Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 74
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Addict Biol ; : e12863, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908107

RESUMO

Alcohol Use Disorder has been associated with impairments of functional connectivity between neural networks underlying reward processing and cognitive control. Evidence for aberrant functional connectivity between the striatum, insula, and frontal cortex in alcohol users exists at rest, but not during cue-exposure. In this study, we investigated functional connectivity changes during a cue-reactivity task across different subgroups of alcohol consumers. Ninety-six participants (ranging from light social to heavy social drinkers and nonabstinent dependent to abstinent dependent drinkers) were examined. A functional magnetic resonance imaging cue-reactivity paradigm was administered, during which alcohol-related and neutral stimuli were presented. Applying psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found: (a) Abstinent alcohol-dependent patients compared with non-abstinent dependent drinkers showed a greater increase of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum and anterior insula with the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the presentation of alcohol cues compared with neutral cues. (b) Subjective craving correlated positively with functional connectivity change between the posterior insula and the medial orbitofrontal cortex and negatively with functional connectivity change between the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. (c) Compulsivity of alcohol use correlated positively with functional connectivity change between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum, anterior insula, and posterior insula. Results suggest increased cognitive control over cue-processing in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients, compensating high levels of cue-provoked craving and compulsive use. Clinical trial registration details: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00926900.

2.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959921

RESUMO

Classical reinforcement learning (CRL) has been widely applied in neuroscience and psychology; however, quantum reinforcement learning (QRL), which shows superior performance in computer simulations, has never been empirically tested on human decision-making. Moreover, all current successful quantum models for human cognition lack connections to neuroscience. Here we studied whether QRL can properly explain value-based decision-making. We compared 2 QRL and 12 CRL models by using behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy and cigarette-smoking subjects performing the Iowa Gambling Task. In all groups, the QRL models performed well when compared with the best CRL models and further revealed the representation of quantum-like internal-state-related variables in the medial frontal gyrus in both healthy subjects and smokers, suggesting that value-based decision-making can be illustrated by QRL at both the behavioural and neural levels.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827248

RESUMO

The Chinese Imaging Genetics (CHIMGEN) study establishes the largest Chinese neuroimaging genetics cohort and aims to identify genetic and environmental factors and their interactions that are associated with neuroimaging and behavioral phenotypes. This study prospectively collected genomic, neuroimaging, environmental, and behavioral data from more than 7000 healthy Chinese Han participants aged 18-30 years. As a pioneer of large-sample neuroimaging genetics cohorts of non-Caucasian populations, this cohort can provide new insights into ethnic differences in genetic-neuroimaging associations by being compared with Caucasian cohorts. In addition to micro-environmental measurements, this study also collects hundreds of quantitative macro-environmental measurements from remote sensing and national survey databases based on the locations of each participant from birth to present, which will facilitate discoveries of new environmental factors associated with neuroimaging phenotypes. With lifespan environmental measurements, this study can also provide insights on the macro-environmental exposures that affect the human brain as well as their timing and mechanisms of action.

6.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1649-1658, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451801

RESUMO

Comorbid depressive symptoms (CDS) in chronic pain are a common health problem, but the neural circuit mechanisms underlying these symptoms remain unclear. Here we identify a novel pathway involving 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus (5-HTDRN) to somatostatin (SOM)-expressing and non-SOM interneurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). The SOMCeA neurons project directly to the lateral habenula, an area known involved in depression. Inhibition of the 5-HTDRN→SOMCeA pathway produced depression-like behavior in a male mouse model of chronic pain. Activation of this pathway using pharmacological or optogenetic approaches reduced depression-like behavior in these mice. Human functional magnetic resonance imaging data showed that compared to healthy controls, functional connectivity between the CeA-containing centromedial amygdala and the DRN was reduced in patients with CDS but not in patients in chronic pain without depression. These findings indicate that a novel 5-HTDRN→SOMCeA→lateral habenula pathway may mediate at least some aspects of CDS.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/patologia , Depressão/patologia , Vias Neurais/patologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Dor Crônica/complicações , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/patologia , Feminino , Habenula/diagnóstico por imagem , Habenula/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuralgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuralgia/patologia , Optogenética , Serotonina/metabolismo , Somatostatina/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11045, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363107

RESUMO

Background visual scenes in which faces are perceived provide contextual information for facial expression processing. One type of background information, the language context, has a vital influence on facial expression processing. The current study is aimed to investigate the effect of the language context on facial expression processing by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). Experiment one adopted the facial expression categorization task to investigate the effects of different language contexts on emotional and non-emotional facial processing. Experiment two adopted the task-irrelevant paradigm to investigate whether the language context effect on facial expression processing was mandatory. The results found that (1) the language context affected facial expression processing. Facial expression processing was promoted when the language context was emotionally congruent with faces. Moreover, the language context had an evoking effect on neutral faces. To be detailed, neutral facial expressions were evoked to be judged as positive in the positive language context while as negative in the negative language context. (2) The language context effect still affected facial expression processing in a task-irrelevant paradigm. When the language context was emotionally incongruent with facial expressions, larger N170 and LPP amplitudes were elicited, indicating the inhibition of incongruent emotions. These findings prove that the language context effect on facial expression processing is mandatory.

9.
Brain Res ; 1720: 146308, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247205

RESUMO

Although mismatch negativity (MMN), a change-specific component of auditory event-related potential, is considered to be an index of sound discrimination accuracy, the amplitude of the MMN responses elicited by pitch height deviations in musicians and tone language speakers with superior pitch discrimination is usually not enhanced compared to that elicited in individuals with inferior pitch discrimination. We hypothesized that superior pitch discrimination is accompanied by enhanced lateral inhibition, a critical neural mechanism that sharpens the tuning curves of the auditory neurons in the tonotopy. Forty Mandarin-speaking healthy adults completed an auditory EEG experiment in which MMN was elicited by pitch height deviations in both pure and harmonic tones. Their behavioral pitch discrimination was indexed by the difference limens measured using pure and harmonic tones. Behavioral pitch discrimination correlated significantly with the MMN elicited by pure tones, but not by harmonic tones; this could be due to lateral inhibition strongly influencing the MMN elicited by harmonic tones but having less effect on the MMN elicited by pure tones. As lateral inhibition is a neural mechanism for attenuating the amplitude of MMN, our results support the notion that an enhanced lateral inhibition mechanism underlies superior pitch discrimination.

10.
Brain ; 142(6): 1827-1841, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135053

RESUMO

With approximately 75% of smokers resuming cigarette smoking after using the Gold Standard Programme for smoking cessation, investigation into novel therapeutic approaches is warranted. Typically, smoking cue reactivity is crucial for smoking behaviour. Here we developed a novel closed-loop, smoking cue reactivity patterns EEG-based neurofeedback protocol and evaluated its therapeutic efficacy on nicotine addiction. During an evoked smoking cue reactivity task participants' brain activity patterns corresponding to smoking cues were obtained with multivariate pattern analysis of all EEG channels data, then during neurofeedback the EEG activity patterns of smoking cue reactivity were continuously deactivated with adaptive closed-loop training. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 60 nicotine-dependent participants were assigned to receive two neurofeedback training sessions (∼1 h/session) either from their own brain (n = 30, real-feedback group) or from the brain activity pattern of a matched participant (n = 30, yoked-feedback group). Cigarette craving and craving-related P300 were assessed at pre-neurofeedback and post-neurofeedback. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was assessed at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 4 months following the final neurofeedback visit. In the real-feedback group, participants successfully deactivated EEG activity patterns of smoking cue reactivity. The real-feedback group showed significant decrease in cigarette craving and craving-related P300 amplitudes compared with the yoked-feedback group. The rates of cigarettes smoked per day at 1 week, 1 month and 4 months follow-up decreased 30.6%, 38.2%, and 27.4% relative to baseline in the real-feedback group, compared to decreases of 14.0%, 13.7%, and 5.9% in the yoked-feedback group. The neurofeedback effects on craving change and smoking amount at the 4-month follow-up were further predicted by neural markers at pre-neurofeedback. This novel neurofeedback training approach produced significant short-term and long-term effects on cigarette craving and smoking behaviour, suggesting the neurofeedback protocol described herein is a promising brain-based tool for treating addiction.

11.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130882

RESUMO

Addicts are often vulnerable to drug use in the presence of drug cues, which elicit significant drug cue reactivity. Mounting neuroimaging evidence suggests an association between functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity networks and smoking cue reactivity; however, there is still little understanding of the electroencephalography (EEG) coherence basis of smoking cue reactivity. We therefore designed two independent experiments wherein nicotine-dependent smokers performed a smoking cue reactivity task during EEG recording. Experiment I showed that a low-theta EEG coherence network occurring 400-600 ms after onset during long-range (mainly between frontal and parieto-occipital) scalp regions, which was involved in smoking cue reactivity. Moreover, the average coherence of this network was significantly correlated with participants' level of cigarette craving. In experiment II, we tested an independent group of smokers and demonstrated that the low-theta coherence network significantly predicted changes in individuals' cigarette craving. Thus, the low-theta EEG coherence in smokers' brains might be a biomarker of smoking cue reactivity and can predict addiction behavior.

12.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028603

RESUMO

Hypnosis has a therapeutic effect on substance dependence. However, its neural basis remains unclear, which impedes its further clinical applications. This study investigated the mechanisms of smoking treatment based on hypnosis from two perspectives: immediate and follow-up effects. Twenty-four smokers screened from 132 volunteers underwent hypnosis suggestion and performed a smoking-related cue task twice during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning (in normal and hypnotic states). The number of cigarettes smoked per day was recorded at follow-up visits. The smokers reported decreased craving after hypnosis. The activations in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC), the left insula and the right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), and the functional connectivity between the rDLPFC and the left insula were increased in the hypnotic state. The reduced craving was related to the DLPFC-insula network, which reflected the immediate mechanism of hypnosis on smoking. The number of cigarette use at the 1-week and 1 month follow-up was correlated with the rMFG activation which reflecting hypnotic depth, suggesting the follow-up effect of hypnosis on smoking depended on the trait of smokers. We identified two different mechanisms of hypnosis effect on smoking, which have important implications for design and optimization of hypnotic treatments on mental disorders.

13.
Front Psychol ; 10: 365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863342

RESUMO

The romantic relationship refers to the specific relationship in which partners are dependent upon each other to obtain satisfactory outcomes and facilitate the pursuit of their most important needs and goals. Satisfying romantic relationships is a strong predictor of better psychological well-being, better physical health, and longer life expectancy. However, romantic relationships are not all smooth-sailing and lovers are often confronted with a variety of unavoidable issues that constantly challenge the stability of their romantic relationships. Dissatisfying romantic relationships are harmful and even destructive. Dyads of lovers engage in a variety of efforts to protect and maintain their romantic relationships based on qualitative research methods including theories- and psychological consultation-based approaches. Unfortunately, those existing approaches do not seem to effectively improve romantic relationships. Thus, it is necessary to seek an efficient approach regulating dyads of lovers in romantic relationships simultaneously. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) with advantages over existing approaches satisfies this purpose. We discuss the practicability of tACS in detail, as well as why and how tACS can be utilized to improve romantic relationships. In summary, this review firstly introduced the concept of romantic relationship and the necessity of enhancing it. Then, it discussed methods to improve romantic relationships including some existing approaches. This review next discussed the practicability of using tACS to improve romantic relationships. Finally, it shone a spotlight on potential future directions for researches aiming to improve romantic relationships.

14.
Front Psychol ; 10: 12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766495

RESUMO

Inequalities have always been central to psychology, sociology and related fields such as social policy, gender studies, critical race studies, and human geography. Although inequality affects pro-social behaviors, there are still some controversies over this issue among people with disabilities. The current study aimed to investigate pro-social behaviors of people with disabilities and the effect of the irreversible inequality on pro-social behaviors. A dictator game was used to explore the difference of pro-social behaviors between people with disabilities and people without disabilities, when facing intra- or inter-group members. The results showed that compared to people with disabilities, people without disabilities were likely to show more pro-social behaviors. People with disabilities preferred intra-group cooperation, while people without disabilities preferred inter-group cooperation. Indeed, the intra-group cooperation was significantly greater than the expected cooperation of the intra-group members for people with disabilities. When facing the inter-group members, people without disabilities showed more than expected, that others would cooperate with them. These findings indicated that social avoidance was a common phenomenon for people with disabilities in China, but the situation would be different when they faced different groups. In addition, irreversible inequality could influence individuals' cooperative strategies when facing individuals in a different status.

15.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(6): 1718-1728, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467911

RESUMO

Hypnosis has been shown to have treatment effects on nicotine addiction. However, the neural basis of these effects is poorly understood. This preliminary study investigated the neural mechanisms of hypnosis-based treatment on cigarette smoking, specifically, whether the hypnosis involves a top-down or bottom-up mechanism. Two groups of 45 smokers underwent a smoking aversion suggestion and viewed smoking-related pictures and neutral pictures. One group underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning twice (control and hypnotic states), whereas the other group underwent two electroencephalograph sessions. Our study found that self-reported smoking craving decreased in both groups following hypnosis. Smoking cue-elicited activations in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) and left insula (lI) and the functional connectivity between the rDLPFC and lI were increased in the hypnotic state compared with the control state. The delta band source waveforms indicated the activation from 390 to 862 ms at the rDLPFC and from 490 to 900 ms at the lI was significantly different between the smoking and neutral conditions in the hypnotic state, suggesting the activation in the rDLPFC preceded that in the lI. These results suggest that the decreased smoking craving via hypnotic aversion suggestions may arise from the top-down regulation of the rDLPFC to the lI. Our findings provide novel neurobiological evidence for understanding the therapeutic effects of hypnosis on nicotine addiction, and the prefrontal-insula circuit may serve as an imaging biomarker to monitor the treatment efficacy noninvasively.

16.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(4): 1049-1061, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593684

RESUMO

The processes involved in value evaluation and self-control are critical when making behavioral choices. However, the evidence linking these two types of processes to behavioral choices in intertemporal decision-making remains elusive. As the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), striatum, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) have been associated with these two processes, we focused on these three regions. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging during a delayed discounting task (DDT) using a relatively large sample size, three independent samples. We evaluated how much information about a specific choice could be decoded from local patterns in each brain area using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA). To investigate the relationship between the dlPFC and vmPFC/striatum regions, we performed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. In Experiment I, we found that the vmPFC and dlPFC, but not the striatum, could determine choices in healthy participants. Furthermore, we found that the dlPFC showed significant functional connectivity with the vmPFC, but not the striatum, when making decisions. These results could be replicated in Experiment II with an independent sample of healthy participants. In Experiment III, the choice-decoding accuracy in the vmPFC and dlPFC was lower in patients with addiction (smokers and participants with Internet gaming disorder) than in healthy participants, and decoding accuracy in the dlPFC was related to impulsivity in addicts. Taken together, our findings may provide neural evidence supporting the hypothesis that value evaluation and self-control processes both guide the intertemporal choices, and might provide potential neural targets for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsivity-related brain disorders.

17.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1862, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349495

RESUMO

When individuals interact with others, perceived information is transmitted among their brains. The EEG-based hyperscanning technique, which provides an approach to explore dynamic brain activities between two or more interactive individuals and their underlying neural mechanisms, has been applied to study different aspects of social interactions since 2010. Recently there has been an increase in research on EEG-based hyperscanning of social interactions. This paper summarizes the application of EEG-based hyperscanning on the dynamic brain activities during social interactions according to the experimental designs and contents, discusses the possibility of applying inter-brain synchrony to social communication systems and analyzes the contributions and the limitations of these investigations. Furthermore, this paper sheds light on some new challenges to future EEG-based hyperscanning studies and the emerging field of EEG-based hyperscanning for pursuing the broader research field of social interactions.

18.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1683, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283374

RESUMO

The social participation of the disabled people is unsatisfactory and low, one of the reasons often overlooked but of great importance may lie in the disparate patterns of social interaction between the disabled people and the abled people. The current study respectively recruited 41 and 80 disabled people in two experiments and adopted give-some games and public good dilemma to explore social interaction patterns between the disabled abled people. The results were as follows: (1) the disabled people preferred to interact with the disabled people and the abled people preferred to interact with the abled people. (2) The disabled abled people had higher cooperation, satisfaction and sense of justice when interacting with the disabled people than interacting with the abled people. (3) Advantage in the number of the disabled people could reverse their disadvantage in the identity. These results are of important practical value, which provides related theoretical support for the disabled people's federation and communities when carrying out activities for the disabled people.

19.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 461, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050401

RESUMO

Social network size is a key feature when we explore the constructions of human social networks. Despite the disparate understanding of individuals' social networks, researchers have reached a consensus that human's social networks are hierarchically organized with different layers, which represent emotional bonds and interaction frequency. Social brain hypothesis emphasizes the significance of complex and demanding social interaction environments and assumes that the cognitive constraints may have an impact on the social network size. This paper reviews neuroimaging studies on social networks that explored the connection between individuals' social network size and neural mechanisms and finds that Social Network Index (SNI) and Social Network Questionnaires (SNQs) are the mostly-adopted measurements of one's social network size. The two assessments have subtle difference in essence as they measure the different sublayers of one's social network. The former measures the relatively outer sub-layer of one's stable social relationship, similar to the sympathy group, while the latter assesses the innermost layer-the core of one's social network, often referred to as support clique. This subtle difference is also corroborated by neuroimaging studies, as SNI-measured social network size is largely correlated with the amygdala, while SNQ-assessed social network size is closely related to both the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. The two brain regions respond to disparate degrees of social closeness, respectively. Finally, it proposes a careful choice among the measurements for specific purposes and some new approaches to assess individuals' social network size.

20.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 303, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867316

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) represent a severe, world-wide problem, and are usually comorbid with psychiatric disorders, comorbidity increases the risks associated with AUDs, and results in more serious consequences for patients. However, currently the underlying mechanisms of comorbid psychiatric disorders in AUDs are not clear. Studies investigating comorbidity could help us understand the neural mechanisms of AUDs. In this review, we explore three comorbidities in AUDs, including schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), and personality disorders (PDs). They are all co-morbidities of AUDs with rate of 33.7, 28, and 50-70%, respectively. The rate is significantly higher than other diseases. Therefore we review and analyze relevant literature to explore whether these three diseases are the risk factors of AUDs, focusing on studies assessing cognitive function and those using neural imaging. We found that memory deficits, impairment of cognitive control, negative emotion, and impulsivity may increase an individual's vulnerability to AUDs. This comorbidity may indicate the neural basis of AUDs and reveal characteristics associated with different types of comorbidity, leading to further development of new treatment approaches for AUDs.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA