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2.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 206, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633551

RESUMO

The 3D hollow hierarchical architectures tend to be designed for inhibiting stack of MXene flakes to obtain satisfactory lightweight, high-efficient and broadband absorbers. Herein, the hollow NiCo compound@MXene networks were prepared by etching the ZIF 67 template and subsequently anchoring the Ti3C2Tx nanosheets through electrostatic self-assembly. The electromagnetic parameters and microwave absorption property can be distinctly or slightly regulated by adjusting the filler loading and decoration of Ti3C2Tx nanoflakes. Based on the synergistic effects of multi-components and special well-constructed structure, NiCo layered double hydroxides@Ti3C2Tx (LDHT-9) absorber remarkably achieves unexpected effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) of 6.72 GHz with a thickness of 2.10 mm, covering the entire Ku-band. After calcination, transition metal oxide@Ti3C2Tx (TMOT-21) absorber near the percolation threshold possesses minimum reflection loss (RLmin) value of - 67.22 dB at 1.70 mm within a filler loading of only 5 wt%. This work enlightens a simple strategy for constructing MXene-based composites to achieve high-efficient microwave absorbents with lightweight and tunable EAB.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 702971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531856

RESUMO

Polyploidy and subsequent diploidization provide genomic opportunities for evolutionary innovations and adaptation. The researches on duplicated gene evolutionary fates in recurrent polyploids have seriously lagged behind that in paleopolyploids with diploidized genomes. Moreover, the antiviral mechanisms of Viperin remain largely unclear in fish. Here, we elaborate the distinct antiviral mechanisms of two viperin homeologs (Cgviperin-A and Cgviperin-B) in auto-allo-hexaploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio). First, Cgviperin-A and Cgviperin-B showed differential and biased expression patterns in gibel carp adult tissues. Subsequently, using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) screening analysis, both CgViperin-A and CgViperin-B were found to interact with crucian carp (C. auratus) herpesvirus (CaHV) open reading frame 46 right (ORF46R) protein, a negative herpesvirus regulator of host interferon (IFN) production, and to promote the proteasomal degradation of ORF46R via decreasing K63-linked ubiquitination. Additionally, CgViperin-B also mediated ORF46R degradation through autophagosome pathway, which was absent in CgViperin-A. Moreover, we found that the N-terminal α-helix domain was necessary for the localization of CgViperin-A and CgViperin-B at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the C-terminal domain of CgViperin-A and CgViperin-B was indispensable for the interaction with degradation of ORF46R. Therefore, the current findings clarify the divergent antiviral mechanisms of the duplicated viperin homeologs in a recurrent polyploid fish, which will shed light on the evolution of teleost duplicated genes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499596

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain JN500902T, was isolated from the mud in a fermentation cellar used continuously over 30 years for Chinese strong-flavour baijiu production. Colonies were white, circular, convex and smooth-edged. Growth was observed at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 5.0-10 (optimum, pH 7.5), with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl and with 0-4 % (v/v) ethanol. The Biolog assay demonstrated positive reactions of strain JN500902T in the metabolism of l-fucose and pyruvate. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) consisted of C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. The major end metabolites of strain JN500902T were acetic acid and ethanol when incubated anaerobically in liquid reinforced clostridial medium. Acetate was the major organic acid end product. The complete genome size of strain JN500902T was 3 420 321 bp with 3327 identified genes. The G+C content was 43.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated strain JN500902T with the family Lachnospiraceae, having low sequence similarity (92.8 %) to the nearest type strain, Syntrophococcus sucromutans DSM 3224T and forming a clearly distinct branch. Core genome phylogenetic analysis of the isolate and 134 strains belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae also revealed that strain JN500902T was well-separated from other genera of this family as a monophyletic clade. The average nucleotide identity and amino acid identity values between strain JN500902T and 134 Lachnospiraceae strains were less than 74 and 65 %, respectively. Considering its polyphasic characteristics, strain JN500902T represents a novel genus and species within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which the name Novisyntrophococcus fermenticellae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN500902T (=CICC 24502T=JCM 33939T).


Assuntos
Clostridiales/classificação , Fermentação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
PLoS Genet ; 17(9): e1009760, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491994

RESUMO

Unisexual taxa are commonly considered short-lived as the absence of meiotic recombination is supposed to accumulate deleterious mutations and hinder the creation of genetic diversity. However, the gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) with high genetic diversity and wide ecological distribution has outlived its predicted extinction time of a strict unisexual reproduction population. Unlike other unisexual vertebrates, males associated with supernumerary microchromosomes have been observed in gibel carp, which provides a unique system to explore the rationales underlying male occurrence in unisexual lineage and evolution of unisexual reproduction. Here, we identified a massively expanded satellite DNA cluster on microchromosomes of hexaploid gibel carp via comparing with the ancestral tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Based on the satellite cluster, we developed a method for single chromosomal fluorescence microdissection and isolated three male-specific microchromosomes in a male metaphase cell. Genomic anatomy revealed that these male-specific microchromosomes contained homologous sequences of autosomes and abundant repetitive elements. Significantly, several potential male-specific genes with transcriptional activity were identified, among which four and five genes displayed male-specific and male-biased expression in gonads, respectively, during the developmental period of sex determination. Therefore, the male-specific microchromosomes resembling common features of sex chromosomes may be the main driving force for male occurrence in gynogenetic gibel carp, which sheds new light on the evolution of unisexual reproduction.

6.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110449, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399451

RESUMO

Mud cellars have long been used as anaerobic bioreactors for the fermentation of Chinese strong-flavor Baijiu, where starchy raw materials (mainly sorghum) are metabolized to ethanol and various flavor compounds by multi-species microorganisms. Jiupei (fermented grains) and pit mud are two spatially linked microbial habitats in the mud cellar, yet their metabolic division of labor remains unclear. Here, we investigated the changes in environmental variables (e.g., temperature, oxygen, pH), key metabolites (e.g., ethanol, organic acids) and microbial communities in jiupei and pit mud during fermentation. Jiupei (low pH, high ethanol) and pit mud (neutral pH) provided two habitats with distinctly different environmental conditions for microbial growth. Lactic acid accumulated in jiupei, while butyric and hexanoic acids were mainly produced by microbes inhabiting the pit mud. Biomass analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that bacteria dominated the microbial consortia during fermentation, moreover cluster and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis showed that the bacterial communities of jiupei and pit mud were significantly divergent. The bacterial community diversity of jiupei decreased significantly during the fermentation process, and was relatively stable in pit mud. Lactobacillus dominated the jiupei bacterial community, and its relative abundance reached 98.0% at the end of fermentation. Clostridia (relative abundance: 42.9-85.5%) was the most abundant bacteria in pit mud, mainly distributed in the genus Hydrogenispora (5.3-68.4%). Fungal communities of jiupei and pit mud showed a similar succession pattern, and Kazachstania, Aspergillus and Thermoascus were the predominant genera. PICRUSt analysis demonstrated that enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of acetic and lactic acid were mainly enriched in jiupei samples, while the bacterial community in the pit mud displayed greater potential for butyric and hexanoic acid synthesis. Assays from an in vitro simulated fermentation further validated the roles of jiupei microbiota in acetic and lactic acid production, and these acids were subsequently metabolized to butyric and hexanoic acid by the pit mud microbiota. This work has demonstrated the synergistic cooperation between the microbial communities of jiupei and pit mud for the representative flavor formation of strong-flavor Baijiu.


Assuntos
Consórcios Microbianos , Microbiota , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação
7.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(21): 6067-6072, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of clinical samples is an effective method for the molecular diagnosis of infection. However, its role in the diagnosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of an unknown infectious etiology remains unclear. CASE SUMMARY: A 33-year-old man was admitted to our center for a cough and febrile sensation. Shortly after admission, the patient was diagnosed with ARDS and treated in the intensive care unit. Subsequently, chest computed tomography features suggested an infection. mNGS was performed and the results were indicative of an infection caused by adenovirus type 7. The patient recovered after receiving appropriate treatment. CONCLUSION: mNGS is a promising tool for the diagnosis of ARDS caused by infectious agents. However, further studies are required to develop strategies for incorporating mNGS into the current diagnostic process for the disease.

