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1.
Opt Express ; 28(12): 18304-18316, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680029

RESUMO

Nonlinear frequency division multiplexing (NFDM) has been shown to be promising in overcoming the fiber Kerr nonlinearity limit. In multiple-eigenvalue modulated NFDM systems, the transmission capacity increases with the number of modulated eigenvalues. However, as the number of modulated eigenvalues increases, the complexities of the signal waveform and the nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) algorithm for demodulation increase dramatically as well, while the accuracy drops significantly. Meanwhile, impairments such as amplifier spontaneous emission noise and phase noise in practical channels would perturb the eigenvalues and the corresponding nonlinear spectra during transmission. Coupled with an increase in the modulation format order, it is difficult for NFT algorithm-based receivers to recover information. To enable the use of multiple-eigenvalue modulated NFDM systems, we propose an innovative receiver based on regression neural networks (NNs), which can demodulate information correctly for both single- and dual-polarization NFDM systems. The results show that it has strong robustness and has a certain tolerance to the impairments of communication systems. In the contrast that the poor demodulation performance of the NFT and the Euclidean minimum distance (MD) receivers for multi-eigenvalue modulated NFDM systems, our proposed NN receiver can achieve low bit error rate with 2 GBaud 16QAM modulation over 1,000 km transmission in four-eigenvalue modulated single-polarization NFDM systems. The performance of three receivers (NFT, MD and NN) in a two-eigenvalue modulated NFDM system are also compared, the NN receiver shows the best performance and appears more suitable for higher-order modulation formats.

2.
Opt Express ; 28(14): 20249-20263, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680089

RESUMO

We propose a blind and low-complexity modulation format identification (MFI) scheme for elastic optical networks (EONs). Since the square operation reduces half the number of the clusters in Stokes space, the scheme directly performs principal component analysis (PCA) on Stokes parameters after square operation. This greatly reduces the dimensionality of received signals from 3 × N to 3 × 3. Subsequently, three obtained principal components (PCs) are employed synthetically to identify the modulation formats. The effectiveness is first verified through 28 GBaud polarization division multiplexing (PDM)-BPSK/-QPSK/-8QAM/-16QAM/-32QAM/-64QAM simulation systems. Only using 2048 symbols, the required minimum optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) values to achieve 100% MFI success rate are all equal to or lower than their corresponding 7% forward error correction (FEC) thresholds. Besides that, the scheme also obtains significant tolerances to residual chromatic dispersion (CD) and differential group delay (DGD). Finally, the proposed scheme is further verified by 20 GBaud PDM-QPSK/-16QAM/-32QAM long-haul transmission experiments. The results demonstrate that the scheme exhibits good resilience towards fiber nonlinear impairments. More importantly, compared with other four kinds of MFI schemes, the used symbol number to achieve 100% MFI success rate notably equals to at most 2/5 as that of other schemes, and its time complexity can be reduced to O(N).

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(22): 227201, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567894

RESUMO

Three high-spin phases recently discovered in the spin-crossover system Mn(taa) are identified through analysis by a combination of first-principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulation as a low-temperature Jahn-Teller ordered (solid) phase, an intermediate-temperature dynamically correlated (liquid) phase, and an uncorrelated (gas) phase. In particular, the Jahn-Teller liquid phase arises from competition between mixing with low-spin impurities, which drive the disorder, and intermolecular strain interactions. The latter are a key factor in both the spin-crossover phase transition and the magnetoelectric coupling. Jahn-Teller liquids may exist in other spin-crossover materials and materials that have multiple equivalent Jahn-Teller axes.

4.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469223

RESUMO

The Seebeck effect explains the generation of electric voltage as a result of a temperature gradient. Its efficiency, defined as the ratio of the generated electric voltage to the temperature difference, is sensitive to local inhomogeneities that alter the scattering rate and the density of the conduction electrons. Spin-polarized Seebeck tunneling generates a distinct thermovoltage in spin-up and spin-down charge transport channels, which, as a key to spin caloritronics, focuses on transport phenomena related to spin and heat. Here, we report spatially resolved measurement of the spin-dependent thermovoltage in a tunneling junction formed by ferromagnetic Co nanoislands and a Ni tip using spin-dependent scanning tunneling thermovoltage microscopy (SP-STVthM). We resolve the nanoscale thermoelectric powers with respect to spin polarization, nanoisland size, stacking order of Co layers on a Cu substrate, and local sample heterogeneities. The observed thermally generated spin voltages are supported by first-principles and model calculations.

