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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical PET imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) can noninvasively detect HER2 overexpression in lesions. A novel 68Ga-NOTA-MAL-MZHER2 (68Ga-HER2) affibody was developed for clinical PET/CT, and its safety, tissue dosimetry, ability to detect HER2-positive lesions, and utility for HER2-targeted therapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) were evaluated. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with AGC (23 with HER2-positive and 11 with HER2-negative primary lesions) were included and underwent PET/CT after an injection of approximately 3.7 MBq/kg body weight 68Ga-HER2 affibody. Thirteen patients (8 HER2-positive and 5 HER2-negative patients) were scanned at 1, 2, and 3 h post-injection to determine the best imaging timepoint, and the remaining patients were scanned at the optimized timepoint. All patients underwent standard 18F-FDG PET/CT within 7 d to identify viable lesions. The SUVmax of lesions larger than 1.0 cm were analyzed. Five lesion maxima were analyzed for each organ. RESULTS: (1) The 68Ga-HER2 affibody was safe and effective, and optimal image contrast was observed 2 h post-injection; the average effective absorbed dose was 0.0215 mSv/MBq. (2) The HER2-positive group had significantly higher 68Ga-HER2 affibody uptake than the HER2-negative group (SUVmax 10.7 ± 12.5 vs 3.8 ± 1.7, p = 0.005). The specificity and sensitivity were 100 and 55.4%, respectively, with a SUVmax cutoff value of 6.6. The SUVmax of the lesions ranged from 1.6 to 73.0, suggesting heterogeneity in HER2 expression. (3) 68Ga-HER2 affibody uptake showed an organ-dependent difference in patients with HER2-positive expression. Bone metastases had the highest uptake (SUVmax 40.5 ± 24.9), followed by liver metastases (SUVmax 11.9 ± 3.9) and lymph node metastases (SUVmax 5.6 ± 3.7), while the uptake in other lesions, including in the primary lesion, was relatively lower (SUVmax 7.3 ± 3.7). (4) Patients receiving therapy had a non-significantly lower lesion SUVmax than patients not receiving therapy (SUVmax 8.8 ± 4.9 vs 11.8 ± 15.2) (p = 0.253). Additionally, the 68Ga-HER2 affibody detected positive lesions in 1/11 patients with HER2-negative primary gastric cancer, which was confirmed by second generation gene sequencing. (5) Moreover, ten patients underwent baseline PET/CT followed by targeted anti-HER2 therapy. Patients with lesions showing high avidity to the 68Ga-HER2 affibody showed longer progression-free survival (PFS) than those with lesions showing low avidity (4-9 m vs 2-3 m). CONCLUSION: 68Ga-HER2 affibody PET/CT is a feasible method to noninvasively detect the HER2 status in AGC patients and enable early detection with a low dose. Ongoing anti-HER2 therapy did not influence 68Ga-HER2 affibody imaging, which allowed repeated evaluations to monitor the HER2 status after anti-HER2 therapy. This method provides an in vivo understanding of AGC biology that will ultimately help oncologists improve individualized therapy plans.

2.
Oncology ; : 1-6, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in China, while the nature of genetic factors related to GC has not been well-studied. OBJECTIVES: To assess the inherited genetic factors regarding pathogenic germline mutations in Chinese GC population. METHODS: Genomic profiling of DNA was performed through next-generation sequencing with 381 cancer-related genes on tissue from patients with GC between January 1, 2017, and May 7, 2019. RESULTS: 470 GC patients were included for analysis. A total of 28 (6.0%) patients were identified to harbor 25 different pathogenic or very likely pathogenic germline mutations in 15 genes. The variants fell most frequently in BRCA2 (n = 6, 1.28%), CHEK2 (n = 5, 1.06%), MUTYH (n = 3, 0.64%), CDH1 (n = 2, 0.43%), and ATM (n = 2, 0.43%). Of all the germline-mutated genes, 66.7% (n = 10) lay in the DNA damage repair pathways. Seven patients were identified to have a high TMB status, among whom two were also identified as MSI-H. Overall, 20 out of the 28 patients (71.4%) carried clinically actionable mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has depicted the spectrum of pathogenic germline mutations in Chinese GC patients, which may provide valuable clues for the assessment of the genetic susceptibility and clinical management in GC.

