCL14 expression in dorsal horn, which was mediated by enhanced interaction between NFATc2 and p300 and consequently increased acetylation of histone H4 in CXCL14 promoter region. Also, knockdown of CXCL14 in dorsal horn significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that enhanced interaction between p300 and NFATc2 mediated the epigenetic upregulation of CXCL14 in the spinal dorsal horn, which contributed to the chemotherapeutic paclitaxel-induced chronic pain.

14.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; : e2755, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for suicide compared with the general population. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DßH) plays a key role in the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, which is related to suicidal behavior and cognitive regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there is the effect of DßH 5'-insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism on cognitive performance in suicide attempters with chronic schizophrenia. METHODS: This polymorphism was detected in 114 suicide attempters and 617 non-suicide attempters with chronic schizophrenia. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). RESULTS: The allelic and genotypic frequencies of this polymorphism between two groups did not differ after controlling for covariates (both, p > .05). There were no differences in RBANS scores between two groups after adjusting for covariates (all, p > .05). However, based on the genotype grouping in suicide attempters and non-attempters, the attention score significantly differed after adjusting for covariates (both, p < .05). Further analysis indicated that this polymorphism was associated with attention score in suicide attempters (p < .05), but not in non-suicide attempters (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: DßH 5'-Ins/Del polymorphism was not a risk locus of suicide attempters, but it was implicated in attention regulation in suicide attempters with chronic schizophrenia.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929830

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We review statistical methods for assessing the possible impact of bias due to unmeasured confounding in real world data analysis and provide detailed recommendations for choosing among the methods. METHODS: By updating an earlier systematic review, we summarize modern statistical best practices for evaluating and correcting for potential bias due to unmeasured confounding in estimating causal treatment effect from non-interventional studies. RESULTS: We suggest a hierarchical structure for assessing unmeasured confounding. First, for initial sensitivity analyses, we strongly recommend applying a recently developed method, the E-value, that is straightforward to apply and does not require prior knowledge or assumptions about the unmeasured confounder(s). When some such knowledge is available, the E-value could be supplemented by the rule-out or array method at this step. If these initial analyses suggest results may not be robust to unmeasured confounding, subsequent analyses could be conducted using more specialized statistical methods, which we categorize based on whether they require access to external data on the suspected unmeasured confounder(s), internal data, or no data. Other factors for choosing the subsequent sensitivity analysis methods are also introduced and discussed, including the types of unmeasured confounders and whether the subsequent sensitivity analysis is intended to provide a corrected causal treatment effect. CONCLUSION: Various analytical methods have been proposed to address unmeasured confounding, but little research has discussed a structured approach to select appropriate methods in practice. In providing practical suggestions for choosing appropriate initial and, potentially, more specialized subsequent sensitivity analyses, we hope to facilitate the widespread reporting of such sensitivity analyses in non-interventional studies. The suggested approach also has the potential to inform pre-specification of sensitivity analyses before executing the analysis, and therefore increase the transparency and limit selective study reporting.

16.
Cereb Cortex ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901269

RESUMO

Memory dysfunction and associated hippocampal disturbances play crucial roles in cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. To examine the relationships between cognitive function and the hippocampal subfields (HSs) in first-episode never-treated (FENT) schizophrenia patients, the HSs were segmented in 39 FENT patients and 30 healthy controls using a state-of the-art automated algorithm. We found no significant differences in any HSs between the patients and controls. However, multivariate regression analysis showed that the left cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), left hippocampal tail, left presubiculum, and right molecular layer contributed 40% to the variance of the PANSS negative symptom score. After adjusting for sex, age, education, and intracranial volume, the partial correlation analysis showed that the volumes of left CA1, CA3, CA4, molecular layer, granule cell layer and both left and right subiculum were negatively correlated with the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT). Multiple regression analysis showed that the left CA1 and CA3 hippocampal abnormalities contributed 66% to the variance of the HVLT. Our results suggest no detectable HS deficits were found in FENT schizophrenia patients. However, the HSs may be involved in the symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia patients in the early phase of their illness.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939593

RESUMO

Pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food and environment pose a threat to human health, and a rapid, super-sensitive, accurate and cost-effective analysis technique is therefore highly required to overcome the disadvantages of conventional techniques based on mass spectrometry. Recently, the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique emerges as a potential promising analytical tool for rapid, sensitive and selective detections of environmental pollutants, mostly owing to its possible simplified sample pretreatment, gigantic detectable signal amplification and quick target analyte identification via finger-printing SERS spectra. So theoretically the SERS detection technology has inherent advantages over other competitors especially in complex environmental matrices. The progress in nanostructure SERS substrates and portable Raman appliances will promote this novel detection technology to play an important role in future rapid on-site assay. This paper reviews the advances in nanostructure-based SERS substrates, sensors and relevant portable integrated systems for environmental analysis, highlights the potential applications in the detections of synthetic chemicals such as pesticide and veterinary drug residues, and also discusses the challenges of SERS detection technique for actual environmental monitoring in the future.

18.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical value of image fusion of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in the diagnosis of invisible lesions with a size ≤2 cm on conventional ultrasound imaging, and compare it with the clinical value of "first CEUS" . METHODS: A total of 132 patients with 147 lesions with abnormal blood supply with a size ≤2 cm on CECT were included in this study. "first CEUS" was performed for these lesions. Then "fusion CEUS," that is, CEUS administered after fusion of US and CECT images, was carried out. The detection rates of the "first CEUS" and "fusion CEUS" were compared. How "fusion CEUS" corrects the misdiagnosis of liver lesions on CECT was analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred nine lesions considered as HCC and 38 lesions considered as benign lesions on CECT were included. The detection rates for the lesions of "first CEUS" and "fusion CEUS" were 71.4% and 96.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). Among the 147 lesions, 68 were with a diameter ≤ 1 cm. The detection rate of "first CEUS" and "fusion CEUS" were 55.9% and 95.6%, respectively (P < 0.001) for the lesions with a size ≤1 cm. "Fusion CEUS" and "first CEUS" corrected the misdiagnosis in 2 lesions on CECT. CONCLUSION: The "first CEUS" and "fusion CEUS" can improve the lesion conspicuity. Compared with "first CEUS," "fusion CEUS" has a higher diagnostic ability and hence can detect most of the invisible lesions on the former.

19.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; : e2754, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is core feature of schizophrenia. The impact of antipsychotics on cognition remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the effects of long-term use of different types of antipsychotics on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We used the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) to assess the cognition of three groups of schizophrenia patients (318 on clozapine, 125 on risperidone, and 166 on typical antipsychotic drugs) and 399 healthy controls, and used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale to assess schizophrenia symptoms of patients. RESULTS: Patients taking typical antipsychotics scored higher on the immediate memory and delayed memory index than those taking clozapine or risperidone (all p < 0.01). Patients taking clozapine scored higher on the language subscale than those taking risperidone (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that the drug type was identified as an independent contributor to the immediate memory, language, and delayed memory index of RBANS (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients taking typical antipsychotics have better memory than those taking clozapine or risperidone. Patients taking clozapine have better language function than those taking risperidone.

20.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(10): 1162-1169, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958856

RESUMO

Stem cells need to be protected from genotoxic and proteotoxic stress to maintain a healthy pool throughout life1-3. Little is known about the proteostasis mechanism that safeguards stem cells. Here we report endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) as a protein quality checkpoint that controls the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-niche interaction and determines the fate of HSCs. The SEL1L-HRD1 complex, the most conserved branch of ERAD4, is highly expressed in HSCs. Deletion of Sel1l led to niche displacement of HSCs and a complete loss of HSC identity, and allowed highly efficient donor-HSC engraftment without irradiation. Mechanistic studies identified MPL, the master regulator of HSC identity5, as a bona fide ERAD substrate that became aggregated in the endoplasmic reticulum following ERAD deficiency. Restoration of MPL signalling with an agonist partially rescued the number and reconstitution capacity of Sel1l-deficient HSCs. Our study defines ERAD as an essential proteostasis mechanism to safeguard a healthy stem cell pool by regulating the stem cell-niche interaction.

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