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1.
Global Health ; 18(1): 97, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past few decades, globalization has rendered more frequent and intensive population movement between countries, which has changed the original disease spectrum and brought a huge health impact on the global population including China. This study aims to describe the spectrum and epidemiological characteristics of imported infections among foreign travelers travelling to China. METHODS: The data on imported infections among foreign travelers were obtained from Custom Inbound Screening System (CISS) and the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System (NNIDRS). All the infections were classified into respiratory, gastrointestinal, vector-borne, blood/sex-transmitted and mucocutaneous diseases, of which case numbers and incidences were calculated and the proportions were compared among subgroups. RESULTS: In total, 17,189 travelers diagnosed with 58 imported infectious diseases were reported from 2014 to 2018, with an overall incidence of 122.59 per million. Respiratory infection (7,351 cases, mainly influenza) and blood/sex-transmitted diseases (6,114 cases mainly Hepatitis B and HIV infection) were the most frequently diagnosed diseases, followed by vector-borne infections (3,128 cases, mainly dengue fever and malaria). The highest case number was from Asia and Europe, while the highest incidence rate was from Africa (296.00 per million). When specific diagnosis was compared, both the highest absolute case number and incidence were observed for influenza. An obvious seasonal pattern was observed for vector-borne diseases, with the annual epidemic spanning from July to November. The origin-destination matrices disclosed the movement of imported infection followed specific routes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided a profile of infectious diseases among foreign travelers travelling to China and pinpointed the target regions, seasons and populations for prevention and control, to attain an informed control of imported infections in China.

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2632-2635, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214427

RESUMO

We identified relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia in 1.45% (145/10426) of the ticks and 1.40% (40/2850) of the wild mammals in a field investigation in China. Three RF Borrelia species, including human-pathogenic Borrelia miyamotoi, Borrelia persica and unclassified Babesia sp. were determined. Main species determined from ticks was B. miyamotoi (44.14%), followed by the unclassified Borrelia sp. (42.76%), and Borrelia theileri (13.10%). In wild mammals, main species found was B. persica (57.50%), followed by the unclassified Borrelia sp. (40.00%), and B. miyamotoi (2.50%). We determined B. theileri and B. persica in China for the first time. The coexistence of RF Borrelia species in one tick species in a given region was observed, with the most frequent coexistence seen for B. miyamotoi and the unclassified Borrelia sp. in Dermacentor silvarum, Haemaphysalis japonica, Haemaphysalis longicornis, and Ixodes persulcatuss respectively. The wide distribution and high variety of RF Borrelia in China pose a potential threat to public health.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Febre Recorrente , Animais , Humanos , Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia , Febre Recorrente/veterinária , Borrelia/genética , China/epidemiologia , Mamíferos
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 125: 10-16, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease with a high case fatality rate. Key gaps remained as to the assessment of the clinical picture in fatal cases. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 496 patients with fatal SFTS. The dynamic pattern of clinical manifestations and laboratory indicators were delineated. RESULTS: The mean age of the fatal cases was 69.0 years (standard deviation: 9.3), and 52.8% were male. The median clinical course from disease onset to death was 11 (interquartile range: 10-13) days. A total of 11 laboratory indicators (neutrophil %, platelet, aspartate aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cystatin C, D-dimer, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, glucose) persistently deviated from normality across hospitalization. The critical time points when the rapid worsening of the indicators was at 6-9 days after disease onset. Alanine transaminase, AST, lactate dehydrogenase, total bile acid, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and glucose were all elevated to a more pronounced level in fatal cases of those aged ≤70 years. CONCLUSION: The fatal outcome was developed in rather a short course after the disease onset of SFTS. High vigilance should be put on the key time points when the severe worsening and severe complications occur.

