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1.
Fitoterapia ; : 105085, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793883

RESUMO

Four new iboga-type alkaloids, ervaoffines HK (1-4), along with five known compounds were obtained from the aerial parts of Ervatamia officinalis. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. The isolates were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 9 showed potential inhibitory effect of NO production in LPS-stimulated BV2 and RAW264.7 cells.

2.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694166

RESUMO

Three new biflavonoids, umcephabiovins C - E (1 - 3), along with fourteen known compounds were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Cephalotaxus oliveri. Their structures and configurations were elucidated by UV, IR, NMR, ECD, and HR-ESI-MS spectra. Compounds 1 - 3 exhibited significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 7.05 ± 2.66, 24.45 ± 4.73, and 1.84 ± 1.14 µM, respectively. Compound 11 showed moderate cytotoxicity against the BaF3/T315I cell line.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3123-3132, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467704

RESUMO

The chemical constituents from the leaves of Ilex guayusa were investigated. Sixteen triterpenoids were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of dried leaves of I. guayusa by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatographies and semi-prepa-rative HPLC. Those triterpenoids were identified by NMR, HR-MS, and literature analysis: 3ß-hydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-nor-urs-4(23)-ene-28,13ß-olide(1), 3ß-hydroxy-24-nor-4(23),12-oleanadien-28-methyl ester(2), oleanolic acid(3), 3ß,28-dihydroxy-12-oleanene(4), 2α,3ß-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-'nor-olean-4(23)-ene-28,13ß-olide(5), ursolic acid(6), 3ß,23-dihydroxy ursolic acid(7), 3ß,28-dihydroxy-12-ursene(8), 3ß-28-nor-urs-12-ene-3,17-diol(9), 3ß-hydroxyurs-11-ene-28,13ß-olide(10), 13ß,28-epoxy-3ß-hydroxy-11-ursene(11), 3ß-hydroxy-28,28-dimethoxy-12-ursene(12), 3ß-hydroxy-24-nor-urs-4(23),12-dien-28-oic acid(13), 3ß-hydroxy-24-nor-urs-4(23),12-dien-28-methyl ester(14), 2α,3ß-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-nor-urs-4(23)-ene-28,13ß-olide(15) and 2α,3ß-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-nor-urs-4(23),20(30)-dien-28,13ß-olide(16). Compounds 1-2 were new compounds, and compounds 4-5, 7 and 9-16 were isolated from I. guayusa for the first time.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ilex guayusa , Ácido Oleanólico , Triterpenos , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta
4.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507510

RESUMO

Bixasteroid (1), one new steroid together with five known compounds (2-6), were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Bixa orellana fruits. All of these known compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic data analysis as well as by the quantum chemical ECD calculations. All the isolated compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibiting NO release activities in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages with the IC50 values of 4.72 ± 0.28 and 5.48 ± 1.48 µM, respectively.

5.
Int Orthop ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448923

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reconstruction of severe acetabular deficiency is extremely challenging in total hip arthroplasty (THA) revisions. Novel bispherical augments were designed to fill acetabular bone loss and facilitate restoration of hip center of rotation (HCOR). Current study aims to compare the outcomes of bispherical augments and tantalum augments. METHODS: Between July 2017 and December 2018, bispherical augments (BA group) were implanted in 25 patients (25 hips) and 22 patients (22 hips) underwent porous tantalum augments (TA group) reconstruction in revision THA. Clinical and radiographic results were evaluated for 25 hips in BA group and 20 hips in TA group at the final follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up was 2.9 years (range, 2.2 ~ 3.7) in BA group and 2.9 years (range, 2.3 ~ 3.8) in TA group. RESULTS: Harris hip scores, HCOR, and leg length discrepancy (LLD) correction did not differ between the treatment groups. The bispherical augments were located more closer to the medial-superior part (zone II) of acetabular shell while the majority of tantalum augments were located at the lateral-superior part (zone I) (P = 0.010). More screws were used in the BA group for augment fixation (mean 2.1 vs. 1.3) (P = 0.000). There was no evidence of loosening or migration in all hips. Only one dislocation occurred in BA group and treated with closed reduction, no recurrence of instability up to the final follow-up. CONCLUSION: The clinical and radiological outcomes of bispherical augments were comparable with tantalum augments; this technique was a reliable alternative method in severe acetabular deficiency reconstruction.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3364-3367, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396756

RESUMO

Mansoa alliacea,commonly known as garlic vine,is native to the tropical rain forests of South America and widely cultivated in South China. As a popular folk medicine with various biological activities,however,this plant remains to be fully elucidated in terms of its phytochemical constituents. In this study,two new pyranonaphthoquinones were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the leaves and twigs of M. alliacea by various chromatographic approaches including silica gel,octadecyl silica( ODS),Sephadex LH-20,and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography( PHPLC). Their structures were determined to be 8,9-dimethoxy-α-lapachone( 1) and 7-hydroxy-8,9-dimethoxy-α-lapachone( 2) by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and therefore respectively named as mansonin A( 1) and mansonin B( 2).


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos , Folhas de Planta , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
7.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451605

RESUMO

Waterlogging occurs when soil is saturated with water, leading to anaerobic conditions in the root zone of plants. Climate change is increasing the frequency of waterlogging events, resulting in considerable crop losses. Plants respond to waterlogging stress by adventitious root growth, aerenchyma formation, energy metabolism, and phytohormone signalling. Genotypes differ in biomass reduction, photosynthesis rate, adventitious roots development, and aerenchyma formation in response to waterlogging. We reviewed the detrimental effects of waterlogging on physiological and genetic mechanisms in four major cereal crops (rice, maize, wheat, and barley). The review covers current knowledge on waterlogging tolerance mechanism, genes, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with waterlogging tolerance-related traits, the conventional and modern breeding methods used in developing waterlogging tolerant germplasm. Lastly, we describe candidate genes controlling waterlogging tolerance identified in model plants Arabidopsis and rice to identify homologous genes in the less waterlogging-tolerant maize, wheat, and barley.

8.
J Med Chem ; 64(16): 12089-12108, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404206

RESUMO

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a potential target for the discovery of chemosensitizers and anticancer drugs. Amentoflavone (AMF) is reported to be a selective PARP-1 inhibitor. Here, structural modifications and trimming of AMF have led to a series of AMF derivatives (9a-h) and apigenin-piperazine/piperidine hybrids (14a-p, 15a-p, 17a-h, and 19a-f), respectively. Among these compounds, 15l exhibited a potent PARP-1 inhibitory effect (IC50 = 14.7 nM) and possessed high selectivity to PARP-1 over PARP-2 (61.2-fold). Molecular dynamics simulation and the cellular thermal shift assay revealed that 15l directly bound to the PARP-1 structure. In in vitro and in vivo studies, 15l showed a potent chemotherapy sensitizing effect against A549 cells and a selective cytotoxic effect toward SK-OV-3 cells through PARP-1 inhibition. 15l·2HCl also displayed good ADME characteristics, pharmacokinetic parameters, and a desirable safety margin. These findings demonstrated that 15l·2HCl may serve as a lead compound for chemosensitizers and the (BRCA-1)-deficient cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Flavonas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Descoberta de Drogas , Feminino , Flavonas/síntese química , Flavonas/metabolismo , Flavonas/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/síntese química , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacocinética , Ligação Proteica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(9): 2875-2889, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059938

