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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234997, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574202

RESUMO

The present study examines a broad range of longitudinal predictors of dimensional positive mental health (PMH) and negative mental health (NMH), using data from the BOOM study. Participants were drawn from university student samples in Germany (1,608), Russia (677) and China (12,057). A structural equation model was conducted with four groups of predictors and PMH/NMH as criteria (outcomes). Five of the six salutogenic predictors were predictive of both positive mental health (positively) and negative mental health, as measured by depression (negatively). Pathogenic predictors anxiety and depression were related to future depression, but not to positive mental health. Stress at baseline was related to both future positive mental health (negatively) and future depression (positively). Being male in this study was associated with increased future depression. Results hold across Germany, Russia, and China. Results support the conceptualization of positive and negative mental health as related, but independent dimensions across three cultures.

2.
Behav Ther ; 51(3): 375-385, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402254

RESUMO

Affective styles appear to be relevant to the development of psychopathology, especially anxiety disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in affective styles in patients with panic disorder and specific phobia, as a result of undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy, and to identify a possible link between certain affective styles and remission. The sample consisted of outpatients (N = 101) suffering from panic disorder, specific phobia, or agoraphobia who completed the Affective Style Questionnaire (ASQ) before and after therapy, as well as at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to test for changes due to therapy. Logistic regression analyses were calculated to test for the impact of affective styles on remission from anxiety disorders, and hierarchical regression analyses were calculated to examine the association between changes in affective styles and symptom reduction. Results indicated significant increases on the ASQ subscales adjusting and tolerating after therapy. Concealing did not decrease significantly after therapy. In addition, higher scores on adjusting significantly predicted remission from anxiety disorders. Finally, we found a significant association between increases on the adjusting scale and the reduction of anxiety symptoms.

3.
Stress Health ; 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449236

RESUMO

The present study introduces a short screening instrument for the measurement of experienced general daily stressors across different life domains that can be used in large-scale studies. The brief daily stressors screening tool (BDSST) assesses the experience of general daily stressors in eight distinct life domains. General daily stressors are indicated for the past 12-months on a five-point Likert scale. The present study evaluates the BDSST in two successive studies. The first study was conducted in a representative German sample (n = 7,849). The second study was conducted to assess one-month-retest-stability in another representative German sample (n = 1,294). The BDSST shows promising psychometric properties. It has a skewed positive distribution, internal consistency and stability are acceptable and its one-factor structure was confirmed in a bifactor confirmatory factor analysis. The BDSST is a reliable and valid short instrument for the assessment of experienced general daily stressors in large-scale studies and routine clinical practise. For in-depth clinical assessment, it can be used to identify relevant life domains for further investigation.

4.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(3): 538-541, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302281

RESUMO

The Council of Residency Directors in Emergency Medicine (CORD) Advising Students Committee in Emergency Medicine (ASC-EM) anticipates institutional and regional variability in both the spread and response to COVID-19. Travel restrictions and host institution rotation closures will impact the number of emergency medicine (EM) rotations EM-bound medical students can complete in an unprecedented manner. They may prevent students from completing any away rotations this academic cycle, challenging the students' ability to obtain EM Standardized Letters of Evaluation (SLOEs). EM's emphasis on residency group SLOEs over other letter types creates an undue burden on these vulnerable students and makes the application process intrinsically inequitable. This inequity warrants a reevaluation of the current application practice. This article outlines ASC-EM's proposed recommendations for all stakeholders, including EM program leadership, medical schools, and EM-bound medical students, to consider for the upcoming EM application cycle.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Viagem , Competência Clínica/normas , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Humanos , Política Organizacional , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Estados Unidos
5.
Int J Psychol ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253755

RESUMO

Cross-culturally measurement invariant instruments are useful for the assessment of mental symptoms across cultures. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) (DASS) across Pakistan and Germany. German participants were recruited through an online survey (N = 1323), while Pakistani participants were recruited through online survey or paper-and-pencil survey (N = 1841). The DASS-21 showed good reliability, construct and structure validity in both countries. The DASS-21 indicated partial weak (stress subscale) and partial strong measurement invariance (depression and anxiety subscales) between both countries. Latent mean comparison of depression and anxiety symptoms between Pakistani and German students indicated that Pakistani university students experience more symptoms of depression and anxiety. Results suggest that the DASS-21 could be used in Pakistan and Germany, but caution should be taken when making direct comparisons between the two countries.