3.
Mol Cell ; 78(3): 506-521.e6, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386543

RESUMO

Higher-order chromatin structure and DNA methylation are implicated in multiple developmental processes, but their relationship to cell state is unknown. Here, we find that large (>7.3 kb) DNA methylation nadirs (termed "grand canyons") can form long loops connecting anchor loci that may be dozens of megabases (Mb) apart, as well as inter-chromosomal links. The interacting loci cover a total of ∼3.5 Mb of the human genome. The strongest interactions are associated with repressive marks made by the Polycomb complex and are diminished upon EZH2 inhibitor treatment. The data are suggestive of the formation of these loops by interactions between repressive elements in the loci, forming a genomic subcompartment, rather than by cohesion/CTCF-mediated extrusion. Interestingly, unlike previously characterized subcompartments, these interactions are present only in particular cell types, such as stem and progenitor cells. Our work reveals that H3K27me3-marked large DNA methylation grand canyons represent a set of very-long-range loops associated with cellular identity.

4.
Endocrine ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The relationship between the rs9939609 allele of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and metabolic syndrome (MS) susceptibility has been evaluated by many studies, however, the results still remained controversial in the Chinese population. In order to provide more accurate results, we performed this meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed, and Wanfang Med Online in both English and Chinese, and eight eligible studies comprising of 5345 cases and 9523 controls were eventually selected into our meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. RESULTS: In pooled analysis, the FTO gene rs9939609 polymorphism significantly increased MS susceptibility under per-allele comparisons (A vs. T) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.35, P < 0.001) and in dominant model (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses under per-allele comparisons (A vs. T) indicated that the elevated risk was observed in adults (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.47, P = 0.003) but not in children and adolescents (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95-1.36, P = 0.17), and that the risk for increasing MS was only identified in IDF groups (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.43, P = 0.018) but not in NCEP ATP III groups (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95-1.36, P = 0.17); in both population-based (PB) and hospital-based (HB) groups, A alleles of rs9939609 appeared to be linked to increased MS susceptibilities (HB group: OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.08, P = 0.01; PB group: OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.30, P < 0.001). No significant association was established in dominant model subgroup analyses except PB group (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.53, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that the FTO gene rs9939609 polymorphism significantly increased MS susceptibility in Chinese. Our results should be verified by well-designed studies with larger sample size.

5.
Cancer ; 126 Suppl 9: 2086-2092, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy is recommended for the treatment of advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (GEP-NEC). The objective of the current phase 2 study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity between etoposide and cisplatin (EP) and irinotecan and cisplatin (IP) as first-line treatment in patients with advanced GEP-NEC. METHODS: Patients with advanced, poorly differentiated GEP-NEC randomly were assigned to receive EP or IP. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicities. RESULTS: The planned size of the study population was 144 patients, but enrollment was terminated early at 66 patients because the premature analysis found similar responses in the 2 treatment arms. The ORRs of the EP and IP arms both were 42.4% (14 of 33 patients). The efficacy was similar for small cell NEC with EP or IP (63.2% and 61.5%, respectively; P = .61), whereas that of IP was slightly better in patients with non-small cell NEC (30% vs 14.3%; P = .42). The median progression-free survival was 6.4 months and 5.8 months, respectively, for the EP and IP arms (P = .81), and the median overall survival was 11.3 months and 10.2 months, respectively, for the EP and IP arms (P = .37). The incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia was significantly higher in the EP arm compared with the IP arm (45.4% vs 12.1%; P = .002). Nonhematological toxicity was relatively mild and more frequent in the IP arm compared with the EP arm (54.5% vs 18.2%; P = .001). No toxicity-related deaths were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study demonstrated that IP is not inferior to EP, with comparable efficacy for poorly differentiated NEC of the digestive system. In addition, both regimens appear to be well tolerated with diverse toxicity profiles.

7.
J Immunother ; 43(4): 139-144, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134806

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has exhibited promising but controversial results in gastric cancer; determining criteria for choosing the appropriate target population is still problematic. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) exhibits distinctive genomic aberrations and clinicopathologic features, the positive status of EBV is a potential biomarker. We prospectively recruited 9 patients who were diagnosed with stage-IV EBVaGC, and all of the patients were treated by immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The median age of the patients was 62 years old. The clinicopathologic characteristics demonstrated a male predominance and poor differentiation status of EBVaGC. Lymph nodes were demonstrated to represent the most common metastatic site. Immunochemistry and polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that all of the patients were proficient mismatch repair, and microsatellite instability-stable and programmed cell death-ligand 1 were detected in 7 patients. Three patients with positive programmed cell death-ligand 1 showed partial response, 5 patients showed stable disease, 1 patient without measurable lesion showed decreasing ascites and tumor marker level after immunotherapy. The longest duration of response was 18 months by the time of the last follow-up. EBVaGC exhibits distinctive clinicopathologic characteristics, and EBV-positive status may be a potential biomarker for gastric cancer immunotherapy.

8.
Org Lett ; 22(6): 2162-2166, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129633

RESUMO

The study of Aspergillus micronesiensis led to the isolation of three unprecedented cytochalasans (1-3). Dimericchalasine A (1) is the first cytochalasan homodimer fused by a C-20/C-20' single bond. Amichalasines D (2) and E (3) represent a new type of cytochalasan heterotrimer with a decacyclic 5/6/11/5/5/6/5/12/6/5 ring system. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The plausible biosynthetic pathways of 1-3 were proposed.

9.
Anal Chem ; 92(7): 4963-4970, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181651

RESUMO

The amyloid-ß peptide is correlated with Alzheimer's disease and is assumed to cause toxicity by its interaction with the neuron membrane. A custom-made microscope objective based on the supercritical angle technique was developed by our group, which allows investigation of interfacial events by performing surface-sensitive and low-invasive spectroscopy. Applied to Raman spectroscopy, this technique was used to collect information about the structure of polypeptides that interact with a supported lipid bilayer. Notably, the conformation used by amyloid-ß(1-40) and amyloid-ß(1-42) when interacting directly with or next to the supported lipid bilayer was characterized. We observed two distinct secondary structures, α-helix and ß-sheet, which were exhibited by the peptide. These two structures were detected simultaneously. The propensity of the peptide to fold into these structures seemed dependent on both their number of amino acids and their proximity with the supported lipid bilayer. The α-helix structure was observed for amyloid-ß(1-42) fragments that were closer to the lipid bilayer. Peptides that were located further away from the bilayer favored the ß-sheet structure. Amyloid-ß(1-40) was less prone to adopt the α-helix secondary structure.

10.
Phytochemistry ; 174: 112327, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222549

RESUMO

Eight undescribed quinolone alkaloids, pesimquinolones A-H, as well as six known compounds, were isolated from the solid culture broth of the fungus Penicillium simplicissimum. Their chemical structures were characterized by combined analyses of NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Pesimquinolones A-G are the first examples of naturally occurring quinolone alkaloids possessing a limonene moiety. Their anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in adherent cells were evaluated. Pesimquinolones A, E, G, and H showed promising suppressive effect on the production of NO with IC50 values of 1.94, 1.29, 1.20, and 1.23 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Penicillium , Anti-Inflamatórios , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico
11.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 68(1): 6, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076842

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated inflammation which causes olfactory dysfunction. Antihistamines have been widely used to treat AR while few studies have investigated the effect of antihistamines on improving the sense of smell. In addition, the underlying mechanisms are not well elucidated. We established the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis rat model and administrated desloratadine to AR rats. The AR symptoms, serum level of OVA-specific IgE and IL-17, and expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in nasal mucosa were measured. The olfactory dysfunction was monitored by buried food test and the expression of GluR1 was measured. Desloratadine treatment alleviated AR symptoms, decreased serum level of OVA-specific IgE and IL-17 in AR rats. Desloratadine decreased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 expression in nasal mucosa of AR rats. Desloratadine ameliorated olfactory dysfunction in AR rats and decreased GluR1 expression in AR rats. Desloratadine treatment alleviated AR symptoms and ameliorated olfactory dysfunction in AR rats. The expression of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in olfactory bulb was associated with olfactory disorder.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(10): 2337-2345, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with recurrent or metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) had a poor prognosis and few treatment options. Toripalimab, a humanized IgG4 antibody specific for human PD-1 receptor, was first approved to treat second-line metastatic melanoma in China in 2018. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The multiple-center phase Ib trial enrolled patients with NENs (Ki-67 ≥ 10%) after failure of first-line therapy received 3 mg/kg toripalimab once every two weeks. The primary objective was objective response rate (ORR) and safety. PD-L1 expression and whole-exome sequencing were performed on tumor biopsies. Secondary objectives included duration of response (DOR), disease control rate (DCR), and progression-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: Of 40 patients included from April 2017 to December 2018, 8 partial responses and 6 stable diseases were observed, for a 20% ORR and a 35% DCR. The median DOR was 15.2 months. Patients with PD-L1 expression (≥10%) or high tumor mutational burden (TMB) had better ORR than PD-L1 <10% (50.0% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.019) and TMB-low patients (75.0% vs. 16.1%, P = 0.03). Three of 8 (37.5%) responders harbored ARID1A mutations, whereas only 1 of 27 nonresponders had mutations (P = 0.03). Of note, 1 exceptional responder with TMB-L, microsatellite stable (MSS), and PD-L1-negative had multiple genomic arrangements with high prediction score for neoantigens. CONCLUSIONS: Toripalimab had antitumor activity and safety in treating recurrent or metastatic NENs. Patients with positive PD-L1 expression, TMB-H (top 10%), and/or microsatellite instable (MSI-H) might preferentially benefit from the treatment. The genomic mutation of ARID1A and high genomic rearrangements might be correlated with clinical benefit.

13.
Biomaterials ; 238: 119828, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045781

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg)-based biometal attracts clinical applications due to its biodegradability and beneficial biological effects on tissue regeneration, especially in orthopaedics, yet the underlying anabolic mechanisms in relevant clinical disorders are lacking. The present study investigated the effect of magnesium (Mg) and vitamin C (VC) supplementation for preventing steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) in a rat experimental model. In SAON rats, 50 mg/kg Mg, or 100 mg/kg VC, or combination, or water control was orally supplemented daily for 2 or 6 weeks respectively. Osteonecrosis was evaluated by histology. Serum Mg, VC, and bone turnover markers were measured. Microfil-perfused samples prepared for angiography and trabecular architecture were evaluated by micro-CT. Primary bone marrow cells were isolated from each group to evaluate their potentials in osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. The mechanisms were tested in vitro. Histological evaluation showed SAON lesions in steroid treated groups. Mg and VC supplementation synergistically reduced the apoptosis of osteocytes and osteoclast number, and increased osteoblast surface. VC supplementation significantly increased the bone formation marker PINP, and the combination significantly decreased the bone resorption marker CTX. TNFα expression and oxidative injury were decreased in bone marrow in Mg/VC/combination group. Mg significantly increased the blood perfusion in proximal tibia and decreased the leakage particles in distal tibia 2 weeks after SAON induction. VC significantly elevated the osteoblast differentiation potential of marrow cells and improved the trabecular architecture. The combination supplementation significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation potential of marrow cells. In vitro study showed promoting osteoblast differentiation effect of VC, and anti-inflammation and promoting angiogenesis effect of Mg with underlying mechanisms. Mg and VC supplementation could synergistically alleviate SAON in rats, indicating great translational potentials of metallic minerals for preventing SAON.

14.
Blood ; 135(11): 845-856, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932841

RESUMO

Mutations in the epigenetic regulators DNMT3A and IDH1/2 co-occur in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoma. In this study, these 2 epigenetic mutations cooperated to induce leukemia. Leukemia-initiating cells from Dnmt3a-/- mice that express an IDH2 neomorphic mutant have a megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor-like immunophenotype, activate a stem-cell-like gene signature, and repress differentiated progenitor genes. We observed an epigenomic dysregulation with the gain of repressive H3K9 trimethylation and loss of H3K9 acetylation in diseased mouse bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). HDAC inhibitors rapidly reversed the H3K9 methylation/acetylation imbalance in diseased mouse HSPCs while reducing the leukemia burden. In addition, using targeted metabolomic profiling for the first time in mouse leukemia models, we also showed that prostaglandin E2 is overproduced in double-mutant HSPCs, rendering them sensitive to prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. These data revealed that Dnmt3a and Idh2 mutations are synergistic events in leukemogenesis and that HSPCs carrying both mutations are sensitive to induced differentiation by the inhibition of both prostaglandin synthesis and HDAC, which may reveal new therapeutic opportunities for patients carrying IDH1/2 mutations.

15.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 2047-2056, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912844

RESUMO

Defect engineering is important for tailoring the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional materials, and the capability of generating defects of certain types at specific locations is meaningful for potential applications such as optoelectronics and quantum photonics. In this work, atomic defects are created in single-layer WSe2 using focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation, with defect densities spanning many orders of magnitude. The influences of defects are systematically characterized. Raman spectroscopy can only discern defects in WSe2 for a FIB dose higher than 1 × 1013 cm-2, which causes blue shifts of both A'1 and E' modes. Photoluminescence (PL) of WSe2 is more sensitive to defects. At cryogenic temperature, the low-energy PL induced by defects can be revealed, which shows redshifts and broadenings with increased FIB doses. Similar Raman shifts and PL spectrum changes are observed for the WSe2 film grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A four microsecond-long lifetime is observed in the PL dynamics and is three orders of magnitude longer than the often observed delocalized exciton lifetime and becomes more dominant for WSe2 with increasing FIB doses. The ultra-long lifetime of PL in single-layer WSe2 is consistent with first-principles calculation results considering the creation of both chalcogen and metal vacancies by FIB, and can be valuable for photo-catalytic reactions, valleytronics and quantum light emissions owing to the longer carrier separation/manipulation time.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 521(3): 569-576, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679689

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Nevertheless, its molecular mechanisms have not yet been adequately illustrated. Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycoprotein with pleiotropic functions. In the present study, we found that PGRN expression was markedly reduced in mice after stroke onset through middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). We also showed that necroptosis was a mechanism underlying cerebral I/R injury. Importantly, PGRN knockdown in vivo significantly promoted the infarction volume and neurological deficits scores in mice after MCAO surgery. Necroptosis induced by MCAO was further accelerated by PGRN knockdown, as evidenced by the promoted expression of phosphorylated receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 kinase (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), which was accompanied with increased expression of cleaved Caspase-8 and Caspase-3. However, PGRN over-expression was neuroprotective. Additionally, PGRN-regulated ischemic stroke was related to ROS accumulation that MCAO-mice with PGRN knockdown exhibited severe oxidative stress, as proved by the aggravated malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) contents, and the decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, PGRN over-expression in mice with cerebral ischemia showed anti-oxidative effects. Finally, PGRN was found to attenuate oxidative damage partly via its regulatory effects on necroptosis. Therefore, promoting PGRN expression could reduced cerebral I/R-induced brain injury by suppressing neroptosis and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These data elucidated that PGRN might provide an effective therapeutic treatment for ischemic stroke.

17.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 26(2): 187-194, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of mechanical thrombectomy for an acute ischemic stroke involving M2 segment occlusion is not clear, especially when performed with second-generation thrombectomy devices. METHOD: We reviewed the literature to investigate clinical outcomes and the rates of recanalization, symptomatic intracerebral hematoma, and mortality in mechanical thrombectomy performed using second-generation thrombectomy devices. We compared the outcomes between patients treated for M2 and M1 occlusions. RESULTS: Seven studies involving 805 patients with M2 thrombectomy were included in this meta-analysis. The functional independence rate 90 days after thrombectomy (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) was 59.3% (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.74-1.88). The recanalization rate (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 0-2) was 84.16% (OR 2.32, 95% CI 2.08-2.29). The symptomatic intracerebral hematoma rate was 4.9% (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.09). The mortality was 7.7% (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.13). The outcomes were better in patients with M2 occlusion than in those with M1 occlusion. In a subgroup analysis, we found that among patients with hypertension, mechanical thrombectomy achieved better functional outcomes and recanalization in M2 occlusion than M1 occlusion. CONCLUSION: Mechanical thrombectomy performed with second-generation thrombectomy devices for M2 occlusion can provide a good functional outcome as well as satisfying recanalization. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the symptomatic intracerebral hematoma and mortality rates, suggesting this procedure is as safe in M2 occlusion as in M1 occlusion.

