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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 176-182, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799539

RESUMO

Based on the Wallerian degeneration in the spinal cord pathways, the changes in synaptic connections, and the spinal cord-related cellular responses that alter the cellular structure of the brain, we presumed that brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters may change after spinal cord injury. However, the dynamic changes in DTI parameters remain unclear. We established a Beagle dog model of T10 spinal cord contusion and performed DTI of the injured spinal cord. We found dynamic changes in DTI parameters in the cerebral peduncle, posterior limb of the internal capsule, pre- and postcentral gyri of the brain within 12 weeks after spinal cord injury. We then performed immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of neurofilament heavy polypeptide (axonal marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker), and NeuN (neuronal marker). We found that these pathological changes were consistent with DTI parameter changes. These findings suggest that DTI can display brain structure changes after spinal cord injury.

2.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 84-93, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130569

RESUMO

Long-term glycemic fluctuation has been associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the findings are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association between parameters of long-term glycemic variability and risk of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients. Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for longitudinal follow-up studies comparing the incidence of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients with higher or lower long-term glycemic variability. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity among the included studies was used to pool the results. Twelve follow-up studies with 146 653 T2DM patients were included. The mean follow-up duration was 4.9 years. Pooled results showed that compared to those with the lowest glycemic variability, patients with the highest glycemic variability had significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events, as evidenced by the standard deviation of glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c-SD: relative risk (RR)=1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23 to 1.69, p<0.001; I2=70%], HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV: RR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.79. p<0.001; I2=83%), standard deviation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG-SD: RR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.65, p=0.009; I2=0%), and FPG coefficient of variation (FPG-CV: RR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.64, p=0.04; I2=47%). In conclusion, increased long-term glycemic variability may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Phytomedicine ; 105: 154347, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increasing ages of the general population, the incidence of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is also rising, and KOA has become a major health problem worldwide. Recently, medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites have gained interest due to their activity in treating KOA. In this paper, a comprehensive systematic review of the literature was performed concerning the effects of medicinal plant extracts and natural compounds against KOA in recent years. The related molecular pathways of natural compounds against KOA were summarized, and the possible crosstalk among components in chondrocytes was discussed to propose possible solutions for the current situation of treating KOA. PURPOSE: This review focused on the molecular mechanisms by which medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites act against KOA. METHODS: Literature searches were performed in the PUBMED, Embase, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases for a 10-year period from 2011 to 2022 with the search terms "medicinal plants," "bioactive compounds," "natural products," "phytochemical," "knee osteoarthritis," "knee joint osteoarthritis," "knee osteoarthritis," "osteoarthritis of the knee," and "osteoarthritis of knee joint." RESULTS: According to the results, substantial plant extracts and secondary metabolites show a positive effect in fighting KOA. Plant extracts and their secondary metabolites can affect the diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of KOA. Natural products inhibit the expression of MMP1, MMP3, MMP19, syndecan IV, ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, iNOS, COX-2, collagenases, IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo and . Cytokines also upregulate the expression of collagen II and aggrecan. The main signaling pathways affected by the extracts and isolated compounds include AMPK, SIRT, NLRP3, MAPKs, PI3K/AKT, mTOR, NF-κB, WNT/ß-catenin, JAK/STAT3, and NRF2, as well as the cell death modes apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis. CONCLUSION: The role of secondary metabolites in different signaling pathways supplies a better understanding of their potential to develop further curative options for KOA.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 964575, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935956

