Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.697
Filtrar
1.
J Exp Med ; 218(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991667

RESUMO

In addition to Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (CD4+ T reg cells), Foxp3- CD8+ regulatory T cells (CD8+ T reg cells) are critical to maintain immune tolerance. However, the molecular programs that specifically control CD8+ but not CD4+ T reg cells are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that simultaneous disruption of both TGF-ß receptor and transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) in T cells results in lethal autoimmunity due to a specific defect in CD8+ but not CD4+ T reg cells. Further, TGF-ß signal maintains the regulatory identity, while Eomes controls the follicular location of CD8+ T reg cells. Both TGF-ß signal and Eomes coordinate to promote the homeostasis of CD8+ T reg cells. Together, we have identified a unique molecular program designed for CD8+ T reg cells.

2.
Environ Res ; 192: 110289, 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that exposure to green space may benefit human health. However, the available evidence concerning the effects of greenness, especially school-based greenness, on pediatric obesity is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between school-based greenness and adiposity in children and adolescents in China. METHOD: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 56,620 children and adolescents (aged 6-18 years) in seven provinces/municipalities across China. School-based greenness was assessed using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) within 100-, 500-, and 1000-m circular buffers around each school's address. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to estimate associations of greenness with BMI z-scores (zBMI), waist circumference, and prevalent overweight/obesity. We also explored the potential mediating role of ambient air pollution and physical activity in the greenness-adiposity associations. RESULT: In the adjusted model, an IQR increase in NDVI-1000m was associated with lower zBMI (ß: -0.11, 95% confidence interval[CI]: -0.13,-0.09) and waist circumference (ß: -0.64, 95%CI: -0.78,-0.50). Consistently, an IQR increase in NDVI-100m, NDVI-500m, NDVI-1000m was associated with 7-20% lower odds of overweight/obesity in the adjusted models. Air pollutants mediated 6.5-29.1% of the association between greenness and zBMI. No significant mediation effect was observed for physical activity. CONCLUSION: Higher school-based greenness levels were associated with lower zBMI, waist circumference, and lower odds of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Ambient air pollutants may partially mediate the greenness-adiposity associations.

3.
Cell Signal ; 76: 109805, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031934

RESUMO

Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) is a widely distributed transmembrane glycoprotein and can be proteolytically cleaved as irisin that has multiple benefits on human diseases. In this review, we will focus on the synthesis, cleavage, distribution, elimination, single nucleotide polymorphisms, protein structure and glycosylated modification of FNDC5 or the cleaved form irisin, and also summarize a brief knowledge on their biological functions.

4.
Radiat Res ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064818

RESUMO

The limits of radiation tolerance, which often deter the use of large doses, have been a major challenge to the treatment of bulky primary and metastatic cancers. A novel technique using spatial modulation of megavoltage therapy beams, commonly referred to as spatially fractionated radiation therapy (SFRT) (e.g., GRID radiation therapy), which purposefully maintains a high degree of dose heterogeneity across the treated tumor volume, has shown promise in clinical studies as a method to improve treatment response of advanced, bulky tumors. Compared to conventional uniform-dose radiotherapy, the complexities of megavoltage GRID therapy include its highly heterogeneous dose distribution, very high prescription doses, and the overall lack of experience among physicists and clinicians. Since only a few centers have used GRID radiation therapy in the clinic, wide and effective use of this technique has been hindered. To date, the mechanisms underlying the observed high tumor response and low toxicity are still not well understood. To advance SFRT technology and planning, the Physics Working Group of the Radiosurgery Society (RSS) GRID/Lattice, Microbeam and Flash Radiotherapy Working Groups, was established after an RSS-NCI Workshop. One of the goals of the Physics Working Group was to develop consensus recommendations to standardize dose prescription, treatment planning approach, response modeling and dose reporting in GRID therapy. The objective of this report is to present the results of the Physics Working Group's consensus that includes recommendations on GRID therapy as an SFRT technology, field dosimetric properties, techniques for generating GRID fields, the GRID therapy planning methods, documentation metrics and clinical practice recommendations. Such understanding is essential for clinical patient care, effective comparisons of outcome results, and for the design of rigorous clinical trials in the area of SFRT. The results of well-conducted GRID radiation therapy studies have the potential to advance the clinical management of bulky and advanced tumors by providing improved treatment response, and to alter our current radiobiology models and parameters of radiation therapy design.

5.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067120

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving transarterial chemoembolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 140 patients (123 male, 17 female; mean age, 56.9 y ± 12.0; range, 22.0-82.0 y) with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer class C HCC who received first-line conventional chemoembolization between December 2013 and March 2018. Patients were divided into low and high GGT groups based on a cutoff value calculated with a receiver operating characteristic curve. Overall survival (OS) was compared between groups by log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: The optimal cutoff values of GGT were 119.5 U/L in men and 175.0 U/L in women. The 6-, 9-, and 12-mo OS rates were 81.7%, 72.4%, and 62.9%, respectively, for patients in the low GGT group (n = 44) and 58.8%, 35.7%, and 28.8%, respectively, for patients in the high GGT group (n = 96; P < .001). Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified high pretreatment serum GGT level (hazard ratio [HR], 2.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.67-4.40; P < .001), multiple tumors (HR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.23-7.53; P = .02), and performance of target treatment (ie, sorafenib; HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72; P = .002) or ablation (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66; P = .001) as independent prognostic factors for OS. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment serum GGT level was an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with advanced HCC treated with chemoembolization, suggesting that GGT is a useful prognostic biomarker for advanced HCC.

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039447, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The control rate of hypertension is low in China, especially in rural, western and minority areas. This is related to poor medical skills among physicians in primary care institutions and low levels of trust among patients. However, primary healthcare institutions are the main battleground for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. It is worth exploring how to most effectively integrate patients, primary care physicians and cardiologists in tertiary hospitals, to build a long-term mechanism for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. In this study, we aim to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and conduct a health economic evaluation of an internet-based patient-primary care physician-cardiologist integrated management model of hypertension in areas of China with different socioeconomic levels. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a 12-month, multicentre, randomised controlled trial involving patients with hypertension in urban communities and rural areas of Sichuan Province, China. Each primary healthcare institution will cooperate with their tertiary hospital through the Red Shine Chronic Disease Management System (RSCDMS). Patients will be randomly assigned 1:1 to two groups: (1) a traditional care group; (2) an intervention group in which primary care physicians and cardiologists can share patient data and manage patients together through the RSCDMS. Patients can upload their blood pressure (BP) values and communicate with physicians using the system. The primary outcome is the change in systolic BP over a 12-month period. Secondary outcomes are changes in diastolic BP, BP control rate, values of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, difference in cost-effectiveness between the groups, patient satisfaction, medication adherence and home BP monitoring compliance. All data will be recorded and stored in the RSCDMS and analysed using IBM SPSS V.26.0. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University in Sichuan, China (No. 2020-148). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be disseminated to the public through academic conferences and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2000030677.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17543, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067524

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of baseline clinical and high resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with severe COVID-19. In this retrospective, two-center study, we included two groups of inpatients with severe COVID-19 who had been discharged or died in Jin Yin-tan hospital and Wuhan union hospital between January 5, 2020, and February 22, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, and HRCT imaging were collected and compared between discharged and deceased patients. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of mortality risk in these patients. 101 patients were included in this study, of whom 66 were discharged and 35 died in the hospital. The mean age was 56.6 ± 15.1 years and 67 (66.3%) were men. Of the 101 patients, hypertension (38, 37.6%), cardiovascular disease (21,20.8%), diabetes (18,17.8%), and chronic pulmonary disease (16,15.8%) were the most common coexisting conditions. The multivariable regression analysis showed older age (OR: 1.142, 95% CI 1.059-1.231, p < 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR: 10.142, 95% CI 1.611-63.853, p = 0.014), reduced lymphocyte count (OR: 0.004, 95% CI 0.001-0.306, p = 0.013), and elevated HRCT score (OR: 1.276, 95% CI 1.002-1.625, p = 0.049) to be independent predictors of mortality risk on admission in severe COVID-19 patients. These findings may have important clinical implications for decision-making based on risk stratification of severe COVID-19 patients.