8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(17): e0088521, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160281

RESUMO

The mud cellar creates a unique microenvironment for the fermentation of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Recent research and long-term practice have highlighted the key roles of microbes inhabiting pit mud in the formation of SFB's characteristic flavor. A positive correlation between the quality of SFB and cellar age was extracted from practice; however, the evolutionary patterns of pit mud microbiome and driving factors remain unclear. Here, based on the variation regularity analysis of microbial community structure and metabolites of samples from cellars of different ages (∼30/100/300 years), we further investigated the effects of lactate and acetate (main microbial metabolites in fermented grains) on modulating the pit mud microbiome. Esters (50.3% to 64.5%) dominated the volatile compounds identified in pit mud, and contents of the four typical acids (lactate, hexanoate, acetate, and butyrate) increased with cellar age. Bacteria (9.5 to 10.4 log10 [lg] copies/g) and archaea (8.3 to 9.1 lg copies/g) mainly constituted pit mud microbiota, respectively dominated by Clostridia (39.7% to 81.2%) and Methanomicrobia (32.8% to 92.9%). An upward trend with cellar age characterized the relative and absolute abundance of the most predominant bacterial and archaeal genera, Caproiciproducens and Methanosarcina. Correlation analysis revealed significantly (P < 0.05) positive relationships between the two genera and major metabolites. Anaerobic fermentation with acetate and lactate as carbon sources enhanced the enrichment of Clostridia, and furthermore, the relative abundance of Caproiciproducens (40.9%) significantly increased after 15-day fed-batch fermentation with lactate compared with the initial pit mud (0.22%). This work presents a directional evolutionary pattern of pit mud microbial consortia and provides an alternative way to accelerate the enrichment of functional microbes. IMPORTANCE The solid-state anaerobic fermentation in a mud cellar is the most typical feature of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Metabolites produced by microbes inhabiting pit mud are crucial to create the unique flavor of SFB. Accordingly, craftspeople have always highlighted the importance of the pit mud microbiome and concluded by centuries of practice that the production rate of high-quality baijiu increases with cellar age. To deepen the understanding of the pit mud microbiome, we determined the microbial community and metabolites of different-aged pit mud, inferred the main functional groups, and explored the forces driving the microbial community evolution through metagenomic, metabolomic, and multivariate statistical analyses. The results showed that the microbial consortia of pit mud presented a regular and directional evolutionary pattern under the impact of continuous batch-to-batch brewing activities. This work provides insight into the key roles of the pit mud microbiome in SFB production and supports the production optimization of high-quality pit mud.


Assuntos
Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Argila/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiota , Vinho/análise , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Vinho/microbiologia
9.
World J Emerg Med ; 12(3): 207-213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are conflicting results regarding whether corticosteroids have better efficacy than placebo in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Therefore, we aim to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in adult ARDS patients. METHODS: The databases, including Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, were searched from their inception to May 2, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies were selected to assess the use of corticosteroids in adult ARDS patients. The quality of the results was judged by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The inverse-variance method with random or fixed effects modeling was used to compute pooled odds ratio (OR), standardized mean difference (SMD), and their 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Eight eligible RCTs and six cohort studies were included. The use of corticosteroids was associated with reduced mortality (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.76, I2=35.1%, P=0.148) in ARDS patients, and the result was confirmed in the included cohort studies (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.95, I2=66.7%, P=0.010). The subgroup analysis stratified by the initiation time and duration of corticosteroid use showed that early ARDS and prolonged corticosteroid use had significant survival benefits in the RCTs. The low-dose corticosteroid use was also associated with significantly more ventilator-free days and a reduced rate of new infections in ARDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: The low-dose corticosteroid therapy may be safe and reduce mortality, especially in patients with prolonged treatment and early ARDS.