6.
Cureus ; 11(8): e5456, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656708

RESUMO

Bartonella henselae is a relatively uncommon pathogen that can present as a serious disease in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of a 76-year-old man with stable chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who presented to the emergency department (ED) with an onset of right axillary lymphadenitis after recovering from a recent cat bite on the ipsilateral finger. Doppler ultrasound demonstrated an irregular, circumscribed 5cm x 4cm, hypoechoic mass with mild vascular flow consistent with an enlarged abnormal lymph node. The patient was diagnosed with cat scratch disease and discharged on oral antibiotics with spontaneous drainage of the purulent materials in subsequent outpatient oncology visits. This case highlights the classic presentation of this rare disease in an immunocompromised patient with feline contact. Early antibiotics should be considered for at-risk and immunocompromised patients due to low sensitivity and specificity for Bartonella serologic tests. CLL can also present with similar progressive lymphadenopathy with severe systemic symptoms and extranodal involvement that requires emergent oncologic interventions and diagnostic vigilance.

7.
Cureus ; 11(5): e4652, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312577

RESUMO

Cryptococcal meningitis is a systemic infection that can be seen in immunosuppressed patients. Altered mental status, somnolence, and obtundation are warning signs of poor prognosis or advanced disease processes. We present a 23-year-old female with a past medical history significant for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) obtained via vertical transmission who presented to the emergency department (ED) with a gradual onset of worsening headache over 10 days, with blurry vision, photophobia, nausea and vomiting, and progressive memory lapses. Her blood tests, chest plain radiograph, and non-contrast brain computed tomography (CT) were normal. In the ED, she developed a fever of 102°F and became more confused and agitated, with interspersed screaming and yelling. A lumbar puncture (LP) showed elevated white blood cell count and was positive for Cryptococcus neoformans; an opening pressure was unable to be obtained due to patient agitation. Despite prompt intravenous antibiotics and antifungal medications, her short, but tenuous hospital course involved declining mental status, requiring intubation and multiple therapeutic lumbar punctures, with an elevated opening pressure of up to 55 cm H2O. The patient suffered global ischemic encephalopathy and died on hospital day two. This case highlights the rapid decompensation of a young immunocompromised patient with cryptococcal meningitis, as well as the importance of early disease management and consultation to neurology and neurosurgery services. An important paradigm difference for emergency medicine (EM) physicians in the management of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with cryptococcal meningitis is avoiding acetazolamide, mannitol, and steroids and considering the indication for neurosurgical interventions for severe cryptococcal meningitis.

9.
Cureus ; 11(4): e4451, 2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205837

RESUMO

Introduction Previous studies have shown that risk attitudes and tolerance for uncertainty are significant factors in clinical decision-making, particularly in the practice of defensive medicine. These attributes have also been linked with rates of physician burnout. To date, the risk profile of emergency medicine (EM) physicians has not yet been described. Our goal was to examine the risk profile of EM residents using a widely available risk tolerance and attitude assessment tool. Methods First-, second-, and third-year residents of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital's EM residency program completed the commercially available, unmodified Risk Type Compass, a validated instrument offered by Multi-Health Systems (MHS Inc, New York, USA). Scored reports included information on residents' risk type (one of eight personality types that reflect their temperament and disposition); risk attitudes (domains where residents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors); and an overall risk tolerance indicator (RTi) (a numerical estimate of risk tolerance). RTi scores are reported as means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results There was no significant change in RTi scores in residents across different years of their post-graduate year (PGY) training. PGY-one residents trended towards risk aversion; PGY-two residents were more risk-taking; and PGY-three residents scored in the middle. Conclusion Our pilot assessment of risk types in EM residents highlighted shifts across the years of training. Variations between members of each PGY cohort outweighed any outright differences between classes with regards to absolute risk tolerance. There was an increase in the frequency of health and safety risk-taking attitude with higher PGY class, and this was also the risk attitude that was the prominent domain for resident risk tolerance. The study was limited by sample size and single cross-sectional evaluation.