RESUMO

Rationale: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has been considered as an important regulator for immune diseases. We have previously shown that AhR protects against allergic airway inflammation. The underlying mechanism, however, remains undetermined. Objectives: We sought to determine whether AhR specifically in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AT2) modulates allergic airway inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: The role of AhR in AT2 cells in airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of asthma with AhR conditional knockout mice in AT2 cells (Sftpc-Cre;AhRf/f ). The effect of AhR on allergen-induced autophagy was examined by both in vivo and in vitro analyses. The involvement of autophagy in airway inflammation was analyzed by using autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. The AhR-regulated gene profiling in AT2 cells was also investigated by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Results: Sftpc-Cre;AhRf/f mice showed exacerbation of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation with elevated Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Notably, an increased allergen-induced autophagy was observed in the lung tissues of Sftpc-Cre;AhRf/f mice when compared with wild-type mice. Further analyses suggested a functional axis of AhR-TGF-ß1 that is critical in driving allergic airway inflammation through regulating allergen-induced cellular autophagy. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine significantly suppressed cockroach allergen-induced airway inflammation, Th2 cytokines in BALFs, and expression of autophagy-related genes LC3 and Atg5 in the lung tissues. In addition, RNA-seq analysis suggests that autophagy is one of the major pathways and that CALCOCO2/NDP52 and S1009 are major autophagy-associated genes in AT2 cells that may contribute to the AhR-mediated cockroach allergen-induced airway inflammation and, subsequently, allergic asthma. Conclusion: These results suggest that AhR in AT2 cells functions as a protective mechanism against allergic airway inflammation through controlling cell autophagy.


Assuntos
Asma , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Alérgenos , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Autofagia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética
5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 628(Pt A): 499-507, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933867

RESUMO

It is imperative to design and manufacture electrocatalysts towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) for popularization of rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Herein, FeNi alloy confined in N-doped carbon nanosheets (FeNi@NCSs) was harvested via a facile complexation-pyrolysis strategy from the mixture of guanine and metal chlorides. After strictly exploring the pyrolysis temperature and metal types, the resulted FeNi@NCSs showed greatly improved performances on both the ORR (onset potential of 0.93 V and half-wave potential of 0.84 V) and OER (overpotential of 318 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and 379 mV at 100 mA cm-2). Further, the FeNi@NCSs based Zn-air battery exhibited a higher open circuit voltage (1.496 V), a larger power density (128.8 mW cm-2), and prominent durability (360 cycles, 120 h). This study provides an appealing approach to utilize biomass for synthesis of low-cost and high-efficiency electrocatalysts in energy associated systems.

6.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that transcatheter aortic valve implantation is the best alternative therapy to surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk surgical patients with aortic stenosis. However, it is not clear whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation can be utilized in low-risk surgical patients with aortic stenosis. This studyaimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in low-risk patients. METHODS: From the outset of our initiative until April 2022, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database were thoroughly searched, yielding the selection of 3 randomized controlled trials including 2644 patients with aortic stenosis, to assess outcome measures at distinct follow-up time. RESULTS: The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality score of patients was 2.2. At the 30-day and 1-year follow-up, transcatheter aortic valve implan- tation was associated with a lower incidence of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mor- tality, acute kidney injury (stage 2 or 3), life-threatening or significant bleeding, and new atrial fibrillation but an increased risk of permanent pacemaker implantation. At the 2-year follow-up, transcatheter aortic valve implantation only had an advantage in new atrial fibrillation (relative risk, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.14-0.51; P < .0001), with no significant differ- ence in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: For low-risk surgical patients with aortic stenosis, compared to surgical aortic valve replacement, transcatheter aortic valve implantation was associated with lower all-cause mortality at 30-day follow-up and lower cardiovascular mortality at 1-year follow-up. Except for the advantages in new atrial fibrillation, transcatheter aor- tic valve implantation had no significant impact on mortality at 2-year follow-up.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950563

RESUMO

High-performance wearable sensors are required for applications in medical health and human-machine interaction, but their application has limited owing to the trade-off between sensitivity, pressure range, and durability. Herein, we propose the combined spraying and self-diffusion process of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to balance and improve these parameters with the CNTs spontaneously diffusing into the film surface before the film curing. The obtained sensor not only achieves high sensitivity (155.54 kPa-1) and ultrawide pressure detection range (0.1-500 kPa) but also exhibits exceptional durability (over 12,000 pressure cycles at a high pressure of 300 kPa). In addition, the sensor exhibits a fast response (25 ms), good stability, and full flexibility. This process is a general approach that may improve the performance of various types of thin film piezoresistive sensors. Besides, the fabricated sensors can be flexibly scaled into sensor arrays and communicate with smart devices to achieve wireless smart monitoring. At present, the sensor shows broad application prospects in the fields of intelligent medical health and motion sensing.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 927880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911686