8.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(11): 613, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068167

RESUMO

A novel electrochemical carbon cloth (CC) analysis device (eCAD) is proposed for the determination of Pb2+ in environmental water samples, which was assembled using a single-step functional CC as both the sensing and the substrate material. The modified CC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectra, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The increase in electrochemical activity is due to the increased defective extent and excellent electrochemical activity of CC. Under optimum conditions (viz. a pH value of 4.5, deposition time of 160 s), the sensor is capable of determining Pb2+ by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) at a typical working potential of - 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Response is linear from 5.0 × 10-9 to 3.0 × 10-6 M Pb2+, and the detection limit is 4.8 nM (at S/N = 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of Pb2+ in real samples, with apparent recoveries from 96.0 to 102.0% and a relative standard deviation of less than 3.4%. In addition, the integration of the sensor with signal collection components has enabled us to realize on-site analysis of Pb2+, which is highlighted as a new generation of electrode platform for the development of a portable analysis device.Graphical abstract.

9.
J Immunol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046503

RESUMO

Emerging evidence indicates that Myo9b is a cancer metastasis-related protein and functions in a variety of immune-related diseases. However, it is not clear whether and how Myo9b functions in malignant pleural effusion (MPE). In this study, our data showed that Myo9b expression levels correlated with lung cancer pleural metastasis, and nucleated cells in MPE from either patients or mice expressed a lower level of Myo9b than those in the corresponding blood. Myo9b deficiency in cancer cells suppressed MPE development via inhibition of migration. Myo9b deficiency in mice suppressed MPE development by decreasing TH1 cells and increasing TH17 cells. CD4+ naive T cells isolated from Myo9b-/- mouse spleens exhibited less TH1 cell differentiation and more TH17 cell differentiation in vitro. mRNA sequencing of nucleated cells showed that T cell-specific adaptor protein (TSAd) was downregulated in Myo9b-/- mouse MPE, and enrichment of the H3K27me3 mark in the TSAd promoter region was found in the Myo9b-/- group. Naive T cells purified from wild type mouse spleens transfected with TSAd-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) also showed less TH1 cell differentiation and more TH17 cell differentiation than those from the siRNA control group. Furthermore, downregulation of TSAd in mice using cholesterol-conjugated TSAd-specific siRNA suppressed MPE development, decreased TH1 cells, and increased TH17 cells in MPE in vivo. Taken together, Myo9b deficiency suppresses MPE development not only by suppressing pleural cancer metastasis but also by regulating TH1/TH17 cell response via a TSAd-dependent pathway. This work suggests Myo9b and TSAd as novel candidates for future basic and clinical investigations of cancer.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16998, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046785

RESUMO

Most initially perfect flowers of Toona ciliata Roem subsequently develop into functionally unisexual flowers and their relative positions in the same inflorescence could enhance the outcrossing system in this species. Here we investigated the mating system of this species. We used eight nuclear microsatellite markers and investigated the progeny of 125 mother trees from six populations naturally distributed in South China, with sample sizes ranging from 64 to 300 seeds. The multilocus outcrossing rate was 0.970 ± 0.063, and the single locus outcrossing rate was 0.859 ± 0.106, indicating the pattern of predominant outcrossing. Selfing was present in one population, but biparental inbreeding occurred in five populations. Inbreeding was absent in maternal parents, and correlations of selfing among families or among loci were generally insignificant. Positive correlation of paternity at multiple loci was significant in four populations, but was not consistent with the results at single loci. Population substructure occurred in male similarity between outcrosses only in one population. Population genetic differentaitaion was significant (Fst = 34.5%) and the effects of isolation-by-distance at the eight loci were significant among the six populations. These results provide evidence that self-comptability and inbreeding naturally occur in T. ciliata and indicate that inbreeding avoidance is necessary during genetic improvement and breeding of this endangered tree species.

