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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113096, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693116

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disorder and one of the most prevalent conditions encountered in primary care settings. Rhubarb navel dressings have been used for more than 2,000 years in Chinese medicine to treat constipation. However, the effect of topical rhubarb administration has still not been well recognized and this strategy is not yet established as an evidence-based approach. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we performed a prospective multicentric randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhubarb navel plasters for patients with chronic constipation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 374 patients from six teaching hospitals were prospectively included between 09/2016 and 10/2017 in the study based on Rome III criteria. All participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into verum/placebo group and given either Rheum officinale rhubarb powder or a placebo flour stick on the navel for 6 h/day/8 days. Primary outcome measures were the Cleveland Constipation Score (CCS) for the feces condition and Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) for stool consistency and 24 h defecation frequency. RESULTS: The groups demonstrated no statistical differences in demographic data, clinical diagnoses and concomitant medication at baseline. In patients treated with the verum CCS was 5.61 (day 8, 95% CI 5.15-6.07) compared to 8.62 (95% CI 8.07-9.18) in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). The mean change of CCS at the end of treatment (day 8 versus [vs] day 0) was 6.04 in verum-treated vs 2.73 in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). Also 24 h defecation frequency (BSS) showed superior results (day 5: 0.84 vs 0.62, 95% CI 0.67-0.80, P < 0.001; day 6: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64-0.78, P < 0.01 and day 8: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64-0.78, P < 0.01) and better BSS type classification during treatment than controls (P < 0.05). No significant differences in adverse events between both groups became obvious. CONCLUSION: Rhubarb navel plaster administration over an 8-day-treatment period resulted in significantly improved bowel function as demonstrated by the CCS, 24 h defecating frequency and BSS. Our results suggest that rhubarb navel plasters represent a feasible, safe and efficient application route for the treatment of patients suffering from chronic constipation.

2.
Complement Ther Med ; 54: 102541, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The evidence for the effect of remote ischemic postconditioning(RIpostC) on autonomic function in patients with acute ischemic stroke(AIS) is lacking and the neural mechanism underlying the protection of RIpostC remains speculative. This trial was aimed to evaluated the efficiency of RIpostC on autonomic function in AIS patients. DESIGN: One hundred and six AIS patients were included in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients in intervention group (n = 57) received 4 cycles of alternating inflation (cuff inflation to 200 mmHg) and deflation for 5 min on healthy upper arm once a day for 30 days. The control group underwent a sham inflation and deflation cycles. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV). RESULTS: All HRV parameters except for the ratio of low frequency to high frequency (P = 0.101) increased significantly with time (P < 0.001) in the two groups. The value of standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals(SDNN) and high frequency at day7 and day30 and the value of the percent of difference between adjacent normal R-R intervals (pNN50) at day 30 in RIpostC group was significantly higher than that of the sham-RIpostC group(P < 0.05). A significant time-by-group interaction was observed in SDNN、pNN50、and high frequency over time between two groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 30-day RIpostC could improve autonomic function in AIS patients through the enhancement of the total autonomic nerve activity and vagus nerve activity. The mechanism of RIpostC mediating autonomic function needs to be further investigated.

3.
Genomics ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181247

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, consisting of three types of sequentially phosphorylated kinases (MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK), play vital roles in various processes including plant development and stress response. In this study, 52 GhMAPKs, 23 GhMAPKKs, and 166 GhMAPKKKs were identified in upland cotton. Chromosomal locations, gene duplication and structure, motifs, cis-regulatory elements, and protein subcellular localization were further analyzed. With the identified MAPK cascade genes in G. arboretum and G. raimondii, a syntenic diagram of three cotton species was constructed. The interactions of seven GhMAPK cascade genes were investigated. Two complete signaling modules were defined: The GhMEKK24/GhMEKK31-GhMAPKK9-GhMAPK10 and GhMEKK3/GhMEKK24/GhMEKK31-GhMAPKK16-GhMAPK10/GhMAPK11 cascades. Moreover, interaction networks and the interaction pairs were combined with their expression patterns and demonstrated that the network mediated by the MAPK signaling cascade participates in abiotic stress signaling. Our research provides a foundation for studying the molecular mechanism of the MAPK signaling pathway under abiotic stress.

4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(17)2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631858

RESUMO

The bacterium Bacillus subtilis has long been an important subject for basic studies. However, this organism has also had industrial applications due to its easy genetic manipulation, favorable culturing characteristics for large-scale fermentation, superior capacity for protein secretion, and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. In addition, as the metabolically dormant form of B. subtilis, its spores have attracted great interest due to their extreme resistance to many environmental stresses, which makes spores a novel platform for a variety of applications. In this review, we summarize both conventional and emerging applications of B. subtilis spores, with a focus on how their unique characteristics have led to innovative applications in many areas of technology, including generation of stable and recyclable enzymes, synthetic biology, drug delivery, and material sciences. Ultimately, this review hopes to inspire the scientific community to leverage interdisciplinary approaches using spores to address global concerns about food shortages, environmental protection, and health care.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Biotecnologia , Materiais de Construção/microbiologia , Esporos Bacterianos
5.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 154, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is common after stroke. Patients with dysphagia have a higher risk of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) and poor outcomes. Early detection of dysphagia is necessary to identify and manage patients at high risk of aspiration. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the systematic administration of the volume-viscosity swallow test (V-VST) in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study that enrolled patients with acute ischaemic stroke in two consecutive time periods: pre-V-VST, when the 30-mL water-swallowing test (WST) was systematically administered, and V-VST, when all patients underwent the WST and the V-VST test was systematically administered if the patient failed the WST. RESULTS: Two hundred and 42 patients were enrolled. The mean age of the participants was 68.8 ± 10.88 years, 61.2% were male, and the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 3 (IQR, 1-6). A total of 147 patients were enrolled during the pre-V-VST period and 95 were enrolled during the V-VST period. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of SAP (21.8% vs. 10.5%, p = 0.024) and the rate of nasogastric tube feeding (25.9% vs. 14.7%, p = 0.040) between the two groups, and no differences were found in the length of hospital stay (p = 0.277) or the total cost of hospitalization (p = 0.846). CONCLUSIONS: The V-VST was a better clinical screening tool, and it can also provide detailed suggestions regarding dietary modifications to prevent aspiration and SAP.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Deglutição , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viscosidade
6.
J Adv Nurs ; 76(6): 1384-1393, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128865

RESUMO

AIMS: To test prospective pathways of a Comprehensive Reminder System based on the Health Belief Model (CRS-HBM), stroke knowledge, health belief in health behaviour, blood pressure (BP) control, and disability in hypertensive ischaemic stroke patients at 6-month postdischarge. DESIGN: A nested cohort study design. METHODS: Data were derived from a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of the intervention (N = 174, performed during February 2015 - March 2016). Data were collected by questionnaires and analysed in structural equation modelling in Mplus software. RESULTS: The proposed model provided a good fit to the data. This model accounted for 51.5% of the variance in health behaviour, 34.1% in BP control, and 5.7% in modified Rankin Scale score at 6-month postdischarge. The CRS-HBM had: (a) direct positive effect (ß = .391, p < .001) and indirect positive effects (ß = .186, p = .002) on health behaviour; (b) direct positive effect (ß = .356, p < .001) and indirect positive effects (ß = .183, p = .009) on BP control; and (c) indirect negative effect (ß = -.146, p = .008) on disability. Being female was linked to better health behaviour. Higher education predicted higher level of stroke knowledge and health belief. CONCLUSIONS: The CRS-HBM can not only directly but also indirectly improve patients' health behaviours by improving their health knowledge or health belief. Better health behaviour can improve patients' BP control and reduce disability. Therefore, nurses need to pay more attention to not only patients' health knowledge but also their health belief when providing education. IMPACT: The CRS-HBM intervention accounted for 51.5% of variance in health behaviour, 34.1% in BP control, and 5.7% in modified Rankin Scale score at 6-month postdischarge. This research can help nurses improve health education strategies in postdischarge and community contexts to achieve better health results.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 91, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant NADPH oxidase (NOX), also known as respiratory burst oxidase homolog (rboh), encoded by the rboh gene, is a key enzyme in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolic network. It catalyzes the formation of the superoxide anion (O2•-), a type of ROS. In recent years, various studies had shown that members of the plant rboh gene family were involved in plant growth and developmental processes as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses, but little is known about its functional role in upland cotton. RESULTS: In the present study, 26 putative Ghrboh genes were identified and characterized. They were phylogenetically classified into six subfamilies and distributed at different densities across 18 of the 26 chromosomes or scaffolds. Their exon-intron structures, conserved domains, synteny and collinearity, gene family evolution, regulation mediated by cis-acting elements and microRNAs (miRNAs) were predicted and analyzed. Additionally, expression profiles of Ghrboh gene family were analyzed in different tissues/organs and at different developmental stages and under different abiotic stresses, using RNA-Seq data and real-time PCR. These profiling studies indicated that the Ghrboh genes exhibited temporal and spatial specificity with respect to expression, and might play important roles in cotton development and in stress tolerance through modulating NOX-dependent ROS induction and other signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of the Ghrboh gene family determined features such as sequence, synteny and collinearity, phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship, expression patterns, and cis-element- and miRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression. Our results will provide valuable information to help with further gene cloning, evolutionary analysis, and biological function analysis of cotton rbohs.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Gossypium/genética , Família Multigênica , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genômica/métodos , Gossypium/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Estresse Fisiológico , Sintenia
8.
Neurobiol Aging ; 85: 49-57, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734439

RESUMO

α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a key pathogenic protein in α-synucleinopathies including Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Accumulating evidence has shown that misfolded fibrillar α-Syn is transmitted from cell-to-cell, a phenomenon that correlates with clinical progression of the disease. We previously showed that deleting the MAP3 kinase apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), which is a central player linking oxidative stress with neuroinflammation, mitigates the phenotype of α-Syn transgenic mice. However, whether ASK1 impacts pathology and disease progression induced by recombinant α-Syn pre-formed fibrils (PFF) remains unknown. Here, we compared the neuropathological and behavioral phenotype of ASK1 knock-out mice with that of wild-type mice following intrastriatal injections of α-Syn PFF. At 6 months post-injections, ASK1 null mice exhibited reduced amount of phosphorylated α-Syn aggregates in the striatum and cortex, and less pronounced degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Additionally, the neuroinflammatory reaction to α-Syn PFF injection and propagation seen in wild-type mice was attenuated in ASK1 knock-out animals. These neuropathological markers were associated with better behavioral performance. These data suggest that ASK1 plays an important role in pathological α-Syn fibril transmission and, consequently, may impact disease progression. These findings collectively support inhibiting ASK1 as a disease modifying therapeutic strategy for Parkinson disease and related α-synucleinopathies.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Animais , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/genética
9.
Opt Express ; 27(25): 36197-36205, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873403

RESUMO

We report a phase-coded Brillouin optical correlation-domain analysis (BOCDA) based on phase-shift keying (PSK), in which the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) phase coding is realized using a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). Unlike the conventional phase-coded BOCDA using a phase modulator, which suffers from the non-rectangular transition in the encoded phase, the PSK can realize perfect phase switches between 0 and π with zero-width edges. It is not sensitive to the bandwidth of the modulator and the power of the radio-frequency modulation signal. Numerical simulations and experimental results prove that it can effectively suppress the Brillouin amplification in the off-peak positions. In experiment, a 2-mm spatial resolution sensing is realized using only a 20-GHz bandwidth MZM.

10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 459, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are a class of functional RNA molecules greater than 200 nucleotides in length, and lncRNAs play important roles in various biological regulatory processes and response to the biotic and abiotic stresses. LncRNAs associated with salt stress in cotton have been identified through RNA sequencing, but the function of lncRNAs has not been reported. We previously identified salt stress-related lncRNAs in cotton (Gossypium spp.), and discovered the salt-related lncRNA-lncRNA973. RESULTS: In this study, we identified the expression level, localization, function, and preliminary mechanism of action of lncRNA973. LncRNA973, which was localized in the nucleus, was expressed at a low level under nonstress conditions but can be significantly increased by salt treatments. Here lncRNA973 was transformed into Arabidopsis and overexpressed. Along with the increased expression compared with wild type under salt stress conditions in transgenic plants, the seed germination rate, fresh weights and root lengths of the transgenic plants increased. We also knocked down the expression of lncRNA973 using virus-induced gene silencing technology. The lncRNA973 knockdown plants wilted, and the leaves became yellowed and dropped under salt-stress conditions, indicating that the tolerance to salt stress had decreased compared with wild type. LncRNA973 may be involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging genes, transcription factors and genes involved in salt stress-related processes in response to cotton salt stress. CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA973 was localized in the nucleus and its expression was increased by salt treatment. The lncRNA973-overexpression lines had increased salt tolerance compared with the wild type, while the lncRNA973 knockdown plants had reduced salt tolerance. LncRNA973 regulated cotton responses to salt stress by modulating the expression of a series of salt stress-related genes. The data provides a basis for further studies on the mechanisms of lncRNA973-associated responses to salt stress in cotton.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/genética , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717266

RESUMO

Long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are non-coding RNAs longer than 200 nt. lncRNAs primarily interact with mRNA, DNA, protein, and miRNA and consequently regulate gene expression at the epigenetic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels in a variety of ways. They play important roles in biological processes such as chromatin remodeling, transcriptional activation, transcriptional interference, RNA processing, and mRNA translation. lncRNAs have important functions in plant growth and development; biotic and abiotic stress responses; and in regulation of cell differentiation, the cell cycle, and the occurrence of many diseases in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize the functions and mechanisms of lncRNAs in plants, humans, and animals at different regulatory levels.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Genoma , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 1489-1501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880960

RESUMO

Purpose: Antiangiogenic drugs usually have short-acting efficacy and poor treatment compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) could be utilized as a nanodrug delivery system for improving antiangiogenic therapy. Materials and methods: MSN-encapsulated bevacizumab nanoparticles were prepared by the nanocasting strategy and characterized by Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency of MSN-encapsulated bevacizumab nanoparticles were calculated. The pharmacokinetics, cytotoxicity, and tissue toxicity were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The antiangiogenic effects of MSN-bevacizumab nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results: MSN encapsulation could prolong the residency of bevacizumab in vitreous/aqueous humor and maintain the long-lasting drug concentration. MSN-encapsulated bevacizumab nanoparticles did not show any obvious cytotoxicity and tissue toxicity. MSN-encapsulated bevacizumab nanoparticles were more effective than bevacizumab in suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro. MSN-encapsulated bevacizumab nanoparticles showed sustained inhibitory effects on corneal neovascularization and retinal neovascularization in vivo. Conclusion: This study provides a novel strategy of encapsulating bevacizumab to protect and deliver it, which could increase the time between administration and formulation shelf-life. MSN-encapsulated bevacizumab is a promising drug delivery alternative of antiangiogenic therapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Neovascularização da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Silício/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Porosidade
13.
RNA Biol ; 16(3): 362-375, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676211

RESUMO

Salinity stress is a major abiotic stress affecting the productivity and fiber quality of cotton. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) play critical roles in plant stress responses, their complex molecular regulatory mechanism under salinity stress is largely unknown in cotton, especially microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of superoxide dismutase gene expression. Here, we report that a cotton iron superoxide dismutase gene GhFSD1 and the cotton miRNA ghr-miR414c work together in response to salinity stress. The miRNA ghr-miR414c targets the coding sequence region of GhFSD1, inhibiting expression of transcripts of this antioxidase gene, which represents the first line of defense against stress-induced ROS. Expression of GhFSD1 was induced by salinity stress. Under salinity stress, ghr-miR414c showed expression patterns opposite to those of GhFSD1. Ectopic expression of GhFSD1 in Arabidopsis conferred salinity stress tolerance by improving primary root growth and biomass, whereas Arabidopsis constitutively expressing ghr-miR414c showed hypersensitivity to salinity stress. Silencing GhFSD1 in cotton caused an excessive hypersensitive phenotype to salinity stress, whereas overexpressing miR414c decreased the expression of GhFSD1 and increased sensitivity to salinity stress, yielding a phenotype similar to that of GhFSD1-silenced cotton. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ghr-miR414c was involved in regulation of plant response to salinity stress by targeting GhFSD1 transcripts. This study provides a new strategy and method for plant breeding in order to improve plant salinity tolerance.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biomarcadores , Clonagem Molecular , MicroRNAs/química , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Cells ; 8(2)2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682777