4.
One Health ; 15: 100437, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36277086

RESUMO

Karimabad virus (KARV) is an arthropod-borne viral agent originally found in the Mediterranean region that can cause human infection via sandfly as the main vector. The KARV virion has been only detected from sandfly in western Asian countries and specific antibody has been detected from Rhombomys opimus and human in countries in Africa, Western and Central Asia. In this study, by next-generation sequencing (NGS) on a high variety of wild small animals in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in China, we obtained a complete sequence of KARV from Rhombomys opimus. An expanded epidemiological investigation was subsequently performed on 1713 small wild mammals that were widely collected from seven bioclimatic distinct sites in China by applying KARV specific RT-PCR and sequencing. Positive results were only obtained from 8 (2.29%) of the Rhombomys opimus captured in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, while not in 57 rodent species that were captured in other six provinces. Sequence analysis revealed the currently identified KARV was clustered with Gabek Forest virus, and they shared 79.1-93.9% identity with Iranian KARV that differed for L, M and S segments. Phylogenetic analysis based on eight partial L gene sequences demonstrated the separation of two lineages of the current KARV sequences. The first report of KARV in Rhombomys opimus in China expanded the currently known geographic scope, reservoirs types and the genetic heterogeneity of KARV. Our results show a new host, Rhombomys opimus, for KARV and highlight potential zoonotic transmission of KARV in humans.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112136

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a serious global threat. The metabolic analysis had been successfully applied in the efforts to uncover the pathological mechanisms and biomarkers of disease severity. Here we performed a quasi-targeted metabolomic analysis on 56 COVID-19 patients from Sierra Leone in western Africa, revealing the metabolomic profiles and the association with disease severity, which was confirmed by the targeted metabolomic analysis of 19 pairs of COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis was performed on published metabolic data of COVID-19 to verify our findings. Of the 596 identified metabolites, 58 showed significant differences between severe and nonsevere groups. The pathway enrichment of these differential metabolites revealed glutamine and glutamate metabolism as the most significant metabolic pathway (Impact = 0.5; -log10P = 1.959). Further targeted metabolic analysis revealed six metabolites with significant intergroup differences, with glutamine/glutamate ratio significantly associated with severe disease, negatively correlated with 10 clinical parameters and positively correlated with SPO2 (rs = 0.442, p = 0.005). Mini meta-analysis indicated elevated glutamate was related to increased risk of COVID-19 infection (pooled odd ratio [OR] = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-3.50) and severe COVID-19 (pooled OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.14-4.56). In contrast, elevated glutamine related to decreased risk of infection and severe COVID-19, the pooled OR were 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20-0.44), and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.19-0.98), respectively. Glutamine and glutamate metabolism are associated with COVID-19 severity in multiple populations, which might confer potential therapeutic target of COVID-19, especially for severe patients.

6.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 560, 2022 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088366

RESUMO

Ticks are important vectors of various zoonotic pathogens that can infect animals and humans, and most documented tick-borne pathogens have a strong bias towards microorganisms with strong disease phenotypes. The recent development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled the study of microbial communities, referred to as microbiome. Herein, we undertake a systematic review of published literature to build a comprehensive global dataset of microbiome determined by NGS in field-collected ticks. The dataset comprised 4418 records from 76 literature involving geo-referenced occurrences for 46 species of ticks and 219 microorganism families, revealing a total of 83 emerging viruses identified from 24 tick species belonging to 6 tick genera since 1980. The viral, bacterial and eukaryotic composition was compared regarding the tick species, their live stage and types of the specimens, or the geographic location. The data can assist the further investigation of ecological, biogeographical and epidemiological features of the tick-borne disease.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Carrapatos , Animais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Carrapatos/microbiologia
7.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5933-5942, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030552

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease with a high case fatality rate. Few studies have been performed on bacterial or fungal coinfections or the effect of antibiotic therapy. A retrospective, observational study was performed to assess the prevalence of bacterial and fungal coinfections in patients hospitalized for SFTSV infection. The most commonly involved microorganisms and the effect of antimicrobial therapy were determined by the site and source of infection. A total of 1201 patients hospitalized with SFTSV infection were included; 359 (29.9%) had microbiologically confirmed infections, comprised of 292 with community-acquired infections (CAIs) and 67 with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Death was independently associated with HAIs, with a more significant effect than that observed for CAIs. For bacterial infections, only those acquired in hospitals were associated with fatal outcomes, while fungal infection, whether acquired in hospital or community, was related to an increased risk of fatal outcomes. The infections in the respiratory tract and bloodstream were associated with a higher risk of death than that in the urinary tract. Both antibiotic and antifungal treatments were associated with improved survival for CAIs, while for HAIs, only antibiotic therapy was related to improved survival, and no effect from antifungal therapy was observed. Early administration of glucocorticoids was associated with an increased risk of HAIs. The study provided novel clinical and epidemiological data and revealed risk factors, such as bacterial coinfections, fungal coinfections, infection sources, and treatment strategies associated with SFTS deaths/survival. This report might be helpful in curing SFTS and reducing fatal SFTS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Coinfecção , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
PeerJ ; 10: e13608, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791362