10.
Front Genet ; 12: 691923, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122529

RESUMO

Unisexual lineages are commonly considered to be short-lived in the evolutionary process as accumulation of deleterious mutations stated by Muller's ratchet. However, the gynogenetic hexaploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) with existence over 0.5 million years has wider ecological distribution and higher genetic diversity than its sexual progenitors, which provides an ideal model to investigate the underlying mechanisms on countering Muller's ratchet in unisexual taxa. Unlike other unisexual lineages, the wild populations of gibel carp contain rare and variable proportions of males (1-26%), which are determined via two strategies including genotypic sex determination and temperature-dependent sex determination. Here, we used a maternal gibel carp from strain F to be mated with a genotypic male from strain A+, a temperature-dependent male from strain A+, and a male from another species common carp (Cyprinus carpio), respectively. When the maternal individual was mated with the genotypic male, a variant of gynogenesis was initiated, along with male occurrence, accumulation of microchromosomes, and creation of genetic diversity in the offspring. When the maternal individual was mated with the temperature-dependent male and common carp, typical gynogenesis was initiated that all the offspring showed the same genetic information as the maternal individual. Subsequently, we found out that the genotypic male nucleus swelled and contacted with the female nucleus after fertilization although it was extruded from the female nucleus eventually, which might be associated with the genetic variation in the offspring. These results reveal that genotypic males play an important role in the creation of genetic diversity in gynogenetic gibel carp, which provides insights into the evolution of unisexual reproduction.

11.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 907: 174260, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144026

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling exerts cardioprotective effects including inhibition of myocyte apoptosis. However, little is known about the effect of S1P treatment on myocyte autophagy after myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that S1P induces myocyte autophagy through inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), leading to improvement of left ventricular (LV) function after MI. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent MI or sham operation. The animals were randomized to receive S1P (50 µg/kg/day, i.p.) or placebo for one week. H9C2 cardiomyocytes cultured in serum- and glucose-deficient medium were treated with or without S1P for 3 h. MI rats exhibited an increase in LV end-diastolic dimension (EDD) and decreases in LV fractional shortening (FS) and the maximal rate of LV pressure rise (+dP/dt). S1P treatment attenuated the increase in LV EDD and decreases in LV FS and +dP/dt. In the MI placebo group, the LC3 II/I ratio, a marker of autophagy, was increased, and increased further by S1P treatment. S1P also enhanced the autophagy-related proteins Atg4b and Atg5 after MI. Similarly, in cultured cardiomyocytes, autophagy was increased under glucose and serum deprivation, and increased further by S1P treatment. The effect of S1P on myocyte autophagy was associated with mTOR inhibition after MI or in cultured cardiomyocytes under glucose and serum deprivation. S1P treatment prevents LV remodeling, enhances myocyte autophagy and inhibits mTOR activity after MI. These findings suggest that S1P treatment induces myocyte autophagy through mTOR inhibition, leading to the attenuation of LV dysfunction after MI.

12.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 328, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver has become a main problem that causes huge economic losses in many aquaculture modes. It is a common physiological or pathological phenomenon in aquaculture, but the causes and occurring mechanism are remaining enigmatic. METHODS: Each three liver samples from the control group of allogynogenetic gibel carp with normal liver and the overfeeding group with fatty liver were collected randomly for the detailed comparison of histological structure, lipid accumulation, transcriptomic profile, latent pathway identification analysis (LPIA), marker gene expression, and hepatocyte mitochondria analyses. RESULTS: Compared to normal liver, larger hepatocytes and more lipid accumulation were observed in fatty liver. Transcriptomic analysis between fatty liver and normal liver showed a totally different transcriptional trajectory. GO terms and KEGG pathways analyses revealed several enriched pathways in fatty liver, such as lipid biosynthesis, degradation accumulation, peroxidation, or metabolism and redox balance activities. LPIA identified an activated ferroptosis pathway in the fatty liver. qPCR analysis confirmed that gpx4, a negative regulator of ferroptosis, was significantly downregulated while the other three positively regulated marker genes, such as acsl4, tfr1 and gcl, were upregulated in fatty liver. Moreover, the hepatocytes of fatty liver had more condensed mitochondria and some of their outer membranes were almost ruptured. CONCLUSIONS: We reveal an association between ferroptosis and fish fatty liver for the first time, suggesting that ferroptosis might be activated in liver fatty. Therefore, the current study provides a clue for future studies on fish fatty liver problems.


Assuntos
Carpas , Fígado Gorduroso , Ferroptose , Animais , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Transcriptoma
13.
Orthop Surg ; 13(4): 1417-1422, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Measure and systematically evaluate the distribution of microhardness in the human skeleton. METHODS: Three fresh corpses were obtained, aged 62 (male), 45 (female), and 58 years (male). Soft tissues were removed, and all axial and unilateral appendicular bones were freshly harvested. All three skeletons were examined by X-ray and computed tomography (CT) to exclude skeletal pathology. Only bones from donors with no known skeletal pathology were included in the study. Axial and unilateral appendicular skeleton bones from each of the three donors were obtained, except for ear ossicles, hyoid bone, tailbone, and 14 phalanges of the foot, for which samples were difficult to obtain. Precision bone specimens with a thickness of 3 mm, which were cut with a Buehler IsoMet 11-1280-250 low-speed diamond saw (Buehler, USA), were obtained from all important anatomic sites in a direction perpendicular to the mechanical axis of each bone. Micro-indentation (the Vickers hardness test) was performed on the surface of each specimen using a microhardness tester with a diamond indenter. Hardness value (HV) was computed for each indentation. Each bone specimen was divided into several regions of interest. Indentations were carefully made and computed. Then we analyzed the data to identify hardness distribution rules at different anatomic sites. RESULTS: In total, 5360 indentations were made in 1072 regions of interest in each donor. Hardness of the axial and appendicular bones were all inhomogeneous depending on the anatomic sites, but the distribution of microhardness followed certain rules. The mean hardness value ranged from 24.46 HV (HV = hardness value, kgf/mm2 ) for the sacrum to 53.20 HV for the shaft of the tibia. The diaphysis was harder than the metaphysis, and the proximal and distal epiphysis had lower values (8.85%- 40.39%) than the diaphysis. Among the long bone diaphyses, the tibia cortical bone (51.20 HV) was the hardest, harder than the humerus (47.25 HV), the ulna (43.26 HV), the radius (42.54 HV), and the femur (47.53 HV). However, in some anatomic sites such as the lumbar vertebra (cortical bone 32.86 HV, cancellous bone 31.25 HV), the cortical shells were sometimes not harder than the internal cancellous bones. The lumbar vertebra (32.86 HV) was harder than the cervical vertebra (28.51 HV) and the thoracic vertebra (29.01 HV). CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of microhardness in the human skeleton follows certain rules. These distribution rules could be used to predict the mechanical properties of bone and progress in this field could provide data for the basis of a new three-dimensional printing technique, which may lead to new perspectives for custom-made implants.

14.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103766, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875202

RESUMO

Daqu, a brick-shaped product spontaneously fermented under an open environment, has been regarded as the starter of fermentation, raw enzyme preparation and raw materials for baijiu production. However, its contribution in baijiu fermentation has not been fully elaborated yet. Here, the effects of daqu microbiota on baijiu fermentation were investigated under both field-scale and lab-scale conditions. In field-scale baijiu fermentation, the dominant daqu microbes (average relative abundance>10.0%), including unclassified_Leuconostocaceae, Thermoascus, and Thermomyces, tended to dominate the early stage (0-7 d). However, the rare daqu microbes (average relative abundance <0.1%, e.g., Kazachstania) tended to dominate the middle and late stages (11-40 d). In addition, some genera showed differences in species diversity between daqu and fermented grains. The average relative abundance of Lactobacillus was over 75% during baijiu fermentation, and most of them were affiliated with Lactobacillus acetotolerans, while Lactobacillus crustorum dominated the Lactobacillus OTUs in daqu. The similar patterns were also observed during lab-scale baijiu fermentation. The results of function prediction showed the enriched metabolic pathways were associated with glycolysis and long-chain fatty acid esters in baijiu fermentation. These results improved the understanding of daqu microbiota function during baijiu fermentation and provided a basic theory to support the regulation of baijiu production.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota , China , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/genética
15.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110037, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648263

RESUMO

As a widely used Asian starter culture, the quality of daqu can significantly affect the organoleptic characteristics of the final products, yet the microbial metabolic network involved in flavor development remains unclear. This study aims to investigate that network based on the dynamics of physicochemical properties, microbial community, and volatile compounds in medium-temperature daqu (MT-daqu) during spontaneous fermentation. Analyses using the metagenomic data set facilitated the gene repertoire overview of this ecosystem, indicating that Lactobacillales (mainly Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus), Mucorales (mainly Lichtheimia), and Eurotiales (mainly Aspergillus, Rasamsonia and Byssochlamys) were the potential predominant populations successively responsible for the production of lytic enzymes and flavor precursors/compounds in MT-daqu. Flavor-relevant pathways were found to exist in multiple species, but only bacteria showed the potential to participate in butane-2,3-diol (e.g. Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Staphylococcus) and butanoate (Thermoactinomyces) metabolism, and only fungi were potentially involved in biosynthesis of guaiacol (Byssochlamys) and 4-vinylguaiacol (Aspergillus). Furthermore, a combined analysis revealed that the acidic thermal environment present in early phases was mainly due to the catabolic activities of Lactobacillales and Lichtheimia, which could contribute to the effective self-domestication of microbiota. The study helps elucidate the different metabolic roles of microorganisms and disclose the formation mechanism of daqu's partial functions, namely providing various aromatic substances/precursors and enzymes.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microbiota/genética , Temperatura
16.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 48(5): 704-716, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650189

RESUMO

Reduced nerve growth factor (NGF) is associated with cardiac sympathetic nerve denervation in heart failure (HF) which is characterized by increased oxidative stress. Apocynin is considered an antioxidant agent which inhibits NADPH oxidase activity and improves reactive oxygen species scavenging. However, it is unclear whether apocynin prevents reduced myocardial NGF, leading to improvement of cardiac function in HF. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that apocynin prevents reduced myocardial NGF, contributing to amelioration of myocardial apoptosis and failure. Rabbits with myocardial infarction (MI) or sham operation were randomly assigned to receive apocynin or placebo for 4 weeks. MI rabbits exhibited left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and elevation in oxidative stress, as evidenced by a decreased reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio and an increased 4-hydroxynonenal expression, and reduction in NGF and NGF receptor tyrosine kinase A (TrKA) expression in the remote non-infarcted myocardium. Apocynin treatment ameliorated LV dysfunction, reduced oxidative stress, prevented decreases in NGF and TrKA expression and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI. In cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes, hypoxia or hydrogen peroxide decreased NGF expression, and apocynin normalized hypoxia-induced reduction of NGF. Recombinant NGF attenuated hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Apocynin prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis, and the suppressive effect of apocynin on apoptosis was abolished by NGF receptor TrKA inhibitor K252a. We concluded that apocynin prevented reduced myocardial NGF, leading to attenuation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and LV remodelling and dysfunction in HF after MI. These findings suggest that strategies to prevent NGF reduction by inhibition of oxidative stress may be of value in amelioration of LV dysfunction in HF.

17.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(7): 1031-1049, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428077

RESUMO

Goldfish comprise around 300 different strains with drastically altered and aesthetical morphologies making them suitable models for evolutionary developmental biology. The dragon-eye strain is characterized by protruding eyes (analogous to those of Chinese dragons). Although the strain has been selected for about 400 years, the mechanism of its eye development remains unclear. In this study, a stable dragon-eye goldfish strain with a clear genetic background was rapidly established and studied. We found that upregulation of the PPAR signaling pathway accompanied by an increase in lipid accumulation might trigger the morphological and structural transformation of the eye in dragon-eye goldfish. At the developmental stage of proptosis (eye protrusion), downregulation of the phototransduction pathway was consistent with the structural defects and myopia of the dragon-eye strain. With the impairment of retinal development, cytokine-induced inflammation was activated, especially after proptosis, similar to the pathologic symptoms of many human ocular diseases. In addition, differentially expressed transcription factors were significantly enriched in the PAX and homeobox families, two well-known transcription factor families involved in eye development. Therefore, our findings reveal the dynamic changes in key pathways during eye development in dragon-eye goldfish, and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying drastically altered eyes in goldfish and human ocular disease.