10.
Cureus ; 11(4): e4372, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218137

RESUMO

Timely feedback is critical in promoting learner self-reflection. When provided effectively, feedback can assist learners with the acquisition of new skills and knowledge in the ever-changing and complex landscape of healthcare. While the literature is replete on methods to provide feedback, faculty and supervisors receive little, if any, training on writing constructive feedback. Abbreviated comments (i.e., 'good job' or 'read more') provide little information on specific behaviors learners can change. As an avid food enthusiast and restaurant reviewer, I, too, am met with the challenge of writing a meaningful, constructive review (or evaluation) of a dining experience. To better assist clinical preceptors and supervisors with writing formative, constructive student evaluations, we have aggregated, reviewed, and adapted five lessons from writing food and restaurant reviews in writing a five-star student review.

11.
Cureus ; 11(2): e4014, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31007972

RESUMO

Medical errors are the eighth leading cause of mortality in the United States and contribute to over one million preventable injuries. In an effort to prevent medical errors, reporting systems serve as invaluable tools to detect patient safety events and quality problems longitudinally. Historically, trainees (i.e., students and residents) rarely submit incident reports for encountered patient safety threats. The authors propose an immersive learning experience utilizing gamification theory and leveraging the increasingly popular 'escape room' to help resident trainees identify reportable patient safety priorities. All 130 incoming intern physicians at the Thomas Jefferson University (Jefferson) were enrolled in the Patient Safety Escape Room study as part of their residency orientation (June 2018). The residents were randomly divided into 16 teams. Each team was immersed in a simulated escape room, tasked with identifying a predetermined set of serious patient safety hazards, and successfully manually entering them into the Jefferson Event Reporting System within the time allotted to successfully 'win the game' by 'escaping the room'. Quick response (QR) codes were planted throughout the activity to provide in-game instructions; clues to solve the puzzle; and key information about patient safety priorities at Jefferson. All participants underwent a formal debriefing using the feedback capture grid method and completed a voluntary post-study survey, adapted from Brookfield's Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ). The study was IRB exempt. Thematic analysis of the post-activity CIQ survey (n = 102) revealed that interns were engaged during the immersive learning experience (n = 42) and were specifically engaged by having to independently identify patient safety threats (n = 30). Participants identified team role assignment (n = 52) and effective communication (n = 26) as the two most helpful actions needed to successfully complete the activity. Participants were overall surprised by the success of the education innovation (n = 45) and reported that it changed how they viewed patient safety threats. Areas for improvement include clearer game instructions and using a more streamlined event reporting process. The escape room patient-safety activity allowed interns to actively engage in an innovative orientation activity that highlighted the importance of patient safety hazards, as well as providing them with the opportunity to document event reports in real-time. Next steps will include longitudinally tracking the quantity of error reports entered by this cohort to determine the effectiveness of this educational intervention.

