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1.
Aging Cell ; : e13522, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811872

RESUMO

The cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein (α-Syn) greatly contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis and underlies the spread of α-Syn pathology. During this process, extracellular α-Syn can activate microglia and neuroinflammation, which plays an important role in PD. However, the effect of extracellular α-Syn on microglia autophagy is poorly understood. In the present study, we reported that extracellular α-Syn inhibited the autophagy initiation, as indicated by LC3-II reduction and p62 protein elevation in BV2 and cultured primary microglia. The in vitro findings were verified in microglia-enriched population isolated from α-Syn-overexpressing mice induced by adeno-associated virus (AAV2/9)-encoded wildtype human α-Syn injection into the substantia nigra (SN). Mechanistically, α-Syn led to microglial autophagic impairment through activating toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) and its downstream p38 and Akt-mTOR signaling because Tlr4 knockout and inhibition of p38, Akt as well as mTOR prevented α-Syn-induced autophagy inhibition. Moreover, inhibition of Akt reversed the mTOR activation but failed to affect p38 phosphorylation triggered by α-Syn. Functionally, the in vivo evidence showed that lysozyme 2 Cre (Lyz2cre )-mediated depletion of autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) in microglia aggravated the neuroinflammation and dopaminergic neuron losses in the SN and exacerbated the locomotor deficit in α-Syn-overexpressing mice. Taken together, the results suggest that extracellular α-Syn, via Tlr4-dependent p38 and Akt-mTOR signaling cascades, disrupts microglial autophagy activity which synergistically contributes to neuroinflammation and PD development.

2.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 758053, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721001

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of tau deposition and its impact on functional connectivity (FC) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Hybrid PET/MRI scans with [18F]-THK5317 and neuropsychological assessments were undertaken in 26 participants with AD and 19 healthy controls (HC). The standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) of [18F]-THK5317 PET imaging was compared between the AD and HC groups. Significant clusters that revealed higher tau deposition in the AD group compared to the HC group were selected as regions of interest (ROI) for FC analysis. We evaluated the difference in the FC between the two groups for each ROI pair. The clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between the AD patients with negative FC and AD patients with positive FC for exploratory analysis. Results: The bilateral inferior lateral temporal lobe, dorsal prefrontal cortex, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and occipital lobe showed significantly higher [18F]-THK5317 accumulation in AD patients. Decreased FC in regions with higher SUVR was observed in AD patients, and the FC strength was negatively correlated with regional SUVR. Patients with a positive FC exhibited older ages, better cognitive performances, and a lower SUVR than patients with a negative FC. Conclusions: An impact of tau deposition was observed on FC at the individual level in AD patients. Our findings suggested that the combination of tau-PET and rs-fMRI might help predict AD progression.

3.
Open Biol ; 11(11): 210190, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753322

RESUMO

Genomic tRNA copy numbers determine cytoplasmic tRNA abundances, which in turn influence translation efficiency, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Using the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus as a model, we combined genomic sequence, transcriptome expression and ecological food resource data to study its codon usage adaptation. The results showed that, unlike intragenic non-coding RNAs, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) tended to be transcribed independently. This may be attributed to their specific Pol III promoters that lack transcriptional regulation, which may underlie the correlation between genomic copy number and cytoplasmic abundance of tRNAs. Moreover, codon usage optimization was mostly restrained by a gene's amino acid sequence, which might be a compromise between functionality and translation efficiency for stress responses were highly optimized for most echinoderms, while enzymes for saponin biosynthesis (LAS, CYPs and UGTs) were especially optimized in sea cucumbers, which might promote saponin synthesis as a defence strategy. The genomic tRNA content of A. japonicus was positively correlated with amino acid content in its natural food particles, which should promote its efficiency in protein synthesis. We propose that coevolution between genomic tRNA content and codon usage of sea cucumbers facilitates their saponin synthesis and survival using food resources with low nutrient content.