18.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(5): 1995-2013, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432361

RESUMO

Evolutionary fates of duplicated genes have been widely investigated in many polyploid plants and animals, but research is scarce in recurrent polyploids. In this study, we focused on foxl2, a central player in ovary, and elaborated the functional divergence in gibel carp (Carassius gibelio), a recurrent auto-allo-hexaploid fish. First, we identified three divergent foxl2 homeologs (Cgfoxl2a-B, Cgfoxl2b-A, and Cgfoxl2b-B), each of them possessing three highly conserved alleles and revealed their biased retention/loss. Then, their abundant sexual dimorphism and biased expression were uncovered in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Significantly, granulosa cells and three subpopulations of thecal cells were distinguished by cellular localization of CgFoxl2a and CgFoxl2b, and the functional roles and the involved process were traced in folliculogenesis. Finally, we successfully edited multiple foxl2 homeologs and/or alleles by using CRISPR/Cas9. Cgfoxl2a-B deficiency led to ovary development arrest or complete sex reversal, whereas complete disruption of Cgfoxl2b-A and Cgfoxl2b-B resulted in the depletion of germ cells. Taken together, the detailed cellular localization and functional differences indicate that Cgfoxl2a and Cgfoxl2b have subfunctionalized and cooperated to regulate folliculogenesis and gonad differentiation, and Cgfoxl2b has evolved a new function in oogenesis. Therefore, the current study provides a typical case of homeolog/allele diversification, retention/loss, biased expression, and sub-/neofunctionalization in the evolution of duplicated genes driven by polyploidy and subsequent diploidization from the recurrent polyploid fish.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteína Forkhead Box L2/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Carpa Dourada/genética , Poliploidia , Animais , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box L2/metabolismo , Carpa Dourada/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpa Dourada/metabolismo , Masculino , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oócitos/metabolismo , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo
19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 50, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loaches of Cobitinae, widely distributed in Eurasian continent, have high economic, ornamental and scientific value. However, the phylogeny of Cobitinae fishes within genera or family level remains complex and controversial. Up to now, about 60 Cobitinae mitogenomes had been deposited in GenBank, but their integrated characteristics were not elaborated. RESULTS: In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the complete mitogenomes of a female Cobits macrostigma. Then we conducted a comparative mitogenome analysis and revealed the conserved and unique characteristics of 58 Cobitinae mitogenomes, including C. macrostigma. Cobitinae mitogenomes display highly conserved tRNA secondary structure, overlaps and non-coding intergenic spacers. In addition, distinct base compositions were observed among different genus and significantly negative linear correlation between AT% and AT-skew were found among Cobitinae, genus Cobitis and Pangio mitogenomes, respectively. A specific 3 bp insertion (GCA) in the atp8-atp6 overlap was identified as a unique feature of loaches, compared to other Cypriniformes fish. Additionally, all protein coding genes underwent a strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported the paraphyly of Cobitis and polyphyly of Misgurnus. The strict molecular clock predicted that Cobitinae might have split into northern and southern lineages in the late Eocene (42.11 Ma), furthermore, mtDNA introgression might occur (14.40 Ma) between ancestral species of Cobitis and ancestral species of Misgurnus. CONCLUSIONS: The current study represents the first comparative mitogenomic and phylogenetic analyses within Cobitinae and provides new insights into the mitogenome features and evolution of fishes belonging to the cobitinae family.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Composição de Bases , Cipriniformes/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética
20.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(1): 77-87, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529288

RESUMO

Polyploids in vertebrates are generally associated with unisexual reproduction, but the direct consequences of polyploidy on sex determination system and reproduction mode remain unknown. Here, we synthesized a group of artificial octoploids between unisexual gynogenetic hexaploid Carassius gibelio and sexual tetraploid Carassius auratus. The synthetic octoploids were revealed to have more than 200 chromosomes, in which 50 chromosomes including the X/Y sex determination system were identified to transfer from sexual tetraploid C. auratus into the unisexual gynogenetic hexaploid C. gibelio. Significantly, a few synthetic octoploid males were found to be fertile, and one octoploid male was confirmed to regain sexual reproduction ability, which exhibits characteristics that are the same to sexual reproduction tetraploid males, such as 1:1 sex ratio occurrence, meiosis completion and euploid sperm formation in spermatogenesis, as well as normal embryo development and gene expression pattern during embryogenesis. Therefore, the current finding provides a unique case to explore the effect of sex determination system incorporation on reproduction mode transition from unisexual gynogenesis to sexual reproduction along with genome synthesis of recurrent polyploidy in vertebrates.

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