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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 687961, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335589

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a pathology in which chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in directing the migration of alloreactive donor T cells into GVHD organs, thereby leading to further target tissue damage. Currently, acute GVHD (aGVHD) remains a major cause of high morbidity and mortality in patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). The identification of immune cells that correlate with aGVHD is important and intriguing. To date, the involvement of innate-like γδ T cells in the pathogenesis of aGVHD is unclear. Herein, we found that primary human γδ T cells did not directly trigger allogeneic reactions. Instead, we revealed that γδ T cells facilitated the migration of CD4 T cells via the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis. These results indicate indirect regulation of γδ T cells in the development of aGVHD rather than a direct mechanism. Furthermore, we showed that the expression of CXCR4 was significantly elevated in γδ T cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells in recipients who experienced grades II-IV aGVHD after alloHCT. Consistently, CXCR4-expressing γδ T cells and CD4 T cells were induced in the target organs of mice suffering aGVHD. The depletion of γδ T cells in transplant grafts and treatment with AMD3100, an inhibitor of CXCR4 signaling, delayed the onset of aGVHD and prolonged survival in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for γδ T cells in recruiting alloreactive CD4 T cells to target tissues through the expression of CXCR4. Our findings may help in understanding the mechanism of aGVHD and provide novel therapeutic targets.

2.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 5523832, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337075

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is a quickly developing, malignant cancer of the bone, which is associated with a bad prognosis. In osteosarcoma, hypoxia promotes the malignant phenotype, which results in a cascade of immunosuppressive processes, poor prognosis, and a high risk of metastasis. Nonetheless, additional methodologies for the study of hyperoxia in the tumor microenvironment also need more analysis. We obtained 88 children patients with osteosarcoma from the Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatment (TARGET) database and 53 children patients with RNA sequence and clinicopathological data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We developed a four-gene signature related to hypoxia to reflect the immune microenvironment in osteosarcoma that predicts survival. A high-risk score indicated a poor prognosis and immunosuppressive microenvironment. The presence of the four-gene signature related to hypoxia was correlated with clinical and molecular features and was an important prognostic predictor for pediatric osteosarcoma patients. In summary, we established and validated a four-gene signature related to hypoxia to forecast recovery and presented an independent prognostic predictor representing overall immune response strength within the osteosarcoma microenvironment.

3.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 7079359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337078

RESUMO

A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Asian ancestry reported that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) was associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TERT has a critical role in maintaining the chromosomal stability and the length of telomere. Given that only a small portion of the genetic heritability of SLE has been explained so far, we aimed to identify novel loci in telomere-related genes responsible for SLE susceptibility in Chinese populations. We performed a comprehensive genetic association analysis of SLE with telomere-related genes. To identify functional significance, we analyzed the publicly available HaploReg v4.1 and RegulomeDB databases. Differential gene expression analysis was also performed using ArrayExpress. A novel signal of PINX1 rs6984094 was identified (P discovery = 4.13 × 10-2, OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.98) and successfully replicated (P replication = 5.73 × 10-3, OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.81). Multiple layers of functional analysis suggested that the PINX1 rs6984094 risk T allele exhibited increased nuclear protein binding. We also observed an increased expression of PINX1 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SLE patients compared with healthy controls. Overall, we observed a novel genetic association between PINX1 (encodes the PinX1 protein, an inhibitory telomerase enzyme that lengthens telomeres) and SLE susceptibility in Chinese populations.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337672