5.
J Gene Med ; 22(8): e3185, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sitosterolemia (STSL), also known as phytosterolemia, is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease caused by mutations in the ABCG5 or ABCG8 genes. The disease is a result of disorders in lipoprotein metabolism, and is characterized by tendinous and tuberous xanthomas, elevated plasma cholesterol and phytosterol levels, and thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia in several patients. The manifestations of STSL are diverse and can easily be misdiagnosed. In recent years, cases of this disease in children have been reported in succession. There is therefore a need for clinicians to improve identification of STSL and perform early intervention. METHODS: We evaluated four children with STSL caused by genetic mutations in ABCG5 or ABCG8, as well as their family members, by analyzing their clinical characteristics and performing Trio-whole exome sequencing. The biological consequences of the mutations were analyzed using various bioinformatics software. We also analyzed the consequences of a mutation commonly observed in STSL patients on the structure of the protein involved. RESULTS: We identified five previously unreported pathogenic mutations of different phenotypes of STSL: ABCG5 NM_022436:c.1337G>A; ABCG8 NM_022437:c.965-1G>A, c.323-1G>C, c.1418C>G and c.1534G>A. We also report the structural changes brought about by a mutation common in STSL patients, as well as the possible consequences of these changes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings further broaden the genotypic and phenotypic profiles of the onset of STSL in the pediatric population and provide information for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(5): 104767, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial enlargement is associated with increased risk for stroke. However, few studies that evaluated the correlation between left atrial size and ischemic stroke severity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the association between left atrial size and stroke severity, especially with cardioembolic and cryptogenic stroke in the Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 1271 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in this study. Echocardiographic left atrial diameter was measured and indexed to height. Stroke severity was assessed at admission with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Moderate-to-severe neurologic deficit was defined as NIHSS greater than or equal to 5. Patients were divided into mild, moderate, or severe abnormal left atrial size by tertile distribution. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of severe stroke after adjustment. RESULTS: Among all enrolled patients, 328 (25.8%) were classified into moderate-to severe stroke severity (NIHSS ≥ 5). In the multivariable model, compared with the lowest tertile of left atrial size, the odds ratio for moderate-to-severe neurologic deficit was 0.902 (95% CI, 0.644-1.264, P = .550) when left atrial size was the highest tertile. Of all patients, 190 patients were further categorized as cardioembolic and cryptogenic subtypes, and 70 (36.8%) were classified into moderate-to-severe stroke severity. After adjusting for confounders, compared with the lowest tertile, the top tertile of left atrial size was significantly associated with moderate-to-severe stroke (3.156, 95% CI, 1.143-8.711, P = .027). CONCLUSION: Left atrial enlargement was associated with more severe initial neurologic deficits of embolic subtypes (cardioembolic and cryptogenic stroke) in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

7.
Neurol Sci ; 41(7): 1913-1917, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062735

RESUMO

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a complex familial epilepsy syndrome. It is mainly caused by mutations in SCN1A gene, encoding type 1 voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit (NaV1.1), and GABRA1 gene, encoding the α1 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, while seldom related with SCN9A gene, encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7. In this study, we investigated a Chinese family with an autosomal dominant form of GEFS+. DNA sequencing of the whole coding region revealed a novel heterozygous nucleotide substitution (c.5873A>G) causing a missense mutation (p.Y1958C). This mutation was predicted to be deleterious by three different bioinformatics programs (The polyphen2, SIFT, and MutationTaster). Our finding reports a novel likely pathogenic SCN9A Y1958C heterozygous mutation in a Chinese family with GEFS+ and provides additional supports that SCN9A variants may be associated with human epilepsies.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 2074-2078, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097549