12.
J Emerg Med ; 56(4): 413-416, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute infarctions of the spinal cord are rare events characterized by sudden paralysis or sensory deficits below the level of injury. Etiologies include spinal cord trauma, vascular injury, arterial dissection, thromboembolic disease, chronic inflammatory conditions, or mass effect on the spinal cord. CASE REPORT: A 63-year-old male presented to the emergency department with sudden-onset bilateral leg numbness and weakness. His physical examination was notable for decreased light touch and temperature sensation and bilateral lower-extremity paresis. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his spine did not show cord injuries. Computed tomography angiography of his chest, abdomen, and pelvis demonstrated a 7.5-cm non-ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) extending into bilateral iliac arteries. The patient was diagnosed with clinical spinal cord infarction secondary to a thromboembolic event from his AAA. A repeat MRI 15 h later showed spinal cord infarction from T8 down to the conus. He received an endovascular aortic repair and was ultimately discharged to rehabilitation with slightly improved lower-extremity strength. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Atraumatic cord syndrome is exceedingly rare and is associated with dissection or complication of aortic aneurysm repair. There are very few reported cases of thrombotic events leading to ischemic cord syndrome. When presented with a patient with symptoms consistent with cord syndrome in the absence of trauma or mass effect on the spinal cord, providers should work up for vascular etiology.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Infarto/etiologia , Paralisia/etiologia , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medula Espinal/irrigação sanguínea , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
13.
J Affect Disord ; 248: 147-154, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetarianism is linked with better physical health, but also to increased anxiety and depression. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between vegetarianism and both positive and negative mental health, across cultures and over time. METHOD: Self-report questionnaire data were obtained from a large-scale multi-national cross-sectional sample including 2007 representative adult members of the German population, 3020 representative adults from Russia, and 3038 representative adults from the USA. Participants for the longitudinal analyses include university students from Germany (1608) and China (12,744). Statistical models included multiple linear regression, longitudinal linear models and longitudinal logistic models. RESULTS: Vegetarianism diet is not reliably related to positive or negative mental health in US and Russian representative samples or in German representative or student samples. Vegetarianism is related to slight increases over time in anxiety and depression in Chinese students. CONCLUSIONS: Vegetarianism is not associated with mental health in the US, Russia, or Germany, but is associated with anxiety and depression in China in this study. Future studies should examine the nuances of vegetarianism in more detail and their links with mental health, including dietary composition and cultural beliefs and economic circumstances. Future researchers in this area may also want to consider the effects of experimental manipulation of diet on mental health outcomes over time.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Dieta Vegetariana/etnologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Psychol Rep ; 122(6): 2074-2095, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While stress is generally well established to be predictive for different indicators of mental health, little is known about the longitudinal effects of daily life stressors and the role of self-evaluation factors. We tested whether perceived general self-efficacy is a mediator for the association between daily life stressors and psychopathological symptoms as well as subjective well-being. METHODS: Data derived from 2160 Chinese university students was assessed at three time points with one-year intervals. We used the Brief Daily Stressor Screening, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Positive Mental Health Scale, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. Total, direct, and indirect effects were estimated using 95% bootstrapped confidence intervals and structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Latent variable mediation analyses showed that daily stressors were associated with increased symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress and with decreased subjective well-being. All cross-lagged mediational paths via self-efficacy were significant in predicting positive and negative mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Considering stress of daily life as well as including the two dimensions of mental health may be important for future research and practice. This study provides novel evidence for mediating stress effects by perceived self-efficacy, which should be focused in intervention- and prevention-based approaches.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
MedEdPORTAL ; 15: 10868, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342008

RESUMO

Introduction: Although residents are on the front lines of patient care, they enter few formal patient safety reports on the adverse events and near misses they witness. Demonstrating the rationale and mechanics of reporting may improve this. Methods: We designed and implemented an escape room patient safety simulation to incorporate active learning, gamification, and adult learning theory into intern patient safety onboarding. Interns from all sponsoring institution programs participated, identifying, mitigating, and reporting a range of patient safety hazards. Props and faculty time were the major resources required. Results: One hundred twenty interns participated in this simulation in June 2018. Forty-one percent reported previous training on reporting errors, and only 5% had previously entered an event report. Average confidence in ability to identify patient safety hazards improved after the simulation from 6.35 to 8.00 on a 10-point rating scale. The simulation was rated as relevant or highly relevant to practice by 96% of interns. Discussion: Several factors contribute to a low error-reporting rate among house staff. We developed a simulation modeled on popular escape room activities to increase awareness of safety hazards and ensure familiarity with the actual online reporting system our interns will use in the clinical environment.