RESUMO

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) function as molecular chaperones in multiple physiological processes and are active during thermal stress. sHSP expression is controlled by heat shock transcription factor (HSF); however, few studies have been conducted on HSF in agricultural pests. Liriomyza trifolii is an introduced insect pest of horticultural and vegetable crops in China. In this study, the master regulator, HSF1, was cloned and characterized from L. trifolii, and the expression levels of HSF1 and five sHSPs were studied during heat stress. HSF1 expression in L. trifolii generally decreased with rising temperatures, whereas expression of the five sHSPs showed an increasing trend that correlated with elevated temperatures. All five sHSPs and HSF1 showed an upward trend in expression with exposure to 40 ℃ without a recovery period. When a recovery period was incorporated after thermal stress, the expression patterns of HSF1 and sHSPs in L. trifolii exposed to 40 °C was significantly lower than expression with no recovery period. To elucidate potential interactions between HSF1 and sHSPs, double-stranded RNA was synthesized to knock down HSF1 in L. trifolii by RNA interference. The knockdown of HSF1 by RNAi decreased the survival rate and expression of HSP19.5, HSP20.8, and HSP21.3 during high-temperature stress. This study expands our understanding of HSF1-regulated gene expression in L. trifolii exposed to heat stress.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although systemic inflammation is an important feature of the cancer cachexia, studies on the association between systemic inflammation and prognostic of cancer cachexia are limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with outcome and quality of life for patients with cancer cachexia and investigated any interaction between NLR and the clinical parameters. METHODS: This is a multicentre cohort study of 2612 cancer patients suffering from cachexia diagnosed between June 2012 and December 2019. The main parameters measured were overall survival (OS) time and all-cause mortality. The association between NLR and all-cause mortality was evaluated using hazard ratios (HRs) and the restricted cubic spline model with a two-sided P-value. Optimal stratification was used to solve threshold points. We also evaluated the cross-classification of NLR for each variable of survival. RESULTS: Of the 2612 participants diagnosed with cancer cachexia, 1533 (58.7%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 58.7 (11.7) years. Over a median follow-up of 4.5 years, we observed 1189 deaths. The overall mortality rate for patients with cancer cachexia during the first 12 months was 30.2% (95%CI: 28.4%-32.0%), resulting in a rate of 226.07 events per 1000 patient-years. An increase in NLR had an inverted L-shaped dose-response association with all-cause mortality. The optimal cut-off point for NLR as a predictor of mortality in cancer patients with cachexia was 3.5. An NLR of 3.5 or greater could independently predict OS (HR, 1.51, 95%CI: 1.33-1.71). These associations were consistent across subtypes of cancer. Several potential effect modifiers were identified including gender, BMI, tumour type, KPS score and albumin in content. Increasing NLRs were independently associated with a worsening in the majority of EORTC QLQ-C30 domains. Elevated baseline NLR was associated with low response and poor survival in patients treated with immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The baseline NLR status was found to be a significant negative prognostic biomarker for patients with cachexia; this effect was independent of other known prognostic factors.

6.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131329, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198061

RESUMO

Cu(II) is generally considered to be a poor activator for PMS decomposition, thus the potential impact of trace Cu(II) on PMS induced oxidation of typical pollutants is always overlooked. In this study, we reported that trace Cu(II) could significantly promote PMS induced degradation of four selected sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs), namely, sulfamehoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMZ), and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM). Different from conventional PMS-induced oxidation process, high-valent Cu(III) was ascertained as the primary reactive intermediate for SAs degradation, which was confirmed by raman tests and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). High concentrations of Cu(II) or PMS were beneficial to degradation of the selected contaminants. In PMS/Cu(II) oxidation system, all the selected SAs could undergo several different degradation pathways including continuous oxidation of aniline group, hydroxylation and S-N bond cleavage. In particular, for six-membered SAs, such as SMZ and SMM, a SO2 extrusion pathway was also detected. The potential mechanism for Cu(III) formation was also proposed, which was believed to be highly related to the nature of the SAs. Hydroxylamine-SAs (N4-OH-SAs), generated from direct PMS oxidation of SAs, was deduced as the "promoter" for the whole oxidation process. And the generation of Cu(III) was likely to proceed through the interaction between PMS and Cu(I), which possibly derived from the reduction of Cu(II) by N4-OH-SAs. The results obtained in this study validated the contribution of Cu(III) to the elimination of pollutants and expanded our understanding of the oxidation process of PMS in the presence of trace amounts of Cu(II).

7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3348-3357, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212660

RESUMO

Protein-like dissolved organic matter (pDOM), which is ubiquitous in natural waters, is a critical precursor of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts. Recently, the control and elimination of pDOM have been a growing concern during drinking water treatment processes. In this study, a high-performance size exclusion chromatography system coupled with photo-diode array, fluorescence detector, and online organic carbon detector (HPSEC-PDA/FLD/OCD) was used to determine the removal behaviors of different-sized pDOM from two full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Coagulation and activated carbon adsorption were selected for bench-scale experiments to further assess the removal behavior of pDOM during conventional water treatment processes. The results showed that different-sized pDOM fractions exhibited different removal characteristics. Pre-oxidation can effectively remove some tyrosine-like and tryptophan-like components with high MW, and as the oxidization effect was enhanced, more high MW fractions decomposed into low MW ones. Conversely, some aliphatic pDOM fractions in high MW (e.g., aliphatic proteins) were not subject to pre-oxidation removal. The coagulation-sedimentation unit was efficient in removing high MW fractions, specifically tryptophan-like fractions. Additionally, some pDOM components may be released during coagulation. pDOM with low MW and high hydrophobicity were easily removed during activated carbon filtration. However, long-term operation of the activated carbon filter may breed microorganisms, resulting in the partial release of pDOM fractions. Moreover, UV disinfection processes promoted the degradation of low MW pDOM components. Due to the complex water quality and uncontrollable microbial activities, the aforementioned water treatment units did not exhibit a synergistic effect on pDOM removal. In comparison with humic-like substances, pDOM was susceptible to water quality changes, and its removal was limited in the surveyed DWTPs. Therefore, DWTPs must strengthen pDOM monitoring in influent and effluent and adjust the operating parameters of different treatment units in a timely manner. Moreover, the combination of advanced water treatment processes, such as ozone-biological activated carbon process and nanofiltration, should also be considered to strictly control pDOM component removal.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Filtração , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131340, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216923

RESUMO

Strobilurin fungicides are widely used pesticides in the world. They can have toxic effects not only to target organisms, but also to nontarget organisms. To assess their ecological risk, species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are required for the development of water quality criteria (WQC). In this paper, the acute toxicity of four methoxyacrylate fungicides were experimentally determined and evaluated at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h for the species of Rana chensinensis and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, respectively. Acute and chronic HC5 (5% hazard concentration) values and WQC values were calculated from SSDs based on the toxicity values determined in this paper and compiled from literature. SSDs revealed that aquatic animals were relatively sensitive species and aquatic plants are insensitive species for the four fungicides. However, different orders of species sensitivity in the acute and chronic toxicity indicated that these four fungicides had different toxic mechanisms or mode of action (MOA) to different species. According to toxicity correlation and principal component analysis (PCA), the kresoxim-methyl toxicity was very close to trifloxystrobin as compared with others due to that they are neutral compounds with very similar physicochemical properties. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) revealed that toxicity of strobilurin fungicides were dependent both on chemical hydrophobicity and hydrogen bond basicity. These two molecular descriptors reflect the bio-uptake process and interaction of compounds with target receptors in an organism. WQC values and interspecies correlation are valuable for assessing water quality and understanding toxic mechanisms to different species.

9.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic thyroidectomy is widely performed as it does not result in neck scar. However, there is a paucity of reports pertaining to completely endoscopic lateral neck dissection (LND). In this study, we introduce our step-wise approach for performing endoscopic selective LND via the chest-breast approach. We refer to this approach as Qin's seven steps. METHODS: The Qin's seven steps are: (1) establishment of working space range; (2) dissection of lymph nodes between the SCM and the sternohyoid muscle (level IV) and exposure of omohyoid; (3) dissection of lymph nodes at level IV; (4) dissection of lymph nodes at level III; (5) dissection of lymph nodes at carotid triangle (level III); (6) exposure of accessory nerve and dissection of lymph nodes at level II a; (7) dissection of lymph nodes at level II b. We reviewed the clinical data of 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) who were operated using the Qin's seven steps. RESULTS: All 35 patients successfully underwent LND; bilateral LND was performed in 5 patients. The mean tumor size was 1.8 ± 1.0 cm; seven patients had multiple lesions. The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes in level II, III and IV were 8.8 ± 5.6, 6.1 ± 4.0 and 9.3 ± 5.1, respectively. As for complications, there were 3 cases of accessory nerve injury and 1 case of hypoglossal nerve injury. Internal jugular vein injury, cervical plexus injury and lymphatic leakage occurred in 2, 7, and 1 patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Qin's seven steps for performing endoscopic selective LND could be safely used in PTC patients with lateral lymph node metastasis. Satisfactory results were achieved in the short-term follow-up period. We recommend the use of Qin's seven steps for PTC patients who are not desirous of neck scar.

10.
Hepatology ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease without any FDA-approved pharmacological intervention in clinic. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is one of the most attractive targets for NAFLD treatment because of its robust rate-limiting capacity to control hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL). However, the regulatory mechanisms of FASN in NAFLD and potential therapeutic strategies targeting FASN remain largely unknown. METHODS & RESULTS: Through a systematic interactomics analysis of FASN-complex proteins, we screened and identified sorting nexin 8 (SNX8) as a new binding partner of FASN. SNX8 directly bound to FASN and promoted FASN ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. We further demonstrated that SNX8 mediated FASN protein degradation by recruiting the E3 ligase tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) and enhancing the TRIM28-FASN interaction. Notably, Snx8 interference in hepatocytes significantly deteriorated lipid accumulation in vitro, whereas SNX8 overexpression markedly blocked hepatocyte lipid deposition. Furthermore, the aggravative effect of Snx8 deletion on NAFLD was validated in vivo, as hepatic steatosis and lipogenic pathways in the liver were significantly exacerbated in Snx8-knockout mice compared to wild-type controls. Consistently, hepatocyte-specific overexpression of Snx8 in vivo markedly suppressed HFHC-induced hepatic steatosis. Notably, the protective effect of SNX8 against NAFLD was largely dependent on FASN suppression. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that SNX8 is a key suppressor of NAFLD that promotes FASN proteasomal degradation. Targeting the SNX8-FASN axis is a promising novel strategy for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

11.
Pharmacology ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) remains a common cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Medical intervention plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of PPH. Prostaglandins (PGs) are currently recommended as second-line uterotonics, which are applied in cases of persistent bleeding despite oxytocin treatment. SUMMARY: PG agents that are constantly used in clinical practice include carboprost, sulprostone, and misoprostol, representing the analogs of PGF2α, PGE2, and PGE1, respectively. Injectable PGs, when used to treat PPH, are effective in reducing blood loss but probably induce cardiovascular or respiratory side effects. Misoprostol is characterized by oral administration, low cost, stability in storage, broad availability, and minimal side effects. It remains a treatment option for uterine atony in low-resource settings, but its effectiveness as a uterotonic for independent application may be limited. Key Messages: The present review article discusses the physiological roles of various natural PGs, evaluates the existing evidence of PG analogs in the prevention and treatment of PPH, and finally provides a reference to assist obstetricians in selecting appropriate uterotonics.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239051

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare clinical outcomes between noninherited maternal antigen (NIMA)-mismatched and noninherited paternal antigen (NIPA)-mismatched haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) among patients with hematological malignancies and perform a subgroup analysis. We retrospectively analyzed 378 patients with hematological malignancies who received haplo-HSCT from NIMA-mismatched (n = 201) and NIPA-mismatched (n = 177) donors between January 2012 and December 2017. The cumulative incidence of 100-d grades II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (19.2% vs. 32.8%, P = 0.003) was significantly lower in NIMA mismatch. Multivariate analysis showed that NIMA mismatch was associated with lower incidence of grades II-IV aGVHD and better overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). According to the subgroup analysis, the clinical outcomes of older and/or female NIMA mismatches were comparable to those of younger and/or male NIPA mismatches with respect to grades II-IV aGVHD, chronic GVHD (cGVHD), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, DFS, and OS. In conclusion, this study confirmed the NIMA effect on aGVHD and demonstrated that NIMA mismatch was associated with better survival. In the NIMA mismatch context, donor age and sex did not seem to influence haplo-HSCT, which provides a basis for the selection of sibling donors.