RESUMO

Quantum states are described by wave functions whose phases cannot be directly measured but which play a vital role in quantum effects such as interference and entanglement. The loss of the relative phase information, termed decoherence, arises from the interactions between a quantum system and its environment. Decoherence is perhaps the biggest obstacle on the path to reliable quantum computing. Here we show that decoherence occurs even in an isolated molecule, although not all phase information is lost, via a theoretical study of a central electron spin qubit interacting with nearby nuclear spins in prototypical magnetic molecules. The residual coherence, which is molecule-dependent, provides a microscopic rationalization for the nuclear spin diffusion barrier proposed to explain experiments. The contribution of nearby molecules to the decoherence has a nontrivial dependence on separation, peaking at intermediate distances. Molecules that are far away affect only the long-time behavior. Because the residual coherence is simple to calculate and correlates well with the coherence time, it can be used as a descriptor for coherence in magnetic molecules. This work will help establish design principles for enhancing coherence in molecular spin qubits and serve to motivate further theoretical work.

9.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(1): 87-91, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939241

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical application of the anterior tibial artery perforator propeller flap relay peroneal artery terminal perforator propeller flap in repair of foot and ankle defects. Methods: Between October 2014 and October 2018, 18 cases with foot and ankle defects were treated. There were 12 males and 6 females with an average age of 32.8 years (range, 8-56 years). There were 11 cases of traffic accident injuries, 3 cases of falling from height injuries, and 4 cases of heavy objects injuries. The wound was at the dorsum of the foot in 9 cases, the heel in 4 cases, the lateral malleolus in 5 cases. The time from injury to flap repair was 7-34 days (mean, 19 days). The size of wound ranged from 6.0 cm×2.5 cm to 11.0 cm×6.0 cm. The foot and ankle defects were repaired with the peroneal artery terminal perforator propeller flap in size of 6 cm×3 cm-18 cm×7 cm, which donor site was repaired with the anterior tibial artery perforator propeller flap in size of 8 cm×3 cm-16 cm×6 cm. Results: One patient had a hemorrhagic swelling in the peroneal artery terminal perforator propeller flap, and survived after symptomatic treatment. All recipient and donor sites healed by first intention. Eighteen patients were followed up 6-15 months (mean, 12.5 months). At last follow-up, the shape, color, texture, and thickness of the flaps in the donor sites were similar with those in the recipient sites. There were only linear scars on the donor sites. The two-point discrimination of the peroneal artery terminal perforator propeller flap ranged from 10 to 12 mm (mean, 11 mm). According to American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score criteria, the results were excellent in 15 cases and good in 3 cases, with an excellent and good rate of 100%. Conclusion: The foot and ankle defects can be repaired with the anterior tibial artery perforator propeller flap relay peroneal artery terminal perforator propeller flap. The procedure is not sacrificing the main vessel and can avoid the skin grafting and obtain the good ankle function.


Assuntos
Retalho Perfurante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles , Adolescente , Adulto , Tornozelo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Pele , Artérias da Tíbia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 877-883, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714018

RESUMO

H7 subtype avian influenza virus infection is an emerging zoonosis in some Asian countries and an important avian disease worldwide. A rapid and simple test is needed to confirm infection in suspected cases during disease outbreaks. In this study, we developed a reverse-transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay for the detection of H7 subtype avian influenza virus. Assays were performed at a single temperature (39°C), and the results were obtained within 20 min. The assay showed no cross-detection with Newcastle disease virus or infectious bronchitis virus, which are the other main respiratory viruses affecting birds. The analytical sensitivity was 102 RNA copies per reaction at a 95% probability level according to probit regression analysis, with 100% specificity. Compared with published reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, the κ value of the reverse-transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay in 342 avian clinical samples was 0.988 (p < .001). The sensitivity for avian clinical sample detection was 100% (95%CI, 90.40%-100%), and the specificity was 99.96% (95%CI, 97.83%-99.98%). These results indicated that our reverse-transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay may be a valuable tool for detecting avian influenza H7 subtype virus.

11.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(3): 168-173, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and spectrum of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) application and its related-factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in China. METHODS: A structured questionnaire regarding the use of CAMs was administered to PD patients by face-to-face interview. Demographic and social variables, clinical characteristics and treatments, and the related factors of PD were also surveyed. RESULTS: Ninety out of 113 patients (79.6%) reported that they had received CAMs treatment, of which 48.6% (55/113) patients had received CAMs treatment for PD. The top 3 kinds of CAMs for PD were Chinese materia medica, rehabilitation exercise, and acupuncture ordinally. The source of information regarding CAMs treatment mainly came from relatives and friends (51.8%, 73 cases), followed by physicians (31.9%, 45 cases), and medias such as television, newspapers or the internet (16.3%, 28 cases). Fifty percent of CAM users reported a good therapeutic efficacy, whereas 39% patients reported that they felt neither better nor worse after the treatment, while 11% patients claimed worsening of symptoms. Multiple correspondence analyses survey found the main factors affecting the selectivity of CAMs ranked in the following order: income, education, occupation, habitation, age at onset, Hoehn and Yahr staging, PD duration, and gender. CONCLUSION: CAMs, especially Chinese materia medica, rehabilitation exercise, and acupuncture, are widely used for PD patients in China.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(23)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783674

RESUMO

The effect of rolling temperature on the precursor of aluminum foam sandwich (AFS) prepared by powder metallurgy through Pack Rolling method is investigated in this work. The cross-section along rolling direction of the precursors was observed. It was found that periodic corrugated morphology with micro-cracks on the composite interface as well as cracks and micro-holes among core powder particles emerged abundantly at room temperature rolling. These defects degraded with increasing rolling temperature and completely disappeared when the rolling temperature reached 400 °C. Combining with foaming ability of these precursors, the densification mechanism of core powders was discussed. Powder particles deformed with difficulty at low rolling temperature; the gap between them cannot be effectively filled through their plastic deformation. Fracture occurred in powder core layer during co-extension with the outer panel and was partly embedded by it, resulting in corrugated composite morphology at the interface. The precursors of high density and excellent bonding interface were prepared at the rolling temperature of 400 °C. A more suitable foaming condition was determined.

13.
Opt Express ; 27(23): 34247-34257, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878476

RESUMO

The influence of the high index ring layer (HIRL) in a tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) on the interference observed, and thus on its potential applications in temperature sensing, has been investigated. The MZI was comprised of a tapered Ring Core Fiber (RCF), spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). Since part of core mode from the SMF was converted into cladding modes in the RCF, due to the mismatch in the cores between the RCF and SMF, the residual power enters and then propagates along the center of the RCF (silica). The difference in phase between the radiation travelling along these different paths is separated by the HIRL to generate an interference effect. Compared with fiber interferometers based on core and cladding mode interference, the thin fiber HIRL is capable of separating the high order cladding modes and the silica core mode, under grazing incident conditions. Therefore, the optical path difference (OPD) and the sensitivity are both substantially improved over what is seen in conventional devices, showing their potential for interferometric temperature sensor applications. The optimum temperature sensitivity obtained was 186.6 pm/°C, which is ∼ 11.7 times higher than has been reported previously.

14.
Opt Express ; 27(24): 34603-34610, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878647

RESUMO

A micro-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), with a thousands-µm-long ring-core fiber (RCF), is demonstrated, and its performance investigation is also implemented. In this paper, the proposed MZI is manufactured by ends-splicing the short RCF segment with single-mode fiber (SMF-28), respectively. The scheme of the MZI is a typically core-mismatch structure, which has the advantages of miniaturization and simplification. Due to the core mismatch between RCF and SMF, the light from the SMF can be well separated into ring core (RC) and silica center (SC) of the RCF at the first splicing point. After transmitting through the RC and SC, the two separated light beams encounter each other and interfere at the second splicing point. Different from conventional micro-fiber MZIs using SMFs or few-mode fibers, the RCF has a higher numerical aperture, which can generate a larger optical path-length difference with a short length fiber, accumulates a higher extinction ratio and suppresses the crosstalk between the core and cladding modes. Therefore, our proposed MZI is more stable and the best extinction ratios can reach up to 18.2 dB. Meanwhile, owing to the core structure of RCF (where SC is surrounded by high-index ring core), the power propagating through low-index area of RCF is mostly confined into SC (termed the silica-center modes). These characteristics would lead to the lower sensitivity to external disturbances.

15.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 28223-28238, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684579

RESUMO

Although fruitful studies have been conducted on carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimations in linear coherent optical fiber communication systems, there are few studies on CFO estimations and recoveries in the systems based on the nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT). Although the CFO is originated from the linear frequency domain, it definitely has effects on nonlinear spectra, including the shift of the nonlinear frequency and the phase rotations of the scattering data, which are similar to its effects on linear spectra. This work indicates that it is feasible to estimate frequency offset (FO) by capturing symbol variations in the nonlinear frequency domain (NFD) rather than in the linear frequency domain; the latter was usually exploited in the literature. Based on a thorough investigation of the FO induced behavior that appears in a nonlinear frequency division multiplexing (NFDM) system, we proposed a nonlinear frequency domain estimation method aided by training symbols (TS) using an angle search algorithm after NFT operations at the receiver. The discussions in this paper prove that the proposed method is generally applicable to the NFDM systems regardless of whether using single or multiple eigenvalues. A performance comparison between the NFD method and the conventional method in the linear frequency domain is performed with different modulation formats for both single and multiple eigenvalue NFDM transmission systems. The analysis results show that the proposed method holds the better stability and estimation accuracy in contrast with the linear domain estimation method. The TS overhead can also be deduced dramatically, which implies better transmission efficiency. Therefore, the NFD method is more powerful for eigenvalue NFDM transmission systems, especially for the scenarios where high order modulation formats and multiple eigenvalues are utilized.

16.
Opt Express ; 27(15): 21896-21913, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510258

RESUMO

Polarization demultiplexing is generally carried out by a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) based algorithm in polarization division multiplexing (PDM) coherent systems. However, in some extreme environments, the MIMO algorithm becomes inapplicable due to the ultra-fast rotation of the state of polarization (RSOP) and large polarization mode dispersion (PMD). In addition, the residual chromatic dispersion (RCD) is always present because of the mismatch of the compensated chromatic dispersion and real value induced in the optical fiber channel. According to the literature, the Kalman filter-based polarization demultiplexing algorithms possess very weak RCD tolerance. Faced with this dilemma, in this paper, a new Kalman filter structure is proposed, which can jointly compensate ultra-fast RSOP, large PMD and RCD. This Kalman filter structure enables the equalization of the RSOP in the time domain and compensation for RCD and PMD in the frequency domain. We verified the performance of the proposed Kalman scheme in the 28 Gbaud PDM-QPSK/16 QAM coherent system, with a comparison to constant modulus algorithm/multiple modulus algorithm (CMA/MMA). The simulation results confirm that, compared with CMA/MMA, the proposed Kalman scheme can provide a significant performance enhancement to cope with ultra-fast RSOP (up to 3 Mrad/s) and large PMD (more than 200 ps) with a large tolerance to RCD (over the range of ± 820 ps/nm in PDM-QPSK and ± 500 ps/nm in PDM-16 QAM).

17.
Opt Lett ; 44(12): 2994-2997, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199364

RESUMO

A novel all-fiber broadband mode multiplexer based on an elliptical ring core fiber structure mode selective coupler (MSC) is proposed and analyzed numerically. The MSC is composed of a core-doped single-mode fiber and a polarization-maintaining elliptical ring-shaped core few-mode fiber (FMF). The mode multiplexing can be implemented by a single LP01 mode excitation that does not introduce insertion loss, which can simplify and promote the multiplexer. The high refractive index difference between the elliptical annular region and the cladding of the FMF, as well as the ellipticity of the ring-shaped core of the FMF could not only decompose the degenerate modes, but also reduce the mode coupling of the adjacent spatial modes to eliminate the multiple-input-multiple-output digital-signal processing in the receiver of the mode division multiplexing system. Finally, a seven-mode multiplexer is modeled and optimized for operation covering the C+L band. Furthermore, the multiplexer provides a high coupling efficiency (>64% for the worst case) for the seven spatial modes, LP01, LP11a, LP11b, LP21a, LP21b, LP31a, and LP31b, and relatively high mode extinction ratios of more than 15 dB in the C-band.

18.
Mol Ther ; 27(7): 1327-1338, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129118

RESUMO

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is considered a lifelong disease characterized by optic nerve deterioration and visual field damage. Although the disease progression can usually be controlled by lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP), therapeutic effects of current approaches do not last long. Gene therapy could be a promising method for persistent treatment of the disease. Our previous study demonstrated that gene transfer of exoenzyme C3 transferase (C3) to the trabecular meshwork (TM) to inhibit Rho GTPase (Rho), the upstream signal molecule of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), resulted in lowered IOP in normal rodent eyes. In the present study, we show that the lentiviral vector (LV)-mediated C3 expression inactivates RhoA in human TM cells by ADP ribosylation, resulting in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and altered cell morphology. In addition, intracameral delivery of the C3 vector to monkey eyes leads to persistently lowered IOP without obvious signs of inflammation. This is the first report of using a vector to transduce the TM of an alive non-human primate with a gene that alters cellular machinery and physiology. Our results in non-human primates support that LV-mediated C3 expression in the TM may have therapeutic potential for glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness in humans.


Assuntos
ADP Ribose Transferases/genética , ADP Ribose Transferases/metabolismo , Toxinas Botulínicas/genética , Toxinas Botulínicas/metabolismo , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Intraocular , ADP-Ribosilação/genética , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Animais , Câmara Anterior/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/terapia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Lentivirus , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Distribuição Tecidual , Malha Trabecular/citologia , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Transdução Genética , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
19.
Opt Express ; 27(8): 11557-11570, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052999

RESUMO

We propose a joint blind equalization method for chromatic dispersion (CD) and ultra-fast rotation of state-of-polarization (RSOP) in a Stokes vector direct detection (SV-DD) system based on a new time-frequency domain Kalman filter structure. In an SV-DD system, the impairments induced by CD and RSOP possess a nonlinear form. Therefore, CD and RSOP cannot be treated sequentially, which causes difficulty in jointly equalizing these two impairments using an ordinary algorithm. The Kalman filter was proven to be effective in equalizing polarization effects in a coherent receiver. However, this approach has inherent limitations given that the Kalman filter was originally presented as a method implemented in the time domain whereas CD is eventually induced in the frequency domain. In this report, the proposed time-frequency domain Kalman filter can facilitate CD compensation in the frequency domain and RSOP equalization in the time domain by exploiting a sliding window structure. Both the CD compensation and the RSOP equalization are conducted in Stokes space when the proposed method is utilized, which is specially designed for an SV-DD system. The presented approach was checked using a 28 Gbaud 16-QAM SV-DD system simulation platform. The simulation results confirm that the method is very effective and has strong tolerance to CD (more than 2550 ps/nm, equivalent to a 150 km G. 652 fiber) combined with ultra-fast RSOP (up to 2 Mrad/s) for application in extreme polarization environments, like the transient lightning in a rainy day.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e028595, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123001

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antiplatelet therapy combining aspirin and clopidogrel is considered to be a key intervention for acute ischaemic minor stroke (AIMS) and transient ischaemic attack (TIA). However, the interindividual variability in response to clopidogrel resulting from the polymorphisms in clopidogrel metabolism-related genes has greatly limited its efficacy. To date, there are no reports on individualised antiplatelet therapy for AIMS and TIA based on the genetic testing and clinical features. Therefore, we conduct this randomised controlled trial to validate the hypothesis that the individualised antiplatelet therapy selected on the basis of a combination of genetic information and clinical features would lead to better clinical outcomes compared with the standard care based only on clinical features in patients with AIMS or TIA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This trial will recruit 2382 patients with AIMS or TIA who meet eligibility criteria. Patients are randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to pharmacogenetic group and standard group. Both groups receive a loading dose of 300 mg aspirin and 300 mg clopidogrel on day 1, followed by 100 mg aspirin per day on days 2-365. The P2Y12 receptor antagonist is selected by the clinician according to the genetic information and clinical features for pharmacogenetic group and clinical features for the standard group on days 2-21. The primary efficacy endpoint is a new stroke event (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) that happens within 1 year. The secondary efficacy endpoint is analysed as the individual or composite outcomes of the new clinical vascular event (ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction or vascular death). Baseline characteristics and outcomes after treatment will be evaluated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of Yangpu Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine (No. LL-2018-KY-012). We will submit the results of this trial for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800019911; Pre-results.

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