5.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 128: 104311, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752843

RESUMO

NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a kind of pattern recognition receptors, which are vital for detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and then trigger downstream immune responses in vertebrates. Although many NLR like genes have been identified in invertebrates in recent years, knowledge about their immune functions is still very limited. In the present study, a NLR like gene, designated as LvNLRPL1, was identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. It was widely expressed in multiple tissues and responsive to the infection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Knockdown of LvNLRPL1 could accelerate the proliferation of Vibrio in hepatopancreas and increase the mortality rate of shrimp after Vibrio infection. Meanwhile, knockdown of LvNLRPL1 also up-regulated the expression of Caspase 2, 3 and 5 in hemocytes, which caused apoptosis of more hemocytes. These results indicated that LvNLRPL1 played important immune functions in shrimp during Vibrio infection through regulating the apoptosis of hemocytes in shrimp. To our knowledge, this is the first time to reveal the immune function of a NLR like gene in crustaceans.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610611

RESUMO

MINI: Bleeding and pain following lumbar fusion surgery remains a challenge for orthopedists. We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial and confirmed that the topical application of multifunctional cocktail we designed provide an effective and safe method for simultaneously reducing pain and bleeding after spinal fusion. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of multifunctional cocktail for bleeding and pain control after spinal fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Managing postoperative bleeding and pain following spinal fusion remains a challenge. Topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA) or anaesthetic agents for bleeding or pain management just started recently, and the multifunctional cocktail for bleeding and pain control simultaneously after spinal fusion have never been published. METHODS: 90 patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion were enrolled in this study. The multifunctional cocktail was injected into the incision before wound closure in the cocktail group. In the control group, an equal volume of normal saline was injected and a patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) pump was used. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score; opioid consumption; intraoperative, postoperative, hidden and total blood loss (IBL, PBL, HBL, and TBL); volume of drainage (WD), haematocrit (Hct) levels of drainage; haemoglobin (Hb) levels; and complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no differences in the VAS within 48 h after surgery between the two groups. However, the opioid dosages in the control group were higher than those in the cocktail group. The PBL, TBL and HBL were lower in the cocktail group than in the control group. The drainage volume showed no differences between the two groups; however, the Hct level of drainage at 24 h after surgery was lower in the cocktail group than in the control group. The Hb level was higher in the cocktail group than in the control group at POD3. Thirteen patients with unbearable nausea and vomiting in the control group, while no complications in the cocktail group. CONCLUSION: Topical application of a multifunctional cocktail that we designed provides an effective and safe method for reducing pain and bleeding after spinal fusion.Level of Evidence: 1.

7.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 257, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease which has focal lymphocytic infiltration including a majority of CD4+ T cells. This study was to investigate the correlation of peripheral granzyme B (GranzB)-expressing CD4+ T cells with disease severity and histological lesion in patients with pSS. METHODS: We recruited 116 pSS and 46 health control (HC) using flow cytometry to examine the percentage of CD4+GranzB+CTLs in the peripheral blood, and immunofluorescence to test their expression in the labial gland. RESULTS: The percentage of CD4+GranzB+CTLs was significantly upregulated in pSS than in HC (7.1 ± 4.9% vs 3.1 ± 1.9%, p < 0.0001) and positive correlation with ESSDAI. The frequency of them was markedly higher in pSS with extraglandular manifestations. After excluding the other risk factors associated with pSS, they were still related to ESSDIA and extraglandular manifestations independently (p < 0.05), and they are the risk factor of extraglandular involvement (odds ratio = 1.928). Moreover, they could be observed in the LSGs. ROC curve analysis indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) of CD4+GranzB+CTLs was 0.796 to predict the activity of pSS and 0.851 to presume extraglandular manifestations. The best diagnostic cutoff point was 4.865 for pSS patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, we provide new evidence indicating the involvement of CD4+GranzB+CTLs over activation in the pathophysiology of pSS, which may serve as a new biomarker to evaluate the activity and severity of pSS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Sjogren , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Granzimas , Humanos , Glândulas Salivares Menores , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico
8.
PeerJ ; 9: e12248, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692255