11.
Med Image Anal ; 67: 101819, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049580

RESUMO

With the development of deep learning, its application in diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules has been widely concerned. However, it is difficult to obtain medical images, resulting in insufficient number of data, which contradicts the large amount of data required for acquiring effective deep learning diagnostic models. A multi-view ensemble learning based on voting mechanism is proposed herein to boost the performance of the models trained by small-dataset thyroid nodule ultrasound images. The method integrates three kinds of diagnosis results which are obtained from 3-view dataset which is composed of thyroid nodule ultrasound images, medical features extracted based on U-Net output and useful features selected by mRMR from the statistical features and texture features. To obtain preliminary diagnosis results, the images are utilized for training GoogleNet. For improving the results, supplementary methods were proposed based on the medical features and the selected features. To analyze the contribution of these features and acquire two groups of diagnosis results, the designed Xgboost classifier is utilized for obtaining two groups of features respectively. Subsequently, the boosting final results are obtained through majority voting mechanism. Furthermore, the proposed method is utilized to diagnose sequence images (the images extracted by frame from videos) to solve the poor results caused by slight differences. Finally, better final results are obtained for both of the normal dataset and the sequence dataset (consisting of sequence images). Compared with the accuracies obtained by only training deep learning models with small datasets, the diagnostic accuracies of the above two datasets are improved to 92.11% and 92.54% respectively by utilizing the proposed method.

12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 250: 116913, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049833

RESUMO

A novel strategy is proposed to fabricate ordered long polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVAF)-reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) composites with significantly improved mechanical properties. The PVAFs were uniformly fixed on two rods first; then sandwich-like TPS/fibers/TPS composite films were prepared by hot pressing, and PVAFs (0-4.08 wt%) with the same orientation were added to the composite films. The tensile test demonstrated that the tensile strength of the PVAF/TPS composite film improved from 2.13 MPa for TPS to 20.98 MPa with 4.08 wt% PVAFs, which is higher than the tensile strength of polyethylene (PE) (11.88 MPa) and polypropylene (PP) (19.29 MPa) and ten times higher than that of TPS. The sandwich-like cross-section of the composite film was observed by scanning electron microscopy to prove the better compatibility between PVAF and TPS. The nanoindentation test revealed that the addition of fibers improved the elastic modulus and hardness of the surface of the material. The strengthening mechanism for different PVAF contents was simulated by finite element analysis and attributed to the reduced maximum von Mises stress at the interface between the fiber and the TPS matrix, avoiding the stress concentration and corresponding fracture. This study provides a new way to prepare degradable composite films with suitable mechanical properties to replace PE or PP.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalization due to acute asthma exacerbation (AE) is a highly detrimental situation requiring critical management to prevent further deterioration, including mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. However, patients hospitalized for AEs are highly heterogeneous and remain largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: Identify clinical and inflammatory phenotypes of AE requiring hospitalization associated with in-hospital outcomes. METHODS: We performed a hierarchical cluster analysis of 825 consecutively recruited patients hospitalized for AEs. Logistic regressions were conducted to quantify the independent associations of the identified phenotypes with in-hospital outcomes. Decision tree analysis was developed to predict cluster assignment. RESULTS: We identified three clusters of patients, which had significantly different characteristics associated with in-hospital adverse outcomes. Cluster 1 (n=526, 63.8%) was a late-onset phenotype, cluster 2 (n=97, 11.8%) was an early-onset phenotype, and cluster 3 (n=202, 24.5%) was a phenotype with fewer eosinophils and more comorbidities. Clusters 2 and 3 had an elevated risk of death (RRadj 18.10 and 19.17, respectively) and mechanical ventilation (RRadj 2.56 and 5.71, respectively) than did cluster 1. Individuals in cluster 3 had an extended length of hospital stay (11 days), increased hospitalization direct costs (13,481.57 Chinese Yuan[CNY]), and a higher risk of ICU admission (RRadj 2.14) than individuals in clusters 1 and 2. The decision tree assigned 90.8% of the participants correctly. CONCLUSIONS: We identified three phenotypes with differential clinical and inflammatory characteristics associated with in-hospital adverse outcomes. These new phenotypes might have important and clinically relevant implications for the management of patients hospitalized for AEs.