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Using genomic structural equation modelling, this research demonstrates an efficient way to identify genetically correlating traits and provides an effective proxy for multi-trait selection to consider the joint genetic architecture of multiple interacting traits in crop breeding. Breeding crop cultivars with optimal value across multiple traits has been a challenge, as traits may negatively correlate due to pleiotropy or genetic linkage. For example, grain yield and grain protein content correlate negatively with each other in cereal crops. Future crop breeding needs to be based on practical yet accurate evaluation and effective selection of beneficial trait to retain genes with the best agronomic score for multiple traits. Here, we test the framework of whole-system-based approach using structural equation modelling (SEM) to investigate how one trait affects others to guide the optimal selection of a combination of agronomically important traits. Using ten traits and genome-wide SNP profiles from a worldwide barley panel and SEM analysis, we revealed a network of interacting traits, in which tiller number contributes positively to both grain yield and protein content; we further identified common genetic factors affecting multiple traits in the network of interaction. Our method demonstrates an efficient way to identify genetically correlating traits and underlying pleiotropic genetic factors and provides an effective proxy for multi-trait selection within a whole-system framework that considers the joint genetic architecture of multiple interacting traits in crop breeding. Our findings suggest the promise of a whole-system approach to overcome challenges such as the negative correlation of grain yield and protein content to facilitating quantitative and objective breeding decisions in future crop breeding.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
J Nat Prod ; 84(7): 1954-1966, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170694

RESUMO

Cdc37 associates kinase clients to Hsp90 and promotes the development of cancers. Celastrol, a natural friedelane triterpenoid, can disrupt the Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction to provide antitumor effects. In this study, 31 new celastrol derivatives, 2a-2d, 3a-3g, and 4a-4t, were designed and synthesized, and their Hsp90-Cdc37 disruption activities and antiproliferative activities against cancer cells were evaluated. Among these compounds, 4f, with the highest tumor cell selectivity (15.4-fold), potent Hsp90-Cdc37 disruption activity (IC50 = 1.9 µM), and antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50 = 0.2 µM), was selected as the lead compound. Further studies demonstrated 4f has strong antitumor activities both in vitro and in vivo through disrupting the Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction and inhibiting angiogenesis. In addition, 4f exhibited less toxicity than celastrol and showed a good pharmacokinetics profile in vivo. These findings suggest that 4f may be a promising candidate for development of new cancer therapies.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9933, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976352

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate whether carbon nanoparticles could improve the accuracy of nodal staging in colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a randomized controlled trial with CRC at the department of general surgery, the affiliated hospital of Nanjing University Medical School. A total of 160 patients were recruited in this research and 132 patients were included in the safety analyses. Among these patients, 72 cases were classified into control group and 60 cases into study group. The mean number of lymph nodes harvested from patients in study group was 19.3 ± 6.7 (range from 4 to 38), which was higher than that in control group (15.1 ± 5.7 (range from 3 to 29)) (p < 0.001). The mean number of positive lymph nodes got from patients in study group was 1.7 ± 3.5 (range from 0 to 22), which was also higher than that in control group (0.7 ± 1.4 (range from 0 to 7)) (p = 0.045). In study group, there were 30 patients (50%) proved to be N0, and remaining 30 patients (50%) were N1 or N2. However, 50 patients (69.4%) were N0 and 22 patients (30.6%) were N1 or N2 in control group. The rate of N0 in control group was significantly higher than that in study group (p = 0.023). Injecting carbon nanoparticle suspension could get a more accurate nodal staging to receive enough chemoradiotherapy, improving prognosis. Besides, injecting carbon nanoparticles suspension at four points 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm away from the anus by "sandwich" method was a new try.Trial registration: This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number ChiCTR1900025127 on 12/8/2019.


Assuntos
Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Carbono/química , China , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanopartículas/química , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/metabolismo , Suspensões
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(10): 2509-2513, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047097

RESUMO

In order to study the alkaloids from branches and leaves of Ervatamia hainanensis, silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC chromatography were used to obtain six alkaloids from the branches and leaves of E. hainanensis with use of. Based on the physicochemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as 10-hydroxydemethylhirsuteine(1), 3R-hydroxycoronaridine(2), 3-(2-oxopropyl)coronaridine(3), pandine(4), 16-epi-vobasine(5), and 16-epi-vobasinic acid(6). Among them, compound 1 was a new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, and compounds 5 and 6 were obtained from this plant for the first time.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Tabernaemontana , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta
13.
J Med Chem ; 64(11): 7760-7777, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019417

RESUMO

N-Phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids (NPAs) are inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitors possessing preventive effects for Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, structural modifications for improving the iNOS inhibitory activity and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of NPAs were conducted, leading to 20 optimized NPA derivatives (1-20). Compound 18, with the most potent activity (IC50 = 74 nM), high BBB permeability (Pe = 19.1 × 10-6 cm/s), and high selectivity over other NOS isoforms, was selected as the lead compound. Further studies demonstrated that 18 directly binds to iNOS. In the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced acute PD model, the oral administration of 18 (1 and 2 mg/kg) exerted preventive effects by alleviating the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. Notably, in the MPTP-/probenecid-induced chronic PD model, the same dose of 18 also displayed a therapeutic effect by repairing the damaged DAergic neurons. Finally, good pharmacokinetic properties and low toxicity made 18 a promising candidate for the treatment of PD.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Propanóis/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Intoxicação por MPTP/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por MPTP/patologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Plant Commun ; 2(2): 100082, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898972

RESUMO

Recalcitrance to tissue culture and genetic transformation is the major bottleneck for gene manipulation in crops. In barley, immature embryos of Golden Promise have typically been used as explants for transformation. However, the genotype dependence of this approach limits the genetic modification of commercial varieties. Here, we developed an anther culture-based system that permits the effective creation of transgenic and gene-edited plants from commercial barley varieties. The protocol was tested in Golden Promise and four Australian varieties, which differed in phenology, callus induction, and green plant regeneration responses. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was performed on microspore-derived callus to target the HvPDS gene, and T0 albinos with targeted mutations were successfully obtained from commercial varieties. Further editing of three targets was achieved with an average mutation rate of 53% in the five varieties. In 51 analyzed T0 individuals, Cas9 induced a large proportion (69%) of single-base indels and two-base deletions in the target sites, with variable mutation rates among targets and varieties. Both on-target and off-target activities were detected in T1 progenies. Compared with immature embryo protocols, this genotype-independent platform can deliver a high editing efficiency and more regenerant plants within a similar time frame. It shows promise for functional genomics and the application of CRISPR technologies for the precise improvement of commercial varieties.

15.
J Nat Prod ; 84(5): 1425-1433, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882233

RESUMO

Toads produce potent toxins, named bufadienolides, to defend against their predators. Pharmacological research has revealed that bufadienolides are potential anticancer drugs. In this research, we reported nine bufadienolides from the eggs of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans, including two new compounds (1 and 3). The chemical structures of 1 and 3, as well as of one previously reported semisynthesized compound (2), were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data interpretation, chemical methods, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 is an unusual 19-norbufadienolide with rearranged A/B rings. A biological test revealed that compounds 2 and 4-8 showed potent cytotoxic activities toward human melanoma cell line SK-MEL-1 with IC50 values less than 1.0 µM. A preliminary mechanism investigation revealed that the most potent compound, 8, could induce apoptosis via PARP cleavage, while 5 and 6 significantly suppressed angiogenesis in zebrafish. Furthermore, an in vivo biological study showed that 5, 6, and 8 inhibit SK-MEL-1 cell growth significantly.

16.
Plant J ; 106(2): 419-434, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506596

RESUMO

The future of plant cultivar improvement lies in the evaluation of genetic resources from currently available germplasm. Today's gene pool of crop genetic diversity has been shaped during domestication and more recently by breeding. Recent efforts in plant breeding have been aimed at developing new and improved varieties from poorly adapted crops to suit local environments. However, the impact of these breeding efforts is poorly understood. Here, we assess the contributions of both historical and recent breeding efforts to local adaptation and crop improvement in a global barley panel by analysing the distribution of genetic variants with respect to geographic region or historical breeding category. By tracing the impact that breeding had on the genetic diversity of Hordeum vulgare (barley) released in Australia, where the history of barley production is relatively young, we identify 69 candidate regions within 922 genes that were under selection pressure. We also show that modern Australian barley varieties exhibit 12% higher genetic diversity than historical cultivars. Finally, field-trialling and phenotyping for agriculturally relevant traits across a diverse range of Australian environments suggests that genomic regions under strong breeding selection and their candidate genes are closely associated with key agronomic traits. In conclusion, our combined data set and germplasm collection provide a rich source of genetic diversity that can be applied to understanding and improving environmental adaptation and enhanced yields.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Hordeum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Austrália , Produção Agrícola , Domesticação , Genes de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética
17.
Chin Med ; 15(1): 123, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292395

RESUMO

Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process for long-lived intracellular proteins and organelles mediated by lysosomes. Deficits in the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) have been linked to a variety of human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancers. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) has been identified as a major regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that TFEB activation can promote the clearance of toxic protein aggregates and regulate cellular metabolism. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-derived natural products as important sources for drug discovery have been widely used for the treatment of various diseases associated with ALP dysfunction. Herein, we review (1) the regulation of TFEB and ALP; (2) TFEB and ALP dysregulation in human diseases; (3) TFEB activators from natural products and their potential uses.

18.
Database (Oxford) ; 20202020 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247932

RESUMO

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the first domesticated grain crops and represents the fourth most important cereal source for human and animal consumption. BarleyVarDB is a database of barley genomic variation. It can be publicly accessible through the website at http://146.118.64.11/BarleyVar. This database mainly provides three sets of information. First, there are 57 754 224 single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and 3 600 663 insertions or deletions (InDels) included in BarleyVarDB, which were identified from high-coverage whole genome sequencing of 21 barley germplasm, including 8 wild barley accessions from 3 barley evolutionary original centers and 13 barley landraces from different continents. Second, it uses the latest barley genome reference and its annotation information publicly accessible, which has been achieved by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC). Third, 522 212 whole genome-wide microsatellites/simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also included in this database, which were identified in the reference barley pseudo-molecular genome sequence. Additionally, several useful web-based applications are provided including JBrowse, BLAST and Primer3. Users can design PCR primers to asses polymorphic variants deposited in this database and use a user-friendly interface for accessing the barley reference genome. We envisage that the BarleyVarDB will benefit the barley genetic research community by providing access to all publicly available barley genomic variation information and barley reference genome as well as providing them with an ultra-high density of SNP and InDel markers for molecular breeding and identification of functional genes with important agronomic traits in barley. Database URL: http://146.118.64.11/BarleyVar.

19.
J Nat Prod ; 83(12): 3502-3510, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253570

RESUMO

Nine new limonoids, meliazedarines A-I (1-9), seven known analogues (10-16), and five known triterpenoids (17-21) were isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach. Their structures were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, X-ray diffraction, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compound 7 showed significant cytotoxicity against the HCT116 cell line with IC50 values of 0.3 ± 0.1 µM.

20.
Nature ; 588(7837): 284-289, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239781

RESUMO

Genetic diversity is key to crop improvement. Owing to pervasive genomic structural variation, a single reference genome assembly cannot capture the full complement of sequence diversity of a crop species (known as the 'pan-genome'1). Multiple high-quality sequence assemblies are an indispensable component of a pan-genome infrastructure. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop with a long history of cultivation that is adapted to a wide range of agro-climatic conditions2. Here we report the construction of chromosome-scale sequence assemblies for the genotypes of 20 varieties of barley-comprising landraces, cultivars and a wild barley-that were selected as representatives of global barley diversity. We catalogued genomic presence/absence variants and explored the use of structural variants for quantitative genetic analysis through whole-genome shotgun sequencing of 300 gene bank accessions. We discovered abundant large inversion polymorphisms and analysed in detail two inversions that are frequently found in current elite barley germplasm; one is probably the product of mutation breeding and the other is tightly linked to a locus that is involved in the expansion of geographical range. This first-generation barley pan-genome makes previously hidden genetic variation accessible to genetic studies and breeding.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Hordeum/genética , Internacionalidade , Mutação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Loci Gênicos/genética , Genótipo , Hordeum/classificação , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Padrões de Referência , Banco de Sementes , Inversão de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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