RESUMO

Background: To summarize the current evidence on the effects of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) on high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and compare oncology results with intravesical chemotherapy (IVC). Methods: We performed a systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis of the primary outcomes of interest by a systematical search of multiple scientific databases in February 2021. The mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR) were calculated for continuous and dichotomous variables respectively, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The hazard radio (HR) with 95% CIs was used for overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: A total of six studies with 866 patients were included. For IAC combined with IVC versus IVC alone, statistically significant differences were found regarding tumor recurrence rate (OR: 0.51, 95% CI [0.36∼0.72], p = 0.0001), tumor progression rate (OR: 0.47, 95% CI [0.30∼0.72], p = 0.0006), tumor-specific death rate (OR: 0.49, 95% CI [0.25∼0.99], p = 0.05), PFS (HR: 0.47, 95% CI [0.23∼0.96], p = 0.04) and RFS (HR: 0.60, 95% CI [0.41∼0.87], p = 0.007). No significant difference between two groups was found for time to first recurrence (MD: 3.27, 95% CI [-2.37∼8.92], p = 0.26) and OS (HR: 1.20, 95% CI [0.44∼3.32], p = 0.72). For IAC alone versus IVC, There was no statistical difference in the terms of tumor-specific death rate (OR: 0.67, 95% CI [0.29∼1.53], p = 0.34), RFS (HR: 0.90, 95% CI [0.56∼1.46], p = 0.68) and PFS (HR: 0.71, 95% CI [0.32∼1.55], p = 0.39). Adverse events mainly included nausea/vomiting (36.3%), hypoleukemia (19.4%), neutropenia (16.0%), increased creatinine (9.9%), increased alanine aminotransferase (18.7%), and thrombocytopenia (9.9%). Conclusion: The IAC combined with IVC is a safe and effective treatment for high risk NMIBC, with lower rates of recurrence, progression, tumor-specific death, PFS and RFS, and with minor and tolerable events. The effectiveness of the IAC alone is parallel to the IVC alone.

9.
Int J Surg ; 94: 106135, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To summarize the current evidence on different laser-based enucleation techniques for benign prostate hyperplasia and compare the efficacy and safety of en-bloc, two-lobe and three-lobe techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through a systematical search of multiple scientific databases in March 2021, we performed a systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis of the primary outcomes of interest according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and AMSTAR (Assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews) Guidelines, whose protocol was registered with PROSPERO(CRD42021240684). RESULTS: A total of 9 studies were included. All three laser enucleation techniques had no statistically significant difference in terms of enucleated prostate weight, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), international prostate symptom score (IPSS), transient UI (TUI), persistent UI (PUI) and early postoperative complications. A shorter enucleation time was associated with the en-bloc technique compared to three technique (MD: -8.26, 95%CI: -12.73--3.79, p = 0.0003), whereas no significant difference was found in en-bloc versus two-lobe technique (MD:0.97,95%CI: -0.30-2.24,p = 0.13) and two-lobe versus three-lobe technique (MD: -3.19, 95%CI: -7.45-1.06, p = 0.14). A higher enucleation rate was associated with the en-bloc and two-lobe technique (MD: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.00-0.10, p = 0.03; MD: 0.09, 95%CI: 0.01-0.17, p = 0.03, respectively). A superior QoL was related to the two-lobe enucleation technique compared to three-lobe technique (MD: 0.22, 95%CI: 0.06-0.39, p = 0.009), whereas no meaningful difference was found in the group of en-bloc versus two-lobe (MD: -0.12, 95%CI: -0.62-0.37, p = 0.62) and group of en-bloc versus three-lobe (MD: -0.14, 95%CI: -0.56-0.29, p = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: En-bloc and two-lobe laser-based enucleation techniques are feasible and safe alternative to three-lobe technique with comparable surgical outcomes and similar functional outcomes. A superior enucleation efficiency was associated with En-bloc and the two-lobe techniques compared to the three-lobe technique.


Assuntos
Lasers de Estado Sólido , Próstata , Enucleação Ocular , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Masculino , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661696