14.
J Int Med Res ; 48(10): 300060520945132, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the related risk factors and predictive nomogram of postoperative hypoxaemia in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. METHODS: This study included patients aged ≥65 years who underwent surgical treatment of acute femoral neck fractures. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative hypoxaemia. A predictive nomogram was constructed based on the multivariable model. Using the bootstrap method, discrimination was determined by the C-index and calibration plot. RESULTS: The logistic regression analysis showed that the anaesthesia type, surgical procedure, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, preoperative hypoxaemia occurrence, and age were independent predictors of development of postoperative hypoxaemia. The predictive formula for hypoxaemia was established as follows: hypoxaemia=-0.8668×spinal anaesthesia (whether)+0.1162×nerve anaesthesia (whether)+1.9555×plate/screw fixation (whether)+1.4950×hip replacement (whether)+0.4883×ASA classification+1.7153×preoperative oxygenation index+0.1608×age. With the bootstrap method, the prediction curve fit well with the ideal curve, suggesting that the prediction curve constructed in this study has good predictive ability. CONCLUSIONS: Anaesthesia type, surgical procedure, ASA classification, preoperative hypoxaemia occurrence, and age were risk factors for postoperative hypoxaemia in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. The predictive nomogram was designed for preoperative assessment of the risk of postoperative hypoxaemia by calculating the risk score.

15.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(11): 599, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034765

RESUMO

A tunable plasmon-assisted electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy is reported using concave Au nanocubes (Au CBs) for rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma B-type (BRAF) detection. Concave Au CBs exhibit a strong surface plasmon coupling (SPC) effect between its sharp apexes and edges. The high spectral overlap with graphite phase carbon nitride quantum dots (g-C3N4 QDs) is achieved by tuning surface plasmon absorption peak of the concave Au CBs. It maximizes the SPC effect and enhances the ECL signal of g-C3N4 QDs 3-fold. The SPC effect of Au CBs is twice as high as with Au NPs. We also employed a toehold-mediated strand displacement (TMSD) strategy for sensitive target recycling amplification. Under optimal conditions, this sensor can determine BRAF gene from 1 pM to 1 nM with a detection limit of 3.06 × 10-5 nM (S/N = 3) and RSD 3.67%. With the aid of the TMSD strategy and tunable plasmon-assisted ECL sensing mode, this sensor also exhibits good analytical performance in human serum with satisfactory recovery of 90.2~109%. The proposed strategy provides a promising method to effectively enhance spectral overlap and detect BRAF gene.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5088, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037212

RESUMO

Early detection of COVID-19 based on chest CT enables timely treatment of patients and helps control the spread of the disease. We proposed an artificial intelligence (AI) system for rapid COVID-19 detection and performed extensive statistical analysis of CTs of COVID-19 based on the AI system. We developed and evaluated our system on a large dataset with more than 10 thousand CT volumes from COVID-19, influenza-A/B, non-viral community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and non-pneumonia subjects. In such a difficult multi-class diagnosis task, our deep convolutional neural network-based system is able to achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 97.81% for multi-way classification on test cohort of 3,199 scans, AUC of 92.99% and 93.25% on two publicly available datasets, CC-CCII and MosMedData respectively. In a reader study involving five radiologists, the AI system outperforms all of radiologists in more challenging tasks at a speed of two orders of magnitude above them. Diagnosis performance of chest x-ray (CXR) is compared to that of CT. Detailed interpretation of deep network is also performed to relate system outputs with CT presentations. The code is available at https://github.com/ChenWWWeixiang/diagnosis_covid19 .