RESUMO

Heavy-metal pollution has increasingly jeopardized the habitats of marine organisms including the sea cucumber, a seafloor scavenger vital to seawater bio-decontamination, ocean de-acidification and coral-reef protection. Normal physiology including immune functions of sea cucumbers is toxicologically modulated by marine metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd). The processes underpinning Cd's toxic effects on immune systems in the sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota, are still poorly understood. To this end, we cloned and characterized a full-length caspase-9 (Hl-CASP9) cDNA in the sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota. Hl-CASP9 mRNA levels evolved dynamically during embryonic development. Coelomocytes, a type of phagocytic immune effectors central to H. leucospilota immunity, were found to express Hl-CASP9 mRNA most abundantly. Hl-CASP9 protein structurally resembles caspases-2 and -9 in both invertebrate and vertebrate species, comprising a CARD domain and a CASc domain. Remarkably, Hl-CASP9 was transcriptionally sensitive to abiotic oxidative stress inducers including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (•NO) and cadmium (Cd), but insensitive to immunostimulants including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and poly(I:C). Overexpression of Hl-CASP9 augmented mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in HEK293T cells, while knock-down of Hl-CASP9 blunted Cd-induced coelomocyte apoptosis in vivo. Overall, we illustrate that an evolutionarily ancient caspase-9-dependent pathway exists to sensitize coelomocytes to premature cell death precipitated by heavy metal pollutants, with important implications for negative modulation of organismal immune response in marine invertebrates.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Cádmio , Caspase 9 , Holothuria , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais , Células HEK293 , Holothuria/genética , Holothuria/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Pepinos-do-Mar/genética , Pepinos-do-Mar/metabolismo
9.
J Proteomics ; 267: 104689, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914714

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) disorder is a pivotal factor that limits rice yields in many parts of the world. Extensive research has been devoted to studying how rice molecularly copes with the stresses of Fe deficiency or excess. However, a comprehensive dissection of the whole Fe-responsive atlas at the protein level is still lacking. Here, different concentrations of Fe (0, 40, 350, and 500 µM) were supplied to rice to demonstrate its response differences to Fe deficiency and excess via physiological and proteomic analysis. Results showed that compared with the normal condition, the seedling growth and contents of Fe and manganese were significantly disturbed under either Fe stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that differentially accumulated proteins under Fe deficiency and Fe excess were commonly enriched in localization, carbon metabolism, biosynthesis of amino acids, and antioxidant system. Notably, proteins with abundance retuned by Fe starvation were individually associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, cysteine and methionine metabolism, while ribosome- and endocytosis-related proteins were specifically enriched in treatment of Fe overdose of 500 µM. Moreover, several novel proteins which may play potential roles in rice Fe homeostasis were predicted. These findings expand the understanding of rice Fe nutrition mechanisms, and provide efficient guidance for genetic breeding work. SIGNIFICANCE: Both iron (Fe) deficiency and excess significantly inhibited the growth of rice seedlings. Fe deficiency and excess disturbed processes of localization and cellular oxidant detoxification, metabolisms of carbohydrates and amino acids in different ways. The Fe-deficiency and Fe-excess-responsive proteins identified by the proteome were somewhat different from the reported transcriptional profiles, providing complementary information to the transcriptomic data.

10.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923072

RESUMO

Silicate-substituted calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) ceramics, alternative materials for autogenous bone grafting, exhibit excellent osteoinductivity, osteoconductivity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability; thus, they have been widely used for treating bone defects. However, the limited control over the spatial structure and weak mechanical properties of conventional Si-CaP ceramics hinder their wide application. Here, we used digital light processing (DLP) printing technology to fabricate a novel porous 3D printed Si-CaP scaffold to enhance the scaffold properties. Scanning electron microscopy, compression tests, and computational fluid dynamics simulations of the 3D printed Si-CaP scaffolds revealed a uniform spatial structure, appropriate mechanical properties, and effective interior permeability. Furthermore, compared to Si-CaP groups, 3D printed Si-CaP groups exhibited sustained release of silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) ions. Furthermore, 3D printed Si-CaP groups had more comprehensive and persistent osteogenic effects due to increased osteogenic factor expression and calcium deposition. Our results show that the 3D printed Si-CaP scaffold successfully improved bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation and possessed a distinct apatite mineralization ability. Overall, with the help of DLP printing technology, Si-CaP ceramic materials facilitate the fabrication of ideal bone tissue engineering scaffolds with essential elements, providing a promising approach for bone regeneration.

11.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 221: 107401, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932589

RESUMO

Neurovascular compression syndrome is caused by vessels touching a cranial nerve, resulting in clinical manifestations of abnormal sensory or motor symptoms. The most common manifestations are trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. However, neurovascular compression of the vestibular nerve or glossopharyngeal nerve are rare. In this article, we describe four typical cases of neurovascular compression syndrome. In addition, we analyze the main features of the etiology, neuroimaging, and treatment of this disease.

12.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(18): 6289-6297, 2022 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (LDAC) is a relatively rare disease characterized by poor prognosis that exacerbates the incidence of sudden cardiac death and ventricular arrhythmias. Clinically, LDAC is constantly overlooked or misdiagnosed as myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy, owing to atypical and nonspecific clinical manifestations at an early stage. CASE SUMMARY: A 57-year-old woman was diagnosed with sinus bradycardia and chronic bifascicular block during a health check. She occasionally experienced mild chest pain and paroxysmal palpitation during activity in the past 2 years. Comprehensive auxiliary examinations, including electrocardiogram, echocardiography, coronary computerized tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging, revealed that she had LDAC instead of congenital ventricular diverticulum. The physicians prescribed standard oral therapy for heart failure and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Consequently, her left ventricular systolic function and symptoms remained stable at the 2-year follow-up after discharge. CONCLUSION: Based on this case, clinicians need to be aware of LDAC in patients with localized left ventricular lesions and multiple electrocardiographic abnormalities. Multimodality cardiovascular imaging is effective in identification of multiple types of cardiomyopathy and cardiac inner structures.

13.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(18): 6021-6031, 2022 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lesions of breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) 4 at mammography vary from benign to malignant, leading to difficulties for clinicians to distinguish between them. The specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting breast is relatively low, leading to many false-positive results and high rates of re-examination or biopsy. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), combined with perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), might help to distinguish between benign and malignant BI-RADS 4 breast lesions at mammography. AIM: To evaluate the value of DWI and PWI in diagnosing BI-RADS 4 breast lesions. METHODS: This is a retrospective study which included patients who underwent breast MRI between May 2017 and May 2019 in the hospital. The lesions were divided into benign and malignant groups according to the classification of histopathological results. The diagnostic efficacy of DWI and PWI were analyzed respectively and combinedly. The 95 lesions were divided according to histopathological diagnosis, with 46 benign and 49 malignant. The main statistical methods used included the Student t-test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the parenchyma and lesion area of the normal mammary gland were 1.82 ± 0.22 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.24 ± 0.16 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively (P = 0.021). The mean ADC value of the malignant group was 1.09 ± 0.23 × 10-3 mm2/s, which was lower than that of the benign group (1.42 ± 0.68 × 10-3 mm2/s) (P = 0.016). The volume transfer constant (Ktrans) and rate constant (Kep) values were higher in malignant lesions than in benign ones (all P < 0.001), but there were no significant statistical differences regarding volume fraction (Ve) (P = 0.866). The sensitivity and specificity of PWI combined with DWI (91.7% and 89.3%, respectively) were higher than that of PWI or DWI alone. The accuracy of PWI combined with DWI in predicting pathological results was significantly higher than that predicted by PWI or DWI alone. CONCLUSION: DWI, combined with PWI, might possibly distinguish between benign and malignant BI-RADS 4 breast lesions at mammography.

14.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 14(1): 113, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ß-cell function and insulin resistance required by existing methods of classifying type 2 diabetes are not routinely adopted in most medical institutions of developing countries and regions. This study aims to propose a novel, affordable classification approach and evaluate its predictive ability for several health and mortality outcomes, including cardiovascular health (CVH), retinopathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), advanced liver fibrosis, and mortality caused by all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer. METHODS: Based on 4060 participants with diabetes (aged ≥ 30 at the time of diagnosis) selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III & 1999-2014, we proposed a novel, but simple classification approach based on the threshold of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and body mass index (BMI). We used logistic regression model to assess its predictability for diabetes complications, and Cox regression model to estimate the mortality risks. RESULTS: By utilizing this approach, we characterized the subjects into four subgroups: subgroup A (obesity-related), which accounts for 37% of the total, subgroup B (age-related), 38%, subgroup C (insulin resistance), 20%, and subgroup D (severe insulin deficiency), 5%. Subjects in subgroup D had a higher risk of retinopathy, in subgroup B had a lower risk of poor cardiovascular health, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and advanced liver fibrosis, in subgroup C had a higher risk of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes an affordable and practical method for classifying patients with type 2 diabetes into different subgroups, with a view to yield a high predictability of patient outcomes and to assist clinicians in providing better treatment.

15.
Cereb Cortex ; 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952334

RESUMO

Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) is a well-defined developmental disorder characterized by failed neuronal migration, which forms ectopic neuronal nodules along the ventricular walls. Previous studies mainly focus on clinical symptoms caused by the PVNH tissue, such as seizures. However, little is known about whether and how neurons in the PVNH tissue functionally communicate with neurons in the neocortex. To probe this, we applied magnetoencephalography (MEG) and stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) recordings to patients with PVNH during resting and task states. By estimating frequency-resolved phase coupling strength of the source-reconstructed neural activities, we found that the PVNH tissue was spontaneously coupled with the neocortex in the α-ß frequency range, which was consistent with the synchronization pattern within the neocortical network. Furthermore, the coupling strength between PVNH and sensory areas effectively modulated the local neural activity in sensory areas. In both MEG and sEEG visual experiments, the PVNH tissue exhibited visual-evoked responses, with a similar pattern and latency as the ipsilateral visual cortex. These findings demonstrate that PVNH is functionally integrated into cognition-related cortical circuits, suggesting a co-development perspective of ectopic neurons after their migration failure.

16.
Front Nutr ; 9: 923699, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35958261

RESUMO

It is well-known that many vegetables and fruits have abundant polyphenols, such as anthocyanins, which benefit many cardiovascular diseases due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. To explore the protective effect of anthocyanin on atherosclerosis from a metabolic perspective, alterations in plasma metabolic profiling of apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice in response to treatment with anthocyanin extracts derived from Xinjiang wild cherry plum (Prunus divaricata Ledeb) peel was investigated through UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The mice were fed with a normal diet or high-fat diet supplementation with or without anthocyanin extracts (ACNE, 75, 150, 250 mg/kg body weight) for 18 weeks, corresponding to control (Con), model (Mod), and treatment group (LD, low dose; MD, medium dose; HD, high dose), respectively, along with a positive control group (posCon, treatment with Atorvastatin, 0.003 mg/kg body weight). The results showed that ACNE could significantly enhance the antioxidant capacity and lower the plasma lipid, but have no evident influence on the body weight of apoE-/- mice. A series of differential metabolites, predominantly related to lipid metabolism, were identified, including docosahexaenoic acid, palmitoyl ethanolamide, stearoylcarnitine, L-palmitoylcarnitine, indoxyl sulfate (IS), 1-palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine, phenylacetylglycine (PAGly), and so on. Among these, both IS and PAGly were host-microbial metabolites. These differential metabolites were mainly enriched in the pathway of glycerophospholipid metabolism and linoleic acid metabolism. Several important enzymes related to glycerophospholipid metabolisms such as LCAT, LPCAT, GPCPD1, PLA2G1B, PPARG, LIPE, PNPLA2, AGPAT1, and ENPP2 were recognized as underlying targets for anti-atherogenic effects of ACNE. These findings suggest that ACNE derived from Xinjiang wild cherry plum exhibits protective effects against atherosclerosis via modulating glycerophospholipid metabolism.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 939757, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35958402

RESUMO

Isthmin-1 is a secreted protein with multiple capability; however, it truly attracts our attention since the definition as an adipokine in 2021, which exerts indispensable roles in various pathophysiological processes through the endocrine or autocrine manners. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge of isthmin-1, including its distribution, structure, receptor and potential function.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912664

RESUMO

Color is one of the most distinctive qualities of red wine. Despite new knowledge in the field of pigment identification, copigmentation, and oxidation being forthcoming, there is still a large gap between the fundamental research and practical winemaking outcomes. A state-of-art review from these two aspects is, therefore, necessary. This review first introduces updated knowledge about the primary pigments in wine, with emphasis on their physicochemical properties. Then, the mechanisms of copigmentation and oxidation are elucidated in detail, along with their relative contributions to wine color. Finally, the practical effects of copigmentation and micro-oxygenation (MOX) in winemaking are summarized and discussed. In general, wine coloration is ultimately determined by the anthocyanin flavylium cation, which is greatly influenced by wine pH. In young red wine, grape-derived anthocyanins and nonanthocyanin polyphenols (as copigments) are the foundation for wine coloration. During aging and storage, anthocyanin derivatives are formed via various chemical reactions, where moderate oxidation plays a vital role, whereas copigmentation constantly decreases. The essence of wine color evolution relates to the changes of physicochemical properties of primary pigments in wine, where the hydration equilibrium gradually diminishes. In practice, the effects of copigment addition and MOX during real vinification can be viewed as somewhat controversial, considering that many studies showed different effects on wine color and pigment concentration. Universal features can be summarized but some phenomena still remain unclear and deserve further exploration.

19.
J Breast Cancer ; 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914749

RESUMO

Breast imaging techniques are used to assess the tumor response to neoadjuvant treatment (NAT), which is increasingly one of the preferred therapeutic options and increases the rate of breast conservation for breast cancer. Herein, we report a case in which a woman was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma in the left breast and received NAT before surgery. Automated breast ultrasound (AB US) was regularly performed before and during the NAT to evaluate the tumor response to NAT by measuring diameter changes and volume reductions of the tumor. Images showed that the tumor size was significantly reduced and disappeared after 7 cycles of NAT, except for macrocalcification. Postoperative histopathological examination confirmed that there were no residual tumor cells. We found that AB US overcame the limitations of handheld US, such as operator dependence, poor reproducibility and limited field of view, and can be an alternative modality to assess the tumor response of NAT in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instruments.

20.
ChemSusChem ; 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916324

RESUMO

Lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) are usually produced from lignin solutions through supersaturation. The structure of the lignin in solution is still poorly understood due to structural variability of isolated lignins. Lignins were extracted from different plants to establish a general pattern of their structure in several lignin solvents. Lignin molecules (lignin subunits) and larger aggregates were observed in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol(EG) and 0.1N NaOD solutions by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). It was proposed that the aggregates are composed of lignin subunits with a higher molecular weight and a higher ratio of the aliphatic to phenolic hydroxyl groups. The size, shape, and compactness are important factors that affect the uses of the LNPs, which were obtained from the SANS data for the first time. A discrepancy in the radius between SANS and DLS was discovered, pointing to a large hydration shell around the LNPs in aqueous solutions. The cytotoxicity of the corncob lignin, kraft lignin, and their LNPs were measured and compared.

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