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A novel light intensity-dependent lesion mimic mutant with enhanced disease resistance was physiologically, biochemically, and genetically characterized, and the causative gene was fine mapped to a 1.28 Mbp interval containing 17 high-confidence genes. Lesion mimic mutants are ideal for studying disease resistance and programmed cell death photosynthesis in plants to improve crop yield. In this study, a novel light intensity-dependent lesion mimic mutant (MC21) was obtained from the wheat variety Chuannong16 (CN16) by ethyl methane sulfonate treatment. The mutant initially developed tiny lesion spots on the basal part of the leaves, which then gradually proceeded down to leaf sheaths, stems, shells, and awns at the flowering stage. The major agronomic traits were significantly altered in the mutant compared to that in the wild-type CN16. Furthermore, the mutant exhibited a lesion phenotype with degenerated chloroplast structure, decreased chlorophyll content, increased level of reactive oxygen species, and increased resistance to stripe rust and powdery mildew. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesion phenotype was controlled by a novel single semi-dominant nuclear gene. The target gene was mapped on chromosome arm 2AL located between Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers, KASP-4211 and KASP-5353, and tentatively termed as lesion mimic 5 (Lm5). The fine mapping suggested that Lm5 was located in a 1.28 Mbp interval between markers KASP-5825 and KASP-9366; 17 high-confidence candidate genes were included in this genomic region. This study provides an important foundational step for further cloning of Lm5 using a map-based approach.

11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1181: 338905, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556219

RESUMO

Qualification and quantification of trace organic contaminants necessitates development of highly efficient sensing system, where excited-state inter-ligand proton transfer (ESILPT) provides a feasible pathway to construct efficient chemo-sensors. Herein, a strategically synthesized lanthanide complex, Eu(DBM)3(MeOH)3 (briefly as Eu-DBM-MeOH; DBM = dibenzoylmethane), features two-step ESILPT processes, along with modification on molecular structure and energy band. As a result, Eu-DBM-MeOH exhibits excellent photophysical properties with characteristic luminescence of Eu3+ ion. Benefiting from these merits, the Eu-DBM-MeOH complex acts as ultra-sensitive chemo-sensor toward nanomolar-level nitrofuran antibiotics (nitrofurazone and nitrofurantoin) in water, by disrupting ESILPT processes. Combining the advantages on photophysical property and luminescent sensitivity, ESILPT-active compounds are expected to widen and deepen the research on complex-based luminophores, being potentially useful in trace detection and biological imaging.


Assuntos
Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos , Nitrofuranos , Ligantes , Prótons , Água
12.
J Endourol ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the detection rate of micro-ultrasound with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy (mpMRI-TB) for prostate cancer diagnosis. METHODS: The studies on micro-ultrasound prostate biopsy for prostate cancer diagnosis were searched in PubMed, Cochrane library and EMBASE databases from inception to April.2021. we performed a systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis based on search results using Software Rev-Man 5.3. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies involving 1081 patients were included. The Meta-analysis showed that no significant difference was found between micro-ultrasound and mpMRI-TB in the total detection of prostate cancer(OR:1.01, 95%CI:0.85~1.21, p=0.89), of Grading Groups(GG)=1(OR: 0.92, 95%CI:0.68~1.25, p=0.59),of GG≥2(OR:1.01, 95%CI:0.83~1.22, p=0.92), and of GG≥3(OR: 1.31, 95%CI:0.95~1.81, p=0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Micro-ultrasound guided prostate biopsy provides comparable detection rates for prostate cancer diagnosis with the mpMRI-TB, which is expected to challenge mpMRI-TB in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

13.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(39): e0078221, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591671

RESUMO

We report 16 genomes assembled from the metagenome of pig manure digestate enriched with the addition of N2O. These denitrifying bacterial genomes all contain the nosZ gene, encoding N2O reductase. Their sizes range from 1,902,599 bp to 6,264,563 bp, with completeness of 75.03% to 98.89%, GC contents of 32.86% to 69.66%, and contamination of 0% to 8.4%.

14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7141-7160, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508284

RESUMO

Soil microbiomes are extremely complex, with dense networks of interconnected microbial species underpinning vital functions for the ecosystem. In advanced agricultural research, rhizosphere microbiome engineering is gaining much attention, as the microbial community has been acknowledged to be a crucial partner of associated plants for their health fitness and yield. However, single or combined effects of a wide range of soil biotic and abiotic factors impact the success of engineered microbiomes, as these microbial communities exhibit uneven structural and functional networks in diverse soil conditions. Therefore, once a deep understanding of major influential factors and corresponding microbial responses is developed, the microbiome can be more effectively manipulated and optimized for cropping benefits. In this mini-review, we propose the concept of a microbiome-mediated smart agriculture system (MiMSAS). We summarize some of the advanced strategies for engineering the rhizosphere microbiome to withstand the stresses imposed by dominant abiotic and biotic factors. This work will help the scientific community gain more clarity about engineered microbiome technologies for increasing crop productivity and environmental sustainability.Key points• Individual or combined effects of soil biotic and abiotic variables hamper the implementation of engineered microbiome technologies in the field.• As a traditional approach, reduced-tillage practices coinciding with biofertilization can promote a relatively stable functional microbiome.• Increasing the complexity and efficiency of the synthetic microbiome is one way to improve its field-application success rate.• Plant genome editing/engineering is a promising approach for recruiting desired microbiomes for agricultural benefit.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , Agricultura
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 738590, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497527

RESUMO

Perioperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) leads to progressive deterioration of cognitive function, especially in aged patients. Demyelination is closely associated with cognitive dysfunction. However, the relationship between PND and demyelination remains unclear. Here we showed that demyelination was related to the pathogenesis of PND. Clemastine, an antihistamine with potency in remyelination, was predicted to have a potential therapeutic effect on PND by next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics in our previous study. In the present study, it was given at 10 mg/kg per day for 2 weeks to evaluate the effects on PND in aged mice. We found that clemastine ameliorated PND and reduced the expression levels of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß). Further investigation suggested clemastine increased the expression of oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and myelin basic protein (MBP) to enhance remyelination by inhibiting the overactivation of the WNT/ß-catenin pathway. At the same time, the expression of post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95, or DLG4), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) and neuronal nuclei (NEUN) were also improved. Our results suggested that clemastine might be a therapy for PND caused by anesthetic and surgical factors in aged patients.

16.
Prostate ; 81(16): 1329-1336, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of 18 F-DCFPyL positron emission tomography (PET) and multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) in detecting transition zone (TZ) prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: This retrospective study included 20 patients who underwent 18 F-DCFPyL PET/MRI and 32 patients who underwent 18 F-DCFPyL PET/CT and MRI from January 2019 to June 2020. All patients had TZ lesions and underwent prostate biopsies. One senior (reader 1) and one junior (reader 2) nuclear medicine physician evaluated each TZ lesion independently, according to the molecular imaging prostate-specific membrane antigen scoring system and the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2.1 (PI-RADS v2.1). The histologic diagnosis of prostate biopsy was used as the reference standard. The diagnostic performance of the two methods was compared in terms of inter-reader agreement and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve. RESULTS: Of the 52 patients, 43 had TZ PCa. For inter-reader agreement, the kappa value was 0.883 for 18 F-DCFPyL PET and 0.393 for mp-MRI. For PET, both readers had the same diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 93.0%, 77.8%, and 90.4%, respectively. For mp-MRI, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was 67.4%, 33.3%, and 61.5% for reader 1, and 51.2%, 44.4%, and 51.9% for reader 2, respectively. PET outperformed mp-MRI for both readers with an AUC of 0.872 for PET versus 0.584 for mp-MRI, p = .0209 for reader 1, and an AUC of 0.860 for PET versus 0.505 for mp-MRI, p = .0213 for reader 2. Among the 43 patients with TZ PCa, 18 F-DCFPyL PET detected a distant bone metastasis missed by the CT in one case and two small lymph node metastases missed by the CT and MRI in another case. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that 18 F-DCFPyL PET, which was almost independent of the experience of the readers, was more objective in the evaluation of TZ lesions, and had higher diagnostic value than mp-MRI.

17.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 65: 102846, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a global pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a profound effect on public mental health. METHODS: Publications related to mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic from December 1, 2019, to November 13, 2020, were extracted from the Web of Science database. Bibliometric indicator analysis was performed using VOSviewer 1.6.15. RESULTS: In total, 1233 documents from 2020 were retrieved, of which 680 were original articles. The United States contributed the largest publication output (285, 23.1%). Huazhong University of Science and Technology published the most articles in this field (35), while Wuhan University received the most citations (1149). The United Kingdom had the strongest collaboration network. Four keyword clusters representing hotspots in this field were identified. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to developed countries, countries seriously affected by the COVID-19 pandemic also made significant contributions to mental health research during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study focused on various aspects, such as mental health during isolation, mental health in healthcare workers, and public mental health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the future, countries should strengthen global cooperation and pay more attention to the mental health of vulnerable groups during pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Bibliometria , Humanos , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
18.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442157