16.
Adv Simul (Lond) ; 3: 19, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305937

RESUMO

Resuscitative hysterotomy is a daunting and rarely performed procedure in the emergency department (ED). Given the paucity of clinical exposure to this intervention, resuscitative hysterotomy is an ideal opportunity for simulation-mediated deliberate practice. The authors propose a novel training program using a homegrown, realistic, simulation device as a means to practice resuscitative hysterotomy. Two high-fidelity, tissue-based task-trainer models were constructed and tested on a convenience sample of 14 emergency medicine (EM) residents. The simulated human placenta, bladder, amniotic sac, and uterus were constructed through the use of porcine skin, porcine stomach, transparent plastic bag, Foley tubing, and squid mantle, all secured with nylon sutures. A Gaumard S500 Articulating Newborn was inserted in the simulated uterus, and the entire model was placed into a Gaumard S500 Childbirth Simulator. Each model required less than 1 h for assembly. Emergent hysterotomy was first demonstrated by an EM faculty facilitator, followed by hands-on deliberate practice. Formal feedback on the learners' self-reported confidence and satisfaction levels was solicited at the end of the workshop through a survey previously cited for use with a low-fidelity resuscitative hysterotomy. Quantitative evaluation of the simulated training session was extracted through a 5-item questionnaire using a 5-point Likert-type scale (i.e., from 1, strongly disagree, to 5, strongly agree). Item scores were added for a cumulative total score, with a possible maximum score of 25 and minimum score of 5. Responses were overwhelmingly positive [24.13 (± 1.36)]. Qualitative feedback was extracted from the survey through open-ended questions; these responses highlighted learners' appreciation for hands-on practice and the development of a novel, tissue-based simulation task trainer. All participants recommended the training session be available to future learners. Resuscitative hysterotomy is a high-stakes, low-frequency procedure that demands provider practice and confidence. Our hybrid, tissue-based hysterotomy model represents a feasible opportunity for training. The model is cost conscious, easily reproducible, and portable and allows for ample deliberate practice.

17.
Cureus ; 10(8): e3094, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324047

RESUMO

Healthcare costs in the United States have skyrocketed over the past decade, contributing to an estimated $750 billion in wasteful spending annually. Despite the demand to improve residency education on value-based, cost-conscious healthcare, there is no consensus on how to best teach this practice. Traditional lectures have failed to demonstrate enduring change in clinical practice patterns, provider attitudes, and reductions in hospital expenditures. We sought to evaluate whether gamification is an effective pedagogical tool to teach cost-consciousness to emergency medicine (EM) residents by creating a 60-minute interactive session based on the popular gameshow, the Price is Right. Costs and associated charges for common laboratory tests, radiographic studies, medications, and common physical resources typically found in the emergency department (ED) were first obtained through direct communication with the ED clinical director and hospital leadership. The session itself consisted of three phases with several Price-is-Right-themed games, which included realistic visual stimuli reminiscent of the gameshow that were created by the authors using the PowerPoint. Formal quantitative and qualitative feedback was solicited at the end of the session. Quantitative evaluation of the educational intervention was obtained through a 22-item questionnaire using a five-point Likert-type scale from 19 of the 22 enrolled residents (86% response rate). Responses were generally very positive with an overall course rating score of 4.16 (SD +/- 0.90). Qualitative feedback identified learners' predilection for gamified delivery of nonclinical content during conference. The majority of residents (89%) recommend the activity to be used in subsequent offerings to other learners. With healthcare costs on the rise, our feasibility study demonstrated that gamification is an effective way to teach mindful, cost-conscious care to EM residents. Gamification offers a fun and engaging alternative that should be further utilized in EM educational formats. Future studies are needed to longitudinally assess the learner retention and cost-containment practices.

18.
Cureus ; 10(7): e2984, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237945

RESUMO

Neurosyphilis is a dangerous and increasingly more prevalent sexually transmitted infection of the central nervous system caused by the bacterium Treponemapallidum that can present during the advanced stages of the disease (tertiary syphilis). Health care providers must remain vigilant in screening for syphilis in patients with high-risk behaviors as a delay in diagnosis and treatment may lead to symptom progression and debilitating sequelae years later. To date, there have been no published simulation case studies on neurosyphilis. This simulation case, based on a real patient encounter, is written for emergency medicine residents to diagnose and manage a patient presenting with the sequelae of neurosyphilis. This case was run for four separate iterations at a simulation center with two residents and an attending physician acting as confederates. Following the case, learners were provided with bedside debriefing, and a question and answer session. Based on post-simulation qualitative assessment, junior residents alone were less likely to perform a comprehensive integumentary exam without the presence of senior residents, although both groups failed to elicit pertinent sexual history until they discovered syphilitic lesions. After case completion and debriefing, all learners were able to demonstrate the understanding of the primary learning objectives.

19.
Cureus ; 10(5): e2683, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050738

RESUMO

Publishing a manuscript in an academic journal represents more than just 'promotional currency.' It provides the opportunity to provoke debate, share your experiences, and challenge the status quo on provider practices. Writing a manuscript relies on collaboration and shared responsibility from a research team, which can often challenge mentors as they supervise and guide its development. While there are numerous online resources and peer-reviewed journal articles on 'How to write a scientific article,' we aim to tackle an even larger and overarching theme that transcends specific journal categories, writing styles, and citation formatting. In order to guide new researchers in navigating the expansive ocean of scientific publications, we collected, reviewed, and revised 11 tips based on multiple focus-group discussions with junior and senior researchers to determine common barriers for publishing manuscript. The goal is to help mentors and mentees navigate the research and publication processes. The tips include: 1) recognizing leadership styles; 2) initiating the groundwork; 3) establishing backup plans; 4) making a deadline; 5) courting the editor; 6) determining authorship; 7) finding personal incentives; 8) writing what you know; 9) sharing with caution; 10) following directions; and 11) Consider open-access journals.

20.
Cureus ; 10(4): e2543, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963337

RESUMO

Simulation has become a standard training method in emergency medicine (EM). Specifically, post-simulation debriefings offer participants the opportunity for reflection while exposing their knowledge and practice gaps. The educational yield of these debriefings, however, is contingent on the debriefer's skills. Without professional development, faculty and educators may not be equipped with supportive debriefing strategies. We propose the Six Thinking Hats (6TH), originally developed by Edward de Bono (1970) as a debriefing framework to support effective, high-yield debriefing conversations. The six colored hats represent six unique approaches to critical thinking. The white hat represents the facts; the green hat, creativity and next steps; the yellow hat, benefits/optimism; the red hat, emotions; the black hat, judgments; and the blue hat, facilitation. Four junior faculty members underwent a one-hour didactic and one-hour immersive workshop on the 6TH. Two simulation cases were randomly selected from archived simulation cases, which were used for the debriefing process. Each team consisted of one EM resident and one EM faculty. After each simulated case, the facilitator introduced the 6TH at the start of the debriefing, explaining the rules of engagement and the general sequence of hats to be used. Physical hats were worn by the facilitator at the beginning of the session and changed throughout stages of the debriefing, to remind participants of the type of thinking that was taking place at any given time. Participants who were provided with a colored hat prompt that physically described the type of thinking being employed throughout stages of the debriefing were better able to stay within that respective thinking frame during the discussion, compared to participants who were not provided this visual prompt. Participants of both simulation sessions agreed that the 6TH debriefing style was successful in creating a non-judgmental, comfortable environment that supported open discussion. The 6TH has the potential to be adopted as a debriefing framework, particularly for junior faculty members without extensive debriefing training. The 6TH is intuitive and has been marked by success in the organizational psychology literature. Faculty development on the 6TH will be essential if this framework is to be used as a debriefing model for educators in health care.

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