RESUMO

Background: Thrombocytopenia was common in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the infection, while the role of thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 pathogenesis and its relationship with systemic host response remained obscure. The study aimed to systematically evaluate the relationship between thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 patients and clinical, haematological and biochemical markers of the disease as well as adverse outcomes. Methods: To assess the relationship between abnormal platelet levels and disease progression, a multi-center retrospective cohort study was conducted. COVID-19 patients with thrombocytopenia and a sub-cohort of matched patients without thrombocytopenia were compared for their clinical manifestations, haematological disorders, biochemical parameters, inflammatory markers and clinical outcome. Results: Thrombocytopenia was present in 127 of 2,209 analyzed patients on admission. Compared with the control group, thrombocytopenia patients developed significantly higher frequency of respiratory failure (41.9% vs. 22.6%, P = 0.020), intensive care unit entrance (25.6% vs. 11.5%, P = 0.012), disseminated intravascular coagulation (45.2% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.001), more altered platelet morphology indexes and coagulation perturbation, higher levels of inflammatory markers. In addition, a significantly increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.08, 95% confidence interval 2.26-4.18, P < 0.001) was also observed in the patients with thrombocytopenia. Late development of thrombocytopenia beyond 14 days post-symptom was observed in 61 patients, from whom a comparable mortality rate yet longer duration to death was observed compared to those with early thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: Our finding from this study adds to previous evidence that thrombocytopenia is associated with adverse outcome of the disease and recommend that platelet count and indices be included alongside other haematological, biochemical and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients' assessment during the hospital stay.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806016

RESUMO

Chinese chives is a popular herb vegetable and medicine in Asian countries. Southwest China is one of the centers of origin, and the mountainous areas in this region are rich in wild germplasm. In this study, we collected four samples of germplasm from different altitudes: a land race of cultivated Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum), wide-leaf chives and extra-wide-leaf chives (Allium hookeri), and ovoid-leaf chives (Allium funckiaefolium). Leaf metabolites were detected and compared between A. tuberosum and A. hookeri. A total of 158 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAM) were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), among which there was a wide range of garlic odor compounds, free amino acids, and sugars. A. hookeri contains a higher content of fructose, garlic odor compounds, and amino acids than A. tuberosum, which is supported by the higher expression level of biosynthetic genes revealed by transcriptome analysis. A. hookeri accumulates the same garlic odor compound precursors that A. tuberosum does (mainly methiin and alliin). We isolated full-length gene sequences of phytochelatin synthase (PCS), γ-glutamyltranspeptidases (GGT), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), and alliinase (ALN). These sequences showed closer relations in phylogenetic analysis between A. hookeri and A. tuberosum (with sequence identities ranging from 86% to 90%) than with Allium cepa or Allium sativum (which had a lower sequence identity ranging from 76% to 88%). Among these assayed genes, ALN, the critical gene controlling the conversion of odorless precursors into odor compounds, was undetected in leaves, bulbs, and roots of A. tuberosum, which could account for its weaker garlic smell. Moreover, we identified a distinct FMO1 gene in extra-wide-leaf A. hookeri that is due to a CDS-deletion and frameshift mutation. These results above reveal the molecular and metabolomic basis of impressive strong odor in wild Chinese chives.