18.
Transl Stroke Res ; 11(2): 267-287, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290080

RESUMO

Stroke is a cerebrovascular disorder that affects many people worldwide. Pericytes play an important role in stroke progression and recovery. The sigma-1 receptor (σ-1R) signaling pathway has been suggested as having promising neuroprotective potential in treating stroke; however, whether σ-1R activation regulates pericyte function remains unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of σ-1R and a novel σ-1R agonist in pericytes following ischemic stroke. An ischemic stroke animal model was induced by photothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in σ-1R knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. After pMCAO, there was significant pericyte loss and coverage in σ-1R KO mice compared with WT mice as determined using transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and western blot. Interestingly, a novel σ-1R agonist decreased infarct volume and blood-brain barrier damage with a concomitant amelioration of pericyte loss, as determined by western blot. Further studies indicated that cell apoptosis and autophagy were induced in an in vivo pMCAO ischemic stroke animal model and an in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation-treatment group. Inhibition of autophagy using a pharmacological approach significantly mitigated pericyte apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy was upstream of apoptosis in pericytes. Both in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that the σ-1R agonist significantly decreased cell apoptosis via inhibition of autophagy with a subsequent enhancement of pericyte survival. This study identified the unique roles for σ-1R in mediating pericyte survival via the regulation of the interplay between apoptosis and autophagy, suggesting that a novel σ-1R agonist may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of stroke patients.

19.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 63: 104721, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734292

RESUMO

Nickel (Ni) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, which can disrupt the production of steroid in rat Leydig cells. Steroidogenesis can be affected by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which operate in normal physiological processes. To date, however, very few studies have focused on whether ncRNAs are involved in Ni-induced steroidogenesis disturbance. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of NiSO4 on the regulation of RNA networks including long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and mRNA in rat Leydig cells. After treatment with 1000 µmol/L NiSO4 for 24 h, 372 lncRNAs, 27 miRNAs (fold change>2, p < .05) and 3666 mRNAs (fold change>2, p < .01, and FDR < 0.01) were identified to be markedly altered by high-throughput sequencing analysis in rat Leydig cells. Functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed mRNAs were annotated into some steroid-related pathways. A dysregulated competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA was constructed based on bioinformatic analysis. Furthermore, a ceRNA network related to steroidogenesis was selected to analyze further and after the validation by qRT-PCR. The LOC102549726/miR-760-3p/Atf6, LOC102549726/miR-760-3p/Ets1, LOC102549726/miR-760-3p/Sik1 and AABR07037489.1/miR-708-5p/MAPK14 ceRNA networks were eventually confirmed. Collectively, our study provided a systematic perspective on the potential role of ncRNAs in steroidogenesis disturbance induced by Ni in rat Leydig cells.

20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(3): 523-533, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelial cell apoptosis plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs and chloride intracellular channels (CLICs) have been verified to participate in the endothelial cell apoptosis process, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of microRNA-217-5p (miR-217-5p) and CLIC4 on endothelial cell apoptosis in atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: An atherosclerotic mouse model (n = 18) was constructed by feeding apolipo protein E knockout ApoE(-/-) mice with high-fat diet for 12 weeks. An atherosclerotic cell model was established by treating human aortic endothelial cells with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL; 50 µg/mL) for 24 h. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining confirmed the downregulation of miR-217-5p and upregulation of CLIC4 in atherosclerotic endothelial cells. Combined with western blot, flow cytometry assay and Hoechst staining, we demonstrated that miR-217-5p upregulation or CLIC4 knockdown regulated the apoptosis-related genes, ameliorated mitochondrial membrane permeability and therefore inhibited the apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells induced by ox-LDL. We further confirmed that miR-217-5p inhibited apoptosis of endothelial cells through targeting CLIC4 using luciferase report assay and rescue experiments. CONCLUSION: We revealed for the first time that miR-217-5p inhibited apoptosis of endothelial cells in atherosclerosis and identified CLIC4 as a novel target of miR-217-5p. Our work provides a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

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