17.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040463

RESUMO

Certain tumors are dependent on autophagy for survival, and thus the use of ULK1 inhibitors to block autophagy has the potential for tumor treatment. However, ULK1 inhibitors affect processes other than autophagy. Herein, we report that the ULK1 inhibitors SBI-0206965/MRT68921 not only inhibit phosphorylation of histone H3 (Ser10) and delay chromatin condensation, but also induce spindle microtubule disorganization to form short and fragmented microtubule polymers. While the delay in chromatin condensation also delayed mitotic entry, the disorganized microtubule polymers resulted in unsegregated chromosomes and polyploidy. Although the effect on mitotic entry was moderate, polyploidy formation was decreased in ULK1 knockout cells with/without ULK2 knockdown. In conclusion, it will be helpful to consider the roles of ULK1 inhibitors in mitotic dysregulation as well as autophagy when evaluating their anti-tumor efficacy.

18.
Med (N Y) ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043313

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerged respiratory infectious disease with kidney injury as a part of the clinical complications. However, the dynamic change of kidney function and its association with COVID-19 prognosis are largely unknown. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we analyzed clinical characteristics, medical history, laboratory tests, and treatment data of 12,413 COVID-19 patients. The patient cohort was stratified according to the severity of the outcome into three groups: non-severe, severe, and death. Findings: The prevalence of elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), elevated serum creatinine (Scr), and decreased blood uric acid (BUA) at admission was 6.29%, 5.22%, 11.66%, respectively. The trajectories showed elevation of BUN level and Scr level, as well as a reduction of BUA level during 28 days after admission in death cases. Increased all-cause mortality risk was associated with elevated baseline levels of BUN and Scr, and decreased level of BUA. Conclusion: The dynamic changes of the three kidney function markers were associated with different severity and poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. BUN showed close association and high potential for predicting adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients for severity stratification and triage.

19.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043594

RESUMO

Electrolytic water splitting using surplus electricity represents one of the most cost-effective and promising strategies for hydrogen production. The high overpotential of the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) caused by the multi-electron transfer process with a high chemical energy barrier, however, limits its competitiveness. Here, an highly active and stable OER electrocatalyst was designed through a cobalt-induced intrastructural enhancement strategy combined with suitable electronic structure modulation. A carved carbon nanobox was embedded with tri-metal phosphide from a uniform Ni-Co-Fe Prussian blue analogue (PBA) nanocube by sequential NH3•H2O etching and thermal phosphorization. The sample exhibited an OER activity in an alkaline medium, reaching a current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an overpotential of 182 mV and displayed a small Tafel slope of 47 mV/dec, superior to the most recently reported OER electrocatalysts. Moreover, it showed impressive electrocatalytic durability, increasing by approximately 2.7% of operating voltage after 24 h of continuous testing. The excellent OER activity and stability are ascribed to a favorable transfer of mass and charge provided by the porous carbon shell, synergistic catalysis between the three-component metal phosphides originating from appropriate electronic structure modulation, more exposed catalytic sites on the hollow structure, and chainmail catalysis resulting from the carbon protective layer. We foresee that our successfully demonstrated design concept can be easily extended to other heterogeneous catalyst designs.

20.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043596

RESUMO

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in the pathophysiology of many cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI) and hypertension. The role of Calhex231, a specific inhibitor of CaSR, in myocardial fibrosis following MI is still unclear. Using Wistar rats, we investigated whether Calhex231 ameliorates myocardial fibrosis through the autophagy-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in macrophages post myocardial infarction (MI). The rats were randomly divided into sham, MI and MI + Calhex231 groups. Compared with the sham rats, the MI rats consistently developed severe cardiac function, myocardial fibrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells including macrophages. Moreover, inflammatory pathway including activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1ß and autophagy was significantly up-regulated in myocardial tissue, infiltrated cardiac macrophages and peritoneal macrophages of the MI rats. These impacts were reversed by Calhex231. In vitro, studies revealed that calindol and rapamycin exacerbated MI-induced autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in peritoneal macrophages. Calhex231 and 3-Methyladenine (a specific inhibitor of autophagy) attenuated both autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome activation; however, the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK did not. Our study indicated that Calhex231 improved cardiac function and ameliorated myocardial fibrosis post MI, likely via the inhibition of autophagy-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation; this provides a new therapeutic target for ventricular remodelling-related cardiovascular diseases.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA