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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 120: 111789, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545915

RESUMO

Scaffold micro-topological structure plays an important role in the regulation of cell behavior in bone tissue engineering. This paper investigated the effect of 3D printing parameters on the scaffold micro-topological structure and its subsequent cell behaviors. By setting of different 3D printing parameters, i.e., the 3D printing laser power, the scanning interval and the thickness of sliced layers, the highest resolution up to 20 µm can be precisely fabricated. Scaffolds' characterization results indicated that the laser power affected the forming quality of melt tracks, the scanning interval distance determined the size of regularly arranged pores, and the thickness of sliced layers affected the morphological and structural characteristics. By regulating of these printing parameters, customized porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with varied hierarchical micro-topological structure can be obtained. In vitro cell culturing results showed that the regular porous micro-topological structure of scaffolds with the aperture close to cell size was more suitable for cell proliferation and adhesion. The overall distribution of cells on regular porous scaffolds was similar to the orderly arrangement of cultivated crops in the field. The findings suggested that customization of the scaffold provided an effective way to regulate cellular behavior and biological properties.

2.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(6): 1686-1697, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491727

RESUMO

Microfracture surgery remains the most popular treatment for articular cartilage lesions in the clinic, but often leads to the formation of inferior fibrocartilage tissue and damage to subchondral bone. To overcome these problems, extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds derived from decellularized natural cartilaginous tissues were introduced and showed excellent biological properties to direct the differentiation of bone marrow stem cells. However, besides the limited allogenic/allogenic supply and the risk of disease transfer from xenogeneic tissues, the effectiveness of ECM scaffolds always varied with a high variability of natural tissue quality. In this study, we developed composite scaffolds functionalized with a cell-derived ECM source, namely, bionic cartilage acellular matrix microspheres (BCAMMs), that support the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow cells released from microfracture. The scaffolds with BCAMMs at different developmental stages were investigated in articular cartilage regeneration and subchondral bone repair. Compared to microfracture, the addition of cell-free BCAMM scaffolds has demonstrated a great improvement of regenerated cartilage tissue quality in a rabbit model as characterized by a semi-quantitative analysis of cells, histology and biochemical assays as well as micro-CT images. Moreover, the variation in ECM properties was found to significantly affect the cartilage regeneration, highlighting the challenges of homogenous scaffolds in working with microfracture. Together, our results demonstrate that the biofunctionalized BCAMM scaffold with cell-derived ECM shows great potential to combine with microfracture for clinical translation to repair cartilage defects.

3.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453407

RESUMO

The existing approaches for healing mandibular condylar osteochondral defects, which are prevalent in temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), are sparse and not reparative. To address this, regenerative medicine in situ has transpired as a potential therapeutic solution as it can effectively regenerate composite tissues. Herein, injectable self-crosslinking thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH)/type I collagen (Col I) blend hydrogel and BCP ceramics combined with rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs)/chondrocytes were used to fabricate a new bi-layer scaffold to simulate specific structure of rabbit condylar osteochondral defects. The in vitro results demonstrated that the blend hydrogel scaffold provided suitable microenvironment for simultaneously realizing proliferation and chondrogenic specific matrix secretion of both rBMSCs and chondrocytes, while BCP ceramics facilitated rBMSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. The in vivo results confirmed that compared with cell-free implant, the rBMSCs/chondrocytes-loaded bi-layer scaffold could effectively promote the regeneration of both fibrocartilage and subchondral bone, suggesting that the bi-layer scaffold presented a promising option for cell-mediated mandibular condylar cartilage regeneration.

4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 147-159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456309

RESUMO

Background: There is still a big challenge to achieve a balance between mechanical characteristics and biological properties in biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics. Purpose: The present study focused on the in-situ whisker growth on BCP ceramics via different hydrothermal treatments and investigated the influences of these whiskers on the mechanical property and biological performance of the ceramics. Methods: Five kinds of BCP ceramics with in-situ whisker growth, ie, BCP-C, BCP-HNO3, BCP-Citric, BCP-NaOH, BCP-CaCl2 and BCP-Na3PO4 were fabricated by different hydrothermal treatments. The phase compositions, morphologies, crystal structures and mechanical strengths of the obtained BCP ceramics were firstly characterized. Then, the in vitro cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline  phosphatase (ALP) activity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the BCP ceramics were evaluated. Lastly, the effects of in-situ whisker growth on the bone-like apatite formation abilities of BCP ceramics were also investigated by immersing them in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results: The results demonstrated that the hydrothermal conditions, especially the hydrothermal media, were crucial to determine the phase composition and morphology of the in-situ whisker. Especially among the five media used (HNO3, Citric, NaOH, CaCl2 and Na3PO4), the Na3PO4 treatment resulted in the shortest whisker with a unique hollow structure, and kept the original biphasic composition. All five kinds of whiskers increased the mechanical strength of BCP ceramics to some extent, and showed the good ability of bone-like apatite formation. The in vitro cell study demonstrated that the in-situ whisker growth had no adverse but even positive effect on the adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity of BMSCs. Conclusion: Due to the growth of in-situ whiskers, the mechanical property and biological performance of the obtained BCP ceramics could increase simultaneously. Therefore, in-situ whiskers growth offers a promising strategy for the expanded application of BCP ceramics to meet the requirements of regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Cerâmica/química , Temperatura , Água/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Apatitas/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Materiais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
5.
Sci Adv ; 6(50)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310848

RESUMO

Osteoporotic fractures are prevalent in society, and their incidence appears to be increasing as the worldwide population ages. However, conventional bone repair materials hardly satisfy the requirements for the repair of pathological fractures. Here, we developed a biomimetic polyetherketoneketone scaffold with a functionalized strontium-doped nanohydroxyapatite coating for osteoporotic bone defect applications. The scaffold has a hierarchically porous architecture and mechanical strength similar to that of osteoporotic trabecular bone. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the scaffold could promote osteoporotic bone regeneration and delay adjacent bone loss via regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, the correlations between multiple preimplantation and postimplantation parameters were evaluated to determine the potential predictors of in vivo performance of the material. The current work not only develops a promising candidate for osteoporotic bone repair but also provides a viable approach for designing other functional biomaterials and predicting their translational value.

6.
Regen Biomater ; 7(5): 505-514, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149939

RESUMO

Various surface bioactivation technology has been confirmed to improve the osteogenic ability of porous titanium (pTi) implants effectively. In this study, a three-layered composite coating, i.e. outer layer of hydroxyapatite (HA), middle layer of loose titanium dioxide (L-TiO2) and inner layer of dense TiO2 (D-TiO2), was fabricated on pTi by a combined processing procedure of pickling, alkali heat (AH), anodic oxidation (AO), electrochemical deposition (ED) and hydrothermal treatment (HT). After soaking in simulated body fluid for 48 h, the surface of the AHAOEDHT-treated pTi was completely covered by a homogeneous apatite layer. Using MC3T3-E1 pro-osteoblasts as cell model, the cell culture revealed that both the pTi without surface treatment and the AHAOEDHT sample could support the attachment, growth and proliferation of the cells. Compared to the pTi sample, the AHAOEDHT one induced higher expressions of osteogenesis-related genes in the cells, including alkaline phosphatase, Type I collagen, osteopontin, osteoclast inhibitor, osteocalcin and zinc finger structure transcription factor. As thus, besides the good corrosion resistance, the HA/L-TiO2/D-TiO2-coated pTi had good osteogenic activity, showing good potential in practical application for bone defect repair.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(46): 51198-51211, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147005

RESUMO

For reversing the treatment failure in P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-associated MDR (multidrug resistance) of breast cancer, a high dose of Lapatinib (Lap), a substrate of breast cancer-resistant protein, was encapsulated into safe and effective acid-cleavable polysaccharide-doxorubicin (Dox) conjugates to form targeted HPP-Dox/Lap nanoparticles with an optimal drug ratio and appropriate nanosize decorated with oligomeric hyaluronic acid (HA) for specially targeting overexpressed CD44 receptors of MCF-7/ADR. The markedly increased cellular uptake and the strongest synergetic cytotoxicity revealed the enhanced reversal efficiency of HPP-Dox/Lap nanoparticles with reversal multiples at 29.83. This was also verified by the enhanced penetrating capacity in multicellular tumor spheroids. The reinforced Dox retention and substantial down-regulation of P-gp expression implied the possible mechanism of MDR reversal. Furthermore, the efficient ex vivo accumulation and distribution of nanoparticles in the tumor site and the high tumor growth inhibition (93%) even at a lower dosage (1 mg/kg) as well as lung metastasis inhibition in vivo with negligible side effects revealed the overwhelming advantages of targeted polysaccharide nanoparticles and Lap-sensitizing effect against drug-resistant tumor. The development of an efficient and nontoxic-targeted polysaccharide delivery system for reversing MDR by synergistic therapy might provide a potential clinical application value.

8.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241829

RESUMO

Weak osteogenic activity affects the long-term fixation and lifespan of titanium (Ti) implants. Surface modification along with a built-in porous structure is a highly considerable approach to improve the osteoinduction and osseointegration capacity of Ti. Herein, the osteoinduction and osteogenic activities of electrochemically deposited (ED) nanoplate-like, nanorod-like and nanoneedle-like hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings (named EDHA-P, EDHA-R, and EDHA-N, respectively) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo by comparison with those of acid/alkali (AA) treatment. The results revealed that the apatite forming ability of all nanostructured EDHA coatings was excellent, and only 12 h of soaking in SBF was needed to induce a complete layer of apatite. More serum proteins adsorbed on EDHA-P than others. In cellular experiments, different from those on EDHA-R and EDHA-N, the cells on EDHA-P presented a polygonal shape with lamellipodia extension, and thus exhibited a relatively larger spreading area. Furthermore, EDHA-P was more favorable for the enhancement of the proliferation and ALP activity of BMSCs, and the up-regulation of OPN gene expression. Based on the good biological performance in vitro, EDHA-P was selected to further evaluate its osteoinduction and osteogenic activities in vivo by comparison with AA treatment. Interestingly, a greater ability of ectopic osteoinduction was observed in the EDHA-P group compared to that in the AA group. At the osseous site, EDHA-P promoted more bone on/ingrowth, and had a higher area percentage of newly formed bone in the bone-implant interface and inner pores of the implants than in the AA group. Thus, a nanoplate-like HA coating has good potential in improving the osteoinductivity and osteogenic activity of porous Ti implants in clinical applications.

9.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 8(5): 358-371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038918

RESUMO

As a natural biomaterial, silk fibroin (SF) holds great potential in biomedical applications with its broad availability, good biocompatibility, high mechanical strength, ease of fabrication, and controlled degradation. With emerging fabrication methods, nanoand microspheres made from SF have brought about unique opportunities in drug delivery, cell culture, and tissue engineering. For these applications, the size and distribution of silk fibroin particles (SFPs) are critical and require precise control during fabrication. Herein, we review common and emerging SFPs fabrication methods and their biomedical applications, and also the challenges and opportunities for SFPs in the near future. Lay Summary: The application of silk in textile has an extraordinarily long history and new biomedical applications emerged owing to the good biocompatibility and versatile fabrication options of its major protein component, silk fibroin. With the development of nanotechnology and microfabrication, silk fibroin has been fabricated into nano- or microspheres with precisely controlled shape and distribution. In this review, we summarize common and emerging silk fibroin particle fabrication methods and their biomedical applications, and also discuss their challenges and opportunities in the nearest future.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(43): 48395-48407, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064436

RESUMO

Scaffolds with a biomimetic hierarchy micro/nanoscale pores play an important role in bone tissue regeneration. In this study, multilevel porous calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramic orthopedic implants were constructed to mimic the micro/nanostructural hierarchy in natural wood. The biomimetic hierarchical porous scaffolds were fabricated by combining three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and hydrothermal treatment. The first-level macropores (∼100-600 µm) for promoting bone tissue ingrowth were precisely designed using a set of 3D printing parameters. The second-level micro/nanoscale pores (∼100-10,000 nm) in the scaffolds were obtained by hydrothermal treatment to promote nutrient/metabolite transportation. Micro- and nanoscale-sized pores in the scaffolds were recognized as in situ formation of whiskers, where the shape, diameter, and length of whiskers were modulated by adjusting the components of calcium phosphate ceramics and hydrothermal treatment parameters. These biomimetic natural wood-like hierarchical structured scaffolds demonstrated unique physical and biological properties. Hydrophilicity and the protein adsorption rate were characterized in these scaffolds. In vitro studies have identified micro/nanowhisker coating as potent modulators of cellular behavior through the onset of focal adhesion formation. In addition, histological results indicate that biomimetic scaffolds with porous natural wood hierarchical pores exhibited good osteoinductive activity. In conclusion, these findings combined suggested that micro/nanowhisker coating is a critical factor to modulate cellular behavior and osteoinductive activity.

11.
Biofabrication ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045688

RESUMO

Biofabrication of personalized titanium scaffold mimicking that of the osteocyte microenvironment is challenging due to its complex geometrical cues. The effect of scaffolds geometrical cues and implantation sites on osteogenesis is still not clear. In this study, personalized titanium scaffolds with homogeneous diamond-like structures mimicking that of the osteocyte microenvironment were precisely designed and fabricated by selected laser melting method. The effects of different geometric cues, including porosity, pore sizes and interconnection properties, on cellular behavior were investigated. Biomimetic mechanical properties of porous titanium alloy scaffold were predesigned and simulated by finite element analysis. In vitro experiment revealed that homogeneous diamond-like structures mimicking that of the osteocyte microenvironment triggered osteocyte adhesion and migration behavior. Typical implantation sites, including rabbit femur, beagle femur, and beagle skull, were used to study the implantation sites effects on bone regeneration. In vivo experimental results indicated that different implantation sites showed significant differences. This study helps to understand the scaffolds geometrical microenvironment and implantation sites effects on osteogenesis mechanism. And it is beneficial to the development of bone implants with better bone regeneration ability.

12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 250: 116979, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049867

RESUMO

In this work, 3, 3'-dithiobis (propanoic dihydrazide) modified and aldehyde-modified hyaluronic acid were respectively synthesized as precursor solutions to form redox and pH dual-responsive injectable hydrogels through dynamic acylhydrazone and disulfide linkages without exogenous stimulus conditions. The reversible sol-gel transition behavior of hydrogels could be repeated multiple times by adjusting DTT/H2O2 or HCl/TEA. Interestingly, the hydrogels shrank gradually when pH decreased, which improved significantly the storage modulus up to 8.4 times at pH 2. Furthermore, the hydrogel presented acid-switchable shape-recovery characteristics of self-healing by a dynamic recombination of acylhydrazone bonds. Moreover, the osmotic driving force derived from inner and outer concentration difference also affected the characteristic. The controlled release of bovine serum albumin (BSA) encapsulated in this hydrogel could be achieved in vitro under simulated pH/redox intracellular and intercellular microenvironment. This hydrogel could also promote chondrocytes proliferation.

16.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895679

RESUMO

Although there have been many reports on the use of crosslinked hyaluronic acid and gelatin derivatives as injectable hydrogels in cartilage tissue engineering, however, almost no reports have analyzed the kinds of bonding intensity that were most conducive for the maintenance of cartilage phenotypes. Herein, the biomimetic composite hydrogels based on thiolated hyaluronic acid and modified gelatin derivatives with physical mixed, weak, and strong bonding intensity were fabricated, wherein the thiolated hyaluronic acid ensured the basic network structure of composite hydrogels, and gelatin derivatives endowed the bioactivity to hydrogels. These physicochemical properties of composite hydrogels implied that strong bonding intensity (HA-GSH) contributed to the maintenance of a more uniform pore structure, and increased the ability of water retention and resistance to degradation. Further immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the HA-GSH hydrogel greatly improved the expression level of the associated cartilage matrix and the possibility of hyaline cartilage formation in comparison to the physically blended HA-Gel gel and weak bonding crosslinked HA-GMA gel. Overall, all results proved that strong bonding intensity of the disulfide bonds in the HA-GSH hydrogel was more beneficial for the proliferation of chondrocytes and the maintenance of the hyaline cartilage phenotype, which might provide valuable inspiration for designing cartilage repair scaffolds.

17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6605-6618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982221

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of research is to fabricate nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on the titanium via electrochemical deposition (ED). Additionally, the biological properties of the ED-produced HA (EDHA) coatings with a plate-like nanostructure were evaluated in vitro and in vivo by undertaking comparisons with those prepared by acid/alkali (AA) treatment and by plasma spray-produced HA (PSHA) nanotopography-free coatings. Materials and Methods: Nanoplate-like HA coatings were prepared through ED, and nanotopography-free PSHA coatings were fabricated. The surface morphology, phase composition, roughness, and wettability of these samples were investigated. Furthermore, the growth, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on each sample were evaluated via in vitro experiments. Histological assessment and push-out tests for the bone-implant interface were performed to explore the effect of the EDHA coatings on the interfacial osseointegration in vivo. Results: XRD analysis showed that the strongest intensity for the EDHA coatings was at the (002) plane rather than at the regular (211) plane. Relatively higher surface roughness and greater wettability were observed for the EDHA coatings. Cellular experiments revealed that the plate-like nanostructured EDHA coatings not only possessed an ability, similar to that of PSHA coatings, to promote the adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells but also demonstrated significantly enhanced early or intermediate markers of osteogenic differentiation. Significant osseointegration enhancement in the early stage of implantation period and great bonding strength were observed at the interface of bone and EDHA samples. In comparison, relatively weak osseointegration and bonding strength of the bone-implant interface were observed for the AA treatment. Conclusion: The biological performance of the plate-like nanostructured EDHA coating, which was comparable with that of the PSHA, improves early-stage osteogenic differentiation and osseointegration abilities and has great potential for enhancing the initial stability and long-term survival of uncemented or 3D porous titanium implants.

18.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(34): 7659-7666, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812629

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of biodegradable medical devices may be used in the circulatory system. The effects of the released degradation products from these medical devices on the blood may be gradual and cumulative. When they reach critical levels, they may cause thrombosis and other complications. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the blood compatibility of degradation products for quality control and development of these devices. In the present study, we evaluated the degradation products of four biodegradable materials (collagen, polylactic acid, calcium phosphate ceramics, and magnesium) using platelet activation molecular markers that are associated with thrombosis. We found that the degradation products activate platelets to a certain extent, and that the degradation products produced during various degradation time periods activate platelets to varying degrees. This platelet activation occurs via several mechanisms, most of which are associated with the physicochemical properties of the degradation products, including ion concentration, pH, molecular microstructure, and molecular weight. Our findings not only provide a clearer understanding of the effects of degradation products from blood-contacting biodegradable devices, but also provide material for screening of degradation behavior so as to improve quality control for these devices.

19.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(8): 979-984, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794665

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effectiveness of tibial transverse transport combined with the antibiotics embedded bone cement in the treatment of chronic infection of foot and ankle with lower extremity ischemic diseases. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 28 patients with ischemic diseases of lower extremities associated with chronic foot and ankle infection who were treated with tibial transverse transport combined with antibiotic bone cement between August 2015 and October 2019. There were 22 males and 6 females, with an average age of 65.6 years (range, 41-86 years). There were 25 cases of diabetic foot, 2 cases of arteriosclerosis obliterans, and 1 case of thromboangiitis obliterans. The course of infection ranged from 1 to 27 years, with an average of 14.9 years. The healing condition and time of foot and ankle in all patients were recorded and compared, and the Wagner grading and WIFi (W: lower extremity wound classification; I: ischemic classification; Fi: foot infection classification) grading were compared before and at last follow-up. Results: The wound surface of 1 diabetic foot patient improved at 111 days after operation, without purulent secretion, and lost follow-up. The remaining 27 cases were followed up 5 to 21 months (mean, 8.4 months). There was no necrosis in the tibial osteotomy incision and the local flap. After operation, 21 cases showed needle reaction of external fixator, but the needle infection gradually improved after the corresponding treatment. Among the 24 patients with diabetic foot, 1 died of multiple organ failure due to pulmonary infection. Acute lower extremity vascular embolism occurred in 1 case, and the foot was amputated due to acute gangrene. In the remaining 22 cases, the wound healing time of foot and ankle was 2.5-11.0 months (mean, 4.6 months). At last follow-up, Wagner grading and WIFi grading of the patients were significantly improved when compared with those before operation ( P<0.05). One patient with thromboangiitis obliterans had foot and ankle healing at 6 months after operation. Two patients with lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans had foot and ankle healing at 16 and 18 months after operation, respectively. Conclusion: Tibial transverse transport combined with the antibiotics embedded bone cement is effective in treating chronic infection of foot and ankle with lower extremity ischemic diseases.


Assuntos
Tornozelo , Infecções , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos , Cimentos para Ossos , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 2186-2196, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758610

RESUMO

Self-crosslinkable and injectable hydrogels were fabricated with collagen type I (Col I) and N-hydroxy sulfosuccinimide activated hyaluronic acid (HA-sNHS) at physiological conditions without any initiators or crosslinkers. The physical properties of hydrogels, such as gelation time, swelling property, degradation property and mechanical property could be regulated by adjusting the substitution degree (DS) of HA-sNHS. Chondrocytes were encapsulated into hydrogels and their proliferation, phenotype maintenance and matrix secretion were characterized. The results demonstrated that chondrocytes in hydrogel Col I/HA-sNHS32% in which the DS of HA-sNHS was 32% secreted more cartilage specific matrix than others. The results of animal experiment demonstrated that hydrogels Col I and Col I/HA-sNHS32% both had good biodegradability and cytocompatibility. This study provided a novel and simple method for fabrication of self-crosslinkable and injectable hydrogels with tunable physical properties. It implied that these hydrogels could find some applications in the fields of cell encapsulation and tissue engineering.

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