13.
Cell Res ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239070

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a prevalent and highly lethal form of glioma, with rapid tumor progression and frequent recurrence. Excessive outgrowth of pericytes in GBM governs the ecology of the perivascular niche, but their function in mediating chemoresistance has not been fully explored. Herein, we uncovered that pericytes potentiate DNA damage repair (DDR) in GBM cells residing in the perivascular niche, which induces temozolomide (TMZ) chemoresistance. We found that increased pericyte proportion correlates with accelerated tumor recurrence and worse prognosis. Genetic depletion of pericytes in GBM xenografts enhances TMZ-induced cytotoxicity and prolongs survival of tumor-bearing mice. Mechanistically, C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) secreted by pericytes activates C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) on GBM cells to enable DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)-mediated DDR upon TMZ treatment. Disrupting CCL5-CCR5 paracrine signaling through the brain-penetrable CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) potently inhibits pericyte-promoted DDR and effectively improves the chemotherapeutic efficacy of TMZ. GBM patient-derived xenografts with high CCL5 expression benefit from combined treatment with TMZ and MVC. Our study reveals the role of pericytes as an extrinsic stimulator potentiating DDR signaling in GBM cells and suggests that targeting CCL5-CCR5 signaling could be an effective therapeutic strategy to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy against GBM.

14.
J Chem Phys ; 154(23): 234505, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241277

RESUMO

Nitrogen and water are very abundant in nature; however, the way they chemically react at extreme pressure-temperature conditions is unknown. Below 6 GPa, they have been reported to form clathrate compounds. Here, we present Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies in the H2O-N2 system at high pressures up to 140 GPa. We find that clathrates, which form locally in our diamond cell experiments above 0.3 GPa, transform into a fine grained state above 6 GPa, while there is no sign of formation of mixed compounds. We point out size effects in fine grained crystallites, which result in peculiar Raman spectra in the molecular regime, but x-ray diffraction shows no additional phase or deviation from the bulk behavior of familiar solid phases. Moreover, we find no sign of ice doping by nitrogen, even in the regimes of stability of nonmolecular nitrogen.

15.
Mar Drugs ; 19(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205503

RESUMO

Microbial oligosaccharides have been regarded as one of the most appealing natural products attributable to their potent and selective bioactivities, such as antimicrobial activity, inhibition of α-glucosidases and lipase, interference of cellular recognition and signal transduction, and disruption of cell wall biosynthesis. Accordingly, a handful of bioactive oligosaccharides have been developed for the treatment of bacterial infections and type II diabetes mellitus. Given that naturally occurring oligosaccharides have increasingly gained recognition in recent years, a comprehensive review is needed. The current review highlights the chemical structures, biological activities and divergent biosynthetic origins of three subgroups of oligomers including the acarviosine-containing oligosaccharides, saccharomicins, and orthosomycins.

16.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207786

RESUMO

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling system is involved in a variety of physiological functions, including the control of cognition, reward, learning, memory, and vasoconstriction in vertebrates. Contrary to the extensive studies in the mammalian system, little is known about the molecular characteristics of the avian serotonin signaling network. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA of three serotonin receptor genes (HTR1B, HTR1E and HTR1F) in chicken pituitaries. Synteny analyses indicated that HTR1B, HTR1E and HTR1F were highly conserved across vertebrates. Cell-based luciferase reporter assays showed that the three chicken HTRs were functional, capable of binding their natural ligands (5-HT) or selective agonists (CP94253, BRL54443, and LY344864) and inhibiting intracellular cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, activation of these receptors could stimulate the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that HTR1B, HTR1E and HTR1F were primarily expressed in various brain regions and the pituitary. In cultured chicken pituitary cells, we found that LY344864 could significantly inhibit the secretion of PRL stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or forskolin, revealing that HTR1F might be involved in the release of prolactin in chicken. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanism and facilitate a better understanding of the serotonergic modulation via HTR1B, HTR1E and HTR1F in avian species.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233057

RESUMO

Immunogenic cell death (ICD)-associated immunogenicity evoked through reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an efficient way to fight against the immune-dysfunctional microenvironment, so as to provoke potent anti-tumor immunity. However, the unknown ROS dose during cancer therapies may induce adverse immune responses (e.g., insufficient ICD, toxicity toward normal tissues or immune system). Herein, we developed a novel cyclic amplification method for an organic afterglow nanoreporter for the real-time visualization of self-generated ROS. First, we promoted semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (PFODBT) as a novel candidate for emitting near-infrared afterglow luminescence. Second, the introduction of a chemiluminescent substrate (CPPO) into PFODBT (PFODBT@CPPO) resulted in a significant enhancement of afterglow intensity through the dual cyclic amplification pathway involving singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). Third, 1 O 2 produced by PFODBT@CPPO induced cancer cell necrosis and promoted the release of damage-related molecular patterns, thereby evoking ICD-associated immune responses through ROS-based oxidative stress. Notably, the afterglow luminescent signals of the nanoreporter were well correlated with light-driven 1 O 2 generation and anti-cancer efficiency, respectively. Overall, our imaging strategy provided a non-invasive tool for predicting the degree of ICD that occurs during ROS-mediated cancer therapy, which may contribute to precise immunotherapy.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329732

RESUMO

Catheter ablation (CA) has become mainstay therapy for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), with pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) the most frequently used treatment strategy. Although several energy sources have been tested (including radiofrequency, cryothermal and laser), these are not devoid of safety issues and in many instances effectiveness is dependent on operator experience. Pulsed field ablation (PFA) is a novel energy source by which high-voltage electric pulses are used to create pores in the cellular membrane (i.e., electroporation), leading to cellular death. The amount of energy required to produce irreversible electroporation is highly tissue-dependent, and as such a tailored protocol in which specific targeting of the atrial myocardium is achieved while sparing adjacent tissues is feasible, theoretically increasing the safety of the procedure. While large scale clinical trials are lacking, current clinical evidence has demonstrated significant efficacy in achieving durable PVI without ablation related adverse events.

19.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331478

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered as an external factor that induces atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although miR-155 is known to be involved in cardiovascular disease, whether it is involved in PAH-induced arteriosclerosis remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of PAHs on vascularization, permeability, and miR-155 expression in HUVECs. We found that PAHs-induced sclerosis of HUVECs was characterized by increasing permeability, decreasing proliferation, and vascular lumen number. The expression of miR-155 was upregulated by PAHs treatment, and transfection with miR-155 inhibitor could reverse above effect of PAHs-induced sclerosis. Meanwhile, transcriptome sequencing revealed that 63 genes were downregulated in the group of PAHs treatment alone, and were then upregulated in the miR-155 inhibitor group. These genes were mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, TNF signaling pathway, and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. Among these 63 genes, SERPIND1 was directly targeted and regulated by miR-155. Further in vivo experiments in ApoE-/-mice confirmed that PAH accelerates the development of arteriosclerosis by promoting the expression of miR-155 to downregulate the SERPIND1. Therefore, PAH exaggerates atherosclerosis by activating miR-155-dependent endothelial injury. This study provides a fundamental insight on the miR-155 mechanism for PAHs enhancing atherosclerosis and miR-155 potentially serving as a novel drug target.

20.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 160: 97-110, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216608

RESUMO

Angiotensin II (Ang II) presents a critical mediator in various pathological conditions such as non-genetic cardiomyopathy. Osmotic pump infusion in rodents is a commonly used approach to model cardiomyopathy associated with Ang II. However, profound differences in electrophysiology and pharmacokinetics between rodent and human cardiomyocytes may limit predictability of animal-based experiments. This study investigates the application of an Organ-on-a-chip (OOC) system in modeling Ang II-induced progressive cardiomyopathy. The disease model is constructed to recapitulate myocardial response to Ang II in a temporal manner. The long-term tissue cultivation and non-invasive functional readouts enable monitoring of both acute and chronic cardiac responses to Ang II stimulation. Along with mapping of cytokine secretion and proteomic profiles, this model presents an opportunity to quantitatively measure the dynamic pathological changes that could not be otherwise identified in animals. Further, we present this model as a testbed to evaluate compounds that target Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling. Through assessing the effects of losartan, relaxin, and saracatinib, the drug screening data implicated multifaceted cardioprotective effects of relaxin in restoring contractile function and reducing fibrotic remodeling. Overall, this study provides a controllable platform where cardiac activities can be explicitly observed and tested over the pathological process. The facile and high-content screening can facilitate the evaluation of potential drug candidates in the pre-clinical stage.

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