RESUMO

(1) Background: The governance measures that governments deploy vary substantially across countries and even within countries; there is, however, limited knowledge of the responses of local governments or from different areas in the same country. (2) Methods: By using grounded theory and an automatic text processing method, this study analyses the pandemic governance measures, the pandemic governance pattern, and possible factors across 28 provinces in mainland China based on the text of 28 official provincial government Sina microblogs dating from 20 January to 1 July 2020. (3) Results and discussion: The provincial pandemic governance patterns in China are divided into a pathogen-control pattern, a diagnosis and treatment consolidation pattern, a balanced promotion pattern, a quick-adjustment response pattern, and a recovery-oriented pattern. The pandemic severity, economic development, public health service, and population structure may all have an impact on pandemic governance measures. (4) Conclusions: The conclusions of this study may help us to reconstruct governance systems related to global public health emergencies from the perspective of normalisation, as well as providing important clarification for management and a reference for countries seeking to curb the global spread of a pandemic.

19.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105796, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343656

RESUMO

Restoring immune balance by targeting macrophage polarization is a potentially valuable therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis (UC). Dioscin is a steroidal saponin with potent anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, and hypolipidemic effects. This study examined the protective effect of Dioscin on UC in mice and explored the underlying mechanisms. Mice were induced colitis by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and concurrently treated with Dioscin oral administration. RAW264.7 cells were skewed to M1 macrophage polarization by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) in vitro, and received Dioscin treatment. The results showed that Dioscin ameliorated colitis in mice, reduced macrophage M1 polarization, but markedly promoted M2 polarization in mice colon. Dioscin inhibited mammalian target rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling and restrained glycolysis in RAW264.7; however, it activated mammalian target rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) signal and facilitated fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The modulation of mTORs signaling may inhibit M1, but promote M2 polarization. Furthermore, the effect of Dioscin on M2 polarization was neutralized by the FAO inhibitor Etomoxir and the mTORC2 inhibitor JR-AB2-011. In parallel, the inhibitory effect of Dioscin on M1 polarization was mitigated by the mTORC1 agonist L-leucine. Both JR-AB2-011 and L-leucine blocked the therapeutic effect of Dioscin in mice with UC. Therefore, Dioscin ameliorated UC in mice, possibly by restraining M1, while skewing M2 polarization of macrophages. Regulation of mTORC1/HIF-1α and mTORC2/PPAR-γ signals is a possible mechanism by which Dioscin inhibited aerobic glycolysis and promoted FAO of macrophages. In summary, Dioscin protected mice against DSS-induced UC by regulating mTOR signaling, thereby adjusting macrophage metabolism and polarization.

20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 716082, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335480

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the incidence and risk factors for lateral lymph node metastases (LNMs) in T1a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with a focus on tumor location and size. Materials and Methods: The incidence of lateral LNM in 345 cases of T1a PTC was retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationships between lateral LNM and clinicopathological characteristics. Results: The incidence of skip metastasis to lateral LNM in T1a PTC located in the upper lobe was 12.1% (8/66). Logistic regression analysis indicated tumor size >5 mm (OR = 5.04, 95% CI = 1.79 to 14.18, P = 0.002), upper lobe location (OR = 7.68, 95% CI = 3.05-19.34, P < 0.001) and the number of central neck LNM (<2: OR = 24.79, 95% CI = 8.23-74.60, P < 0.001; ≥2: OR = 4.99, 95% CI = 1.95-12.73, P < 0.001) were independently associated with lateral LNM. Comparing the lateral and central LNM stratification based on tumor location revealed that both the incidences of lateral (33.3%) and central (30.3%) LNM of T1a PTC located in the upper lobe were higher than those of T1a PTC located in the middle and lower lobes. Of T1a PTC located in the upper lobe, the incidence of lateral LNM was 33.3% (22/66), which was higher than that [30.3% (20/66)] of central LNM. This finding is reversed in all T1a PTC cases and T1a PTC cases with tumor located in the middle and lower lobes. Conclusion: A particularly high likelihood of lateral LNM was observed in T1a PTC patients with tumor located in the upper lobe of the thyroid gland, especially the tumor >5 mm in size, which could be considered a risk factor for lateral LNM in the clinical management of T1a PTC.

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