Assuntos
Allium , Cebolinha-Francesa , Alho , Allium/química , Allium/genética , Cebolinha-Francesa/genética , Alho/genética , Alho/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes , Filogenia
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4329-4337, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562326

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), caused by novel bunyavirus (SFTSV), is a hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate of over 10%. We have previously shown that granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (gMDSC) might affect arginine metabolism, which was associated with decreased platelet count and T lymphocyte dysfunction in this disease. The study was designed to investigate the expression of the gMDSCs subsets in SFTS patients, and to evaluate its association with disease severity. A prospective study was performed on 166 confirmed SFTSV infected patients. Sequential blood samples were collected during hospitalization and after recovery. SFTSV RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. The gMDSCs and NK cells were determined by flow cytometry analysis, which were associated with disease severity. Elevation of the activated gMDSC was observed in SFTS patients at the acute phase, with a significantly higher level of gMDSC attained in 79 severe and 29 fatal SFTS patients than in the mild patients. The NK cells were depleted at the early infection and not restored to normal level until 4 months after the disease. The expansion of gMDSC was accompanied by the elevated expressions of CD3-ζ of NK and Arginase-1, in contrast with the decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gMDSC. The levels of NK, CD3-ζ of NK, viral load, and platelet count were significantly associated with the level of gMDSC. Expansion of gMDSC was demonstrated in SFTS, which was associated with severe disease and suppressed antiviral NK cell via other mechanisms than Arginase-1 or ROS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Células Supressoras Mieloides , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Arginase , Humanos , Phlebovirus/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0129422, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35612327

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever acquired by tick bites. Whether mast cells (MCs), the body's first line of defense against pathogens, might influence immunity or pathogenesis during SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection remained unknown. Here, we found that SFTSV can cause MC infection and degranulation, resulting in the release of the vasoactive mediators, chymase, and tryptase, which can directly act on endothelial cells, break the tight junctions of endothelial cells and threaten the integrity of the microvascular barrier, leading to microvascular hyperpermeability in human microvascular endothelial cells. Local activation of MCs (degranulation) and MC-specific proteases-facilitated endothelial damage were observed in mouse models. When MC-specific proteases were injected subcutaneously into the back skin of mice, signs of capillary leakage were observed in a dose-dependent manner. MC-specific proteases, chymase, and tryptase were tested in the serum collected at the acute phase of SFTS patients, with the higher level significantly correlated with fatal outcomes. By performing receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, chymase was determined as a biomarker with the area under the curve value of 0.830 (95% CI = 0.745 to 0.915) for predicting fatal outcomes in SFTS. Our findings highlight the importance of MCs in SFTSV-induced disease progression and outcome. An emerging role for MCs in the clinical prognosis and blocking MC activation as a potential drug target during SFTSV infection was proposed. IMPORTANCE We revealed a pathogenic role for MCs in response to SFTSV infection. The study also identifies potential biomarkers that could differentiate patients at risk of a fatal outcome for SFTS, as well as novel therapeutic targets for the clinical management of SFTS. These findings might shed light on an emerging role for MCs as a potential drug target during infection of other viral hemorrhagic fever diseases with similar host pathology as SFTS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/patologia , Quimases , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Mastócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Permeabilidade , Phlebovirus , Triptases/uso terapêutico
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1672-1682, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603493

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), an emerging tick-borne bunyavirus, causes mild-to-moderate infection to critical illness or even death in human patients. The effect of virus variations on virulence and related clinical significance is unclear. We prospectively recruited SFTSV-infected patients in a hotspot region of SFTS endemic in China from 2011 to 2020, sequenced whole genome of SFTSV, and assessed the association of virus genomic variants with clinical data, viremia, and inflammatory response. We identified seven viral clades (I-VII) based on phylogenetic characterization of 805 SFTSV genome sequences. A significantly increased case fatality rate (32.9%) was revealed in one unique clade (IV) that possesses a specific co-mutation pattern, compared to other three common clades (I, 16.7%; II, 13.8%; and III, 11.8%). The phenotype-genotype association (hazard ratios ranged 1.327-2.916) was confirmed by multivariate regression adjusting age, sex, and hospitalization delay. We revealed a pronounced inflammation response featured by more production of CXCL9, IL-10, IL-6, IP-10, M-CSF, and IL-1ß, in clade IV, which was also related to severe complications. We observed enhanced cytokine expression from clade IV inoculated PBMCs and infected mice. Moreover, the neutralization activity of convalescent serum from patients infected with one specified clade was remarkably reduced to other viral clades. Together, our findings revealed a significant association between one specific viral clade and SFTS fatality, highlighting the need for molecular surveillance for highly lethal strains in endemic regions and unravelled the importance of evaluating cross-clade effect in development of vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Animais , Genômica , Humanos , Camundongos , Phlebovirus/fisiologia , Filogenia
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2122-e2131, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366384

RESUMO

The ongoing enzootic circulation of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East and North Africa is increasingly raising the concern about the possibility of its recombination with other human-adapted coronaviruses, particularly the pandemic SARS-CoV-2. We aim to provide an updated picture about ecological niches of MERS-CoV and associated socio-environmental drivers. Based on 356 confirmed MERS cases with animal contact reported to the WHO and 63 records of animal infections collected from the literature as of 30 May 2020, we assessed ecological niches of MERS-CoV using an ensemble model integrating three machine learning algorithms. With a high predictive accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 91.66% in test data), the ensemble model estimated that ecologically suitable areas span over the Middle East, South Asia and the whole North Africa, much wider than the range of reported locally infected MERS cases and test-positive animal samples. Ecological suitability for MERS-CoV was significantly associated with high levels of bareland coverage (relative contribution = 30.06%), population density (7.28%), average temperature (6.48%) and camel density (6.20%). Future surveillance and intervention programs should target the high-risk populations and regions informed by updated quantitative analyses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , Camelus , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458421

RESUMO

The geographic expansion of mosquitos is associated with a rising frequency of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (MBD) worldwide. We collected occurrence locations and times of mosquito species, mosquito-borne arboviruses, and MBDs in the mainland of China in 1954-2020. We mapped the spatial distributions of mosquitoes and arboviruses at the county level, and we used machine learning algorithms to assess contributions of ecoclimatic, socioenvironmental, and biological factors to the spatial distributions of 26 predominant mosquito species and two MBDs associated with high disease burden. Altogether, 339 mosquito species and 35 arboviruses were mapped at the county level. Culex tritaeniorhynchus is found to harbor the highest variety of arboviruses (19 species), followed by Anopheles sinensis (11) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (9). Temperature seasonality, annual precipitation, and mammalian richness were the three most important contributors to the spatial distributions of most of the 26 predominant mosquito species. The model-predicted suitable habitats are 60-664% larger in size than what have been observed, indicating the possibility of severe under-detection. The spatial distribution of major mosquito species in China is likely to be under-estimated by current field observations. More active surveillance is needed to investigate the mosquito species in specific areas where investigation is missing but model-predicted probability is high.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Arbovírus , Culex , Culicidae , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Animais , China , Mamíferos
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3840-3846, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441419

RESUMO

Viral diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. This study was conducted to disclose the etiological cause and epidemiological features of viral diarrhea among children in China. From 2009 to 2021, active surveillance was performed on pediatric patients with acute diarrhea and tested for five enteric viruses. Positive detection was determined in 65.56% (3325/5072) patients and an age-specific infection pattern was observed. A significantly higher positive rate was observed in 12-23-month-old children for rotavirus (47.46%) and adenovirus (7.06%), while a significantly higher positive rate was observed for norovirus (37.62%) in 6-11-month-old patients, and for astrovirus (11.60%) and sapovirus (10.79%) in 24-47-month-old patients. A higher positive rate of rotavirus in girls and norovirus in boys was observed only among 6-11 months of patients. We also observed more norovirus among patients from rural areas in the 0-5- and 36-47-month groups and more rotavirus among those from rural areas in the 12-23-month group. Diarrhea severity was greater for rotavirus in the 6-23-month group and norovirus in the 6-11-month group. Coinfections were observed in 29.26% (973/3325) of positive patients, and were most frequently observed between rotavirus and others (89.31%). Our findings could help the prediction, prevention, and potential therapeutic approaches to viral diarrhea in children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos , Infecções por Enterovirus , Norovirus , Rotavirus , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Estações do Ano
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 24-31, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease with a high fatality rate. How the glucose level might affect the clinical outcome remains obscure. METHODS: A multicenter study was performed in 2 hospitals from 2011 to 2021. Patients with SFTS and acute hyperglycemia (admission fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥7 mmol/L), postadmission hyperglycemia (admission FPG <7 mmol/L but FPG ≥7 mmol/L after admission), and euglycemia (FPG <7 mmol/L throughout hospitalization) were compared for their clinical progress and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 3225 patients were included in this study, 37.9% of whom developed acute hyperglycemia and 7.6% postadmission hyperglycemia. The presence of acute hyperglycemia, with or without known diabetes, was associated with increased risk of death (odds ratio [OR]: 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-2.05) compared with euglycemia. This effect, however, was only determined in female patients (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.54-2.93). Insulin treatment of patients with SFTS and acute hyperglycemia without previous diabetes was associated with significantly increased mortality (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.16-2.16). CONCLUSION: Acute hyperglycemia can act as a strong predictor of SFTS-related death in female patients. Insulin treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with SFTS without pre-existing diabetes has adverse effects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Insulinas , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Doença Aguda , Glicemia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 791563, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35308357

RESUMO

Mukawa virus (MKWV), a novel tick-borne virus (TBV) of the genus Phlebovirus of family Phenuiviridae, has been firstly reported in Ixodes persulcatus in Japan. In this study, we made an epidemiological investigation in China to obtain the geographic distribution and genetic features of this virus outside Japan. We screened 1,815 adult ticks (665 I. persulcatus, 336 Dermacentor silvarum, 599 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 170 Rhipicephalus microplus, 45 Haemaphysalis concinna) and 805 wild small mammals collected from eight provinces. The positive rate of 6.77% (45/665, including 18 female and 27 male I. persulcatus) and 2.22% (1/45, 1 male H. concinna) were obtained from I. persulcatus and H. concinna in Heilongjiang province, respectively. No evidence of MKWV infection was found in other three tick species or any of the mammalian species. The virus can infect the Vero cells successfully, indicating the ability of MKWV to replicate in mammalian cells. A phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequences of L, M, and S segments demonstrated that the Japanese MKWV variant, our two MKWV variants, and KURV were clustered with the members of the mosquito/sandfly-borne phleboviruses and distant from other tick-borne phenuiviruses. A phylogenetic analysis based on 895 bp partial L gene sequences (n = 46) showed that all MKWV sequences were separated into three lineages. Our results showed the presence of MKWV in I. persulcatus and H. concinna in northeast of China, highlighting the necessity of epidemiological study in wider regions. Due to the ability of MKWV to replicate in mammalian cells, the potential for zoonosis, and wide distribution of I. persulcatus and H. concinna in China, the important vectors of MKWV, further screening to more tick species, wild animals, domestic animals, and humans raises up practical significance.

20.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 20: 100361, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute meningitis or encephalitis (AME) results from a neurological infection causing high case fatality and severe sequelae. AME lacked comprehensive surveillance in China. METHODS: Nation-wide surveillance of all-age patients with AME syndromes was conducted in 144 sentinel hospitals of 29 provinces in China. Eleven AME-causative viral and bacterial pathogens were tested with multiple diagnostic methods. FINDINGS: Between 2009 and 2018, 20,454 AME patients were recruited for tests. Based on 9,079 patients with all-four-virus tested, 28.43% (95% CI: 27.50%‒29.36%) of them had at least one virus-positive detection. Enterovirus was the most frequently determined virus in children <18 years, herpes simplex virus and Japanese encephalitis virus were the most frequently determined in 18-59 and ≥60 years age groups, respectively. Based on 6,802 patients with all-seven-bacteria tested, 4.43% (95% CI: 3.94%‒4.91%) had at least one bacteria-positive detection, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis were the leading bacterium in children aged <5 years and 5-17 years, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently detected in adults aged 18-59 and ≥60 years. The pathogen spectrum also differed statistically significantly between northern and southern China. Joinpoint analysis revealed age-specific positive rates, with enterovirus, herpes simplex virus and mumps virus peaking at 3-6 years old, while Japanese encephalitis virus peaked in the ≥60 years old. As age increased, the positive rate for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli statistically significantly decreased, while for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus suis it increased. INTERPRETATION: The current findings allow enhanced identification of the predominant AME-related pathogen candidates for diagnosis in clinical practice and more targeted application of prevention and control measures in China, and a possible reassessment of vaccination strategy. FUNDING: China Mega-Project on Infectious Disease Prevention and the National Natural Science Funds.

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