RESUMO

Catalases (CATs), which were coded by the catalase gene family, were a type notably distinguished ROS-metabolizing proteins implicated to perform various physiological functions in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, no systematical study has been performed in cotton. In the present study, we identified 7 and 7 CAT genes in the genome of Gossypium hirsutum L. Additionally, G. barbadense L., respectively. The results of the phylogenetic and synteny analysis showed that the CAT genes were divided into two groups, and whole-genome duplication (WGD) or polyploidy events contributed to the expansion of the Gossypium CAT gene family. Expression patterns analysis showed that the CAT gene family possessed temporal and spatial specificity and was induced by the Verticillium dahliae infection. In addition, we predicted the putative molecular regulatory mechanisms of the CAT gene family. Based on the analysis and preliminary verification results, we hypothesized that the CAT gene family, which might be regulated by transcription factors (TFs), alternative splicing (AS) events and miRNAs at different levels, played roles in cotton development and stress tolerance through modulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. This is the first report on the genome-scale analysis of the cotton CAT gene family, and these data will help further study the roles of CAT genes during stress responses, leading to crop improvement.


Assuntos
Catalase/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Gossypium/genética , Família Multigênica , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Catalase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poliploidia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sintenia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Verticillium
15.
Opt Express ; 26(20): 25602-25610, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469659

RESUMO

Waveguide crossing is an important integrated photonic component that will be routinely used for high-density and large-scale photonic integrated circuits, such as optical switches and routers. Several techniques have been reported in achieving high performance waveguide crossings on a silicon-on-insulator photonic platform, i.e., low-loss and low-crosstalk waveguide crossings based on multimode interference, bi-layer tapering, optical transformation, metamaterials, and subwavelength gratings. Until recently, not much attention has been given to the reduction of the footprint of waveguide crossings. Here we experimentally demonstrate an ultra-compact waveguide crossing on silicon photonic platform with a footprint only ~1 × 1 µm2. Our simulations show that it has a low insertion loss (< 0.175 dB) and low crosstalk (< -37dB) across the whole C-band, while the fabricated one has an insertion loss < 0.28 dB and crosstalk around -30 dB for the C-band.

16.
Theranostics ; 8(17): 4695-4709, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279732

RESUMO

VEGF binding to VEGFR2 leads to VEGFR2 endocytosis and downstream signaling activation to promote angiogenesis. Methods: Using genetic strategies, we tested the requirement of α subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gαi1/3) in the process. Results: Gαi1/3 are located in the VEGFR2 endocytosis complex (VEGFR2-Ephrin-B2-Dab2-PAR-3), where they are required for VEGFR2 endocytosis and downstream signaling transduction. Gαi1/3 knockdown, knockout or dominant negative mutation inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR2 endocytosis, and downstream Akt-mTOR and Erk-MAPK activation. Functional studies show that Gαi1/3 shRNA inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation, invasion, migration and vessel-like tube formation of HUVECs. In vivo, Gαi1/3 shRNA lentivirus inhibited alkali burn-induced neovascularization in mouse cornea. Further, oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR)-induced retinal neovascularization was inhibited by intravitreal injection of Gαi1/3 shRNA lentivirus. Moreover, in vivo angiogenesis by alkali burn and OIR was significantly attenuated in Gαi1/3 double knockout mice. Significantly, Gαi1/3 proteins are upregulated in proliferative retinal tissues of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients. Conclusion: These results provide mechanistic insights into the critical role played by Gαi1/3 proteins in VEGF-induced VEGFR2 endocytosis, signaling and angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Ligação Proteica
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 107: 1056-1063, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257317

RESUMO

Antibody-based therapy is an effective strategy for treating ocular angiogenesis. However, short-acting efficacy and poor treatment compliance usually occurs in clinical practices. Thus, it is required to develop a drug delivery system to improve the bioavailability and decrease the toxicity of anti-angiogenic antibody. Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, bevacizumab was encapsulated into poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles. PLGA encapsulation could prolong the residency of bevacizumab in the vitreous and aqueous humor and produce long-lasting drug concentrations. Bevacizumab-encapsulated PLGA had no significant cytotoxicity and tissue toxicity effect in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies showed that bevacizumab-encapsulated PLGA was more effective than bevacizumab in inhibiting VEGF-mediated endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. In vivo studies showed that bevacizumab-encapsulated PLGA enhanced the anti-angiogenic efficiency of bevacizumab for treating corneal neovascularization and retinal neovascularization. Thus, bevacizumab-encapsulated PLGA could increase the bioavailability and decrease the toxicity of bevacizumab during ocular angiogenesis therapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Neovascularização da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/toxicidade , Animais , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Bevacizumab/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Neovascularização da Córnea/patologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas , Tamanho da Partícula , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Neovascularização Retiniana/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Corpo Vítreo/metabolismo
18.
Opt Express ; 26(17): 22100-22109, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130908

RESUMO

A machine learning assisted modal power analyzing scheme designed for optical modes in integrated multi-mode waveguides is proposed and studied in this work. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are successfully trained to correlate the far-field diffraction intensity patterns of a superposition of multiple waveguide modes with its modal power distribution. In particular, a specialized CNN is trained to analyze thin optical waveguides, which are single-moded along one axis and multi-moded along the other axis. A full-scale CNN is also trained to cross-validate the results obtained from this specialized CNN model. Prediction accuracy for modal power is benchmarked statistically with square error and absolute error distribution. It is found that the overall accuracy of our trained specialized CNN is very satisfactory for thin optical waveguides while that of our trained full-scale CNN remains nearly unchanged but the training time doubles. This approach is further generalized and applied to a waveguide that is multi-moded along both horizontal and vertical axes and the influence of noise on our trained network is studied. Overall, we find that the performance in this general condition keeps nearly unchanged. This new concept of analyzing modal power may open the door for high fidelity information recovery in far field and holds great promise for potential applications in both integrated and fiber-based spatial-division demultiplexing.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996470

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding small RNAs, which play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, various reports revealed that miRNAs could be transmitted between species to mediate cross-kingdom regulation by integrating into a specific target gene-mediated regulatory pathway to exert relevant biological functions. Some scholars and researchers have observed this as an attractive hypothesis that may provide a foundation for novel approaches in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of disease. Meanwhile, others deem the mentioned results were obtained from a "false positive effect" of performed experiments. Here, we focus on several current studies concerning plant miRNA-mediated cross-kingdom regulation (from both fronts) and discuss the existing issues that need further consideration. We also discuss possible miRNA horizontal transfer mechanisms from one species to another and analyze the relationship between miRNA-mediated cross-kingdom regulation and coevolution during a long-term specific host⁻pathogen interaction.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , RNA de Plantas/genética
20.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 33(6): 509-517, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The health behaviors of hypertensive stroke patients in China are not satisfactory. In this study, we tested the effect of a Health Belief Model Comprehensive Reminder System on health behaviors and blood pressure control in hypertensive ischemic stroke patients after occurrence and hospital discharge. METHODS: A randomized, parallel-group, assessor-blinded experimental design yielded participation of 174 hospitalized hypertensive ischemic stroke patients. The intervention consisted of face-to-face and telephone health belief education, a patient calendar handbook, and weekly automated short-message services. Data were collected at baseline and 3 months after discharge. RESULTS: Three months after discharge, the intervention group showed statistically, significantly better health behaviors for physical activity, nutrition, low-salt diet, and medication adherence. The intervention group also had statistically, significantly decreased systolic blood pressure and increased blood pressure control rate. Smoking and alcohol use behaviors were not affected. CONCLUSION: At 3 months, use of the Comprehensive Reminder System based on the Health Belief Model, yielded improvement in most health behaviors and blood pressure control in hypertensive ischemic stroke patients. Continued implementation of this intervention protocol is warranted to determine the long-term effect. Smoking and alcohol use behaviors need to be targeted with a different intervention.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/terapia , Sistemas de Alerta , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Método Simples-Cego
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