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1.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 70, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985573

RESUMO

Antibody mimetics may be used for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective. In this study, we developed a smaller molecular chicken IgY mimetic peptide (IgY-peptide) based on the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the anti-canine parvovirus (CPV) IgY-scFv prepared previously. The mimetic peptide showed no cross-reactivity with canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine coronavirus (CCV) and showed excellent protective properties for Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells against CPV. This study is the first attempt to develop a mimetic IgY-peptide and demonstrates the ease and feasibility in generating such a novel antibody-like functional molecule for biomedical purposes.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/metabolismo , Animais , Biomimética , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Galinhas , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Projetos Piloto
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035977

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global crisis, and medical systems in many countries are overwhelmed with supply shortages and increasing demands to treat patients due to the surge in cases and severe illnesses. This study aimed to assess COVID-19-related essential clinical resource demands in China, based on different scenarios involving COVID-19 outbreaks and interventions. We used a susceptible-exposed-infectious-hospitalized/isolated-removed (SEIHR) transmission dynamics model to estimate the number of COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations with corresponding essential healthcare resources needed. We found that, under strict non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) or mass vaccination of the population, China would be able to contain community transmission and local outbreaks rapidly. However, under scenarios involving a low intensity of implemented NPIs and a small proportion of the population vaccinated, the use of a peacetime-wartime transition model would be needed for medical source stockpiles and preparations to ensure a normal functioning healthcare system. The implementation of COVID-19 vaccines and NPIs in different periods can influence the transmission of COVID-19 and subsequently affect the demand for clinical diagnosis and treatment. An increased proportion of asymptomatic infections in simulations will not reduce the demand for medical resources; however, attention must be paid to the increasing difficulty in containing COVID-19 transmission due to asymptomatic cases. This study provides evidence for emergency preparations and the adjustment of prevention and control strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also provides guidance for essential healthcare investment and resource allocation.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 894, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is an important global health problem. In this study we aimed to analyze trends in cervical cancer at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2019, to inform health service decision-making. METHODS: Data on cervical cancer was extracted from the Global Burden of Disease study, 2019. Trends in cervical cancer burden were assessed based on estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) and age-standardized rate (ASR). RESULTS: Globally, decreasing trends were observed in incidence, death, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) of cervical cancer from 1990 to 2019, with respective EAPCs of - 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI]: - 0.41 to - 0.34), - 0.93 (95%CI: - 0.98 to - 0.88), and - 0.95 (95 CI%: - 1.00 to - 0.90). Meanwhile, decreasing trends were detected in most sociodemographic index (SDI) areas and geographic regions, particularly death and DALYs in Central Latin America, with respective EAPCs of - 2.61 (95% CI: - 2.76 to - 2.46) and - 2.48 (95% CI: - 2.63 to - 2.32); hhowever, a pronounced increasing trend in incidence occurred in East Asia (EAPC = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.55). At the national level, decreasing trends in cervical cancer were observed in most countries/territories, particularly DALYs in the Maldives (EAPC = - 5.06; 95% CI: - 5.40 to - 4.72), Whereas increasing trends were detected in Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Bulgaria. CONCLUSIONS: Slowly decreasing trends in cervical cancer were detected worldwide from 1990 to 2019. Cervical cancer remains a substantial health problem for women globally, requiring more effective prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Bulgária , América Central , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Lesoto , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Zimbábue
4.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(5): 642-663, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889885

RESUMO

Nowadays, PM2.5 concentrations greatly influence indoor air quality in subways and threaten passenger and staff health because PM2.5 not only contains heavy metal elements, but can also carry toxic and harmful substances due to its small size and large specific surface area. Exploring the physicochemical and distribution characteristics of PM2.5 in subways is necessary to limit its concentration and remove it. At present, there are numerous studies on PM2.5 in subways around the world, yet, there is no comprehensive and well-organized review available on this topic. This paper reviews the nearly twenty years of research and over 130 published studies on PM2.5 in subway stations, including aspects such as concentration levels and their influencing factors, physicochemical properties, sources, impacts on health, and mitigation measures. Although many determinants of station PM2.5 concentration have been reported in current studies, e.g., the season, outdoor environment, and station depth, their relative influence is uncertain. The sources of subway PM2.5 include those from the exterior (e.g., road traffic and fuel oil) and the interior (e.g., steel wheels and rails and metallic brake pads), but the proportion of these sources is also unknown. Control strategies of PM mainly include adequate ventilation and filtration, but these measures are often inefficient in removing PM2.5. The impacts of PM2.5 from subways on human health are still poorly understood. Further research should focus on long-term data collection, influencing factors, the mechanism of health impacts, and PM2.5 standards or regulations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ferrovias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 558: 154-160, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915329

RESUMO

Genistein, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen and a member of the large class of compounds known as isoflavones, exerts protective effects in several diseases. Recent studies indicate that genistein plays a critical role in controlling body weight, obesity-associated insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders, but its target organs in reversing obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. In this study, we showed that mice supplemented with 0.2% genistein in a high-fat diet for 12 weeks showed enhanced metabolic homeostasis, including reduced obesity, improved glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity, and alleviated hepatic steatosis. We also observed a beiging phenomenon in the white adipose tissue and reversal of brown adipose tissue whitening in these mice. These changes led to enhanced resistance to cold stress. Altogether, our data suggest that the improved metabolic profile in mice treated with genistein is likely a result of enhanced adipose tissue function.

6.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845736

RESUMO

Gut microbiota is a complex microecosystem which is called the second genome of the human body. Herbal medicine can balance tumor-suppressing bacteria and tumor-promoting bacteria and exert its anti-cancer effect by regulating gut microbiota. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a history of thousands of years in prevention and treatment of diseases in China. In recent decades, TCM show an obvious advantage in prolonging the survival time and improving the living quality of patients with cancer. Notably, gut microbiota has become a new pathway to understanding TCM. In this review, we will focus on gut microbiota and tumor progression, especially the diversity, functionality and metabolites of gut microbiota affected by TCM in various cancer. We will also discuss the potential mechanism of gut microbiota for exploring TCM in anti-cancer effect. This article aims to comprehensively review the anti-cancer research of TCM by regulating gut microbiota, and address future perspectives and challenges of gut microbiota in TCM intervention for cancer.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146707, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784527

RESUMO

During the past decades, a series of new policies and ecological projects have been implemented to mitigate land degradation on the Mongolian Plateau. However, climatic effects from re-vegetation still remain largely unknown. In this paper, we investigate local land surface temperature response to re-vegetation changes by comparing between locations with forest or grassland gains and their nearby unchanged land units based on satellite observations. Our results demonstrate that reforestation in humid regions and grassland cover gains in arid regions result in annual net cooling effect, but temperature response to reforestation shows asymmetric diurnal (daytime cooling but nighttime warming) and seasonal (summer cooling but winter warming during daytime) cycle. Local cooling effect of transition land cover is enhanced with continuous restoration of vegetation. The underlying process is mainly controlled by biophysical effects from surface albedo and evapotranspiration. Increased albedo associated with snow cover in winter significantly contributes to the cooling effect of grassland, and evapotranspiration along with increase in precipitation amplifies interannual temperature differences especially in summer. This study reminds that rational land use policy should be formulated carefully to realize potential climatic benefits from re-vegetation projects.

8.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 9(4): e1651, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leigh syndrome, the most common mitochondrial syndrome in pediatrics, has diverse clinical manifestations and is genetically heterogeneous. Pathogenic mutations in more than 75 genes of two genomes (mitochondrial and nuclear) have been identified. PDHA1 encoding the E1 alpha subunit is an X-chromosome gene whose mutations cause pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. METHODS: Here, we have described a 12-year-old boy with lethal neuropathy who almost died of a sudden loss of breathing and successive cardiac arrest. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation rescued his life. His diagnosis was corrected from Guillain-Barré syndrome to Leigh syndrome 1 month later by clinical exome sequencing. Furthermore, we used software to predict the protein structure caused by frameshift mutations. We treated the boy with vitamin B1, coenzyme Q10, and a ketogenic diet. RESULTS: A PDHA1 mutation (NM_000284.4:c.1167_1170del) was identified as the underlying cause. The amino acid mutation was p.Ser390LysfsTer33. Moreover, the protein structure prediction results suggested that the protein structure has changed. The parents of the child were negative, so the mutation was de novo. The comprehensive assessment of the mutation was pathogenic. His condition gradually improved after receiving treatment. CONCLUSION: This case suggests that gene detection should be popularized to improve diagnosis accuracy, especially in developing countries such as China.

9.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1075-1084, 2021 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wuhan was the epicentre of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence and kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at population level in Wuhan to inform the development of vaccination strategies. METHODS: In this longitudinal cross-sectional study, we used a multistage, population-stratified, cluster random sampling method to systematically select 100 communities from the 13 districts of Wuhan. Households were systematically selected from each community and all family members were invited to community health-care centres to participate. Eligible individuals were those who had lived in Wuhan for at least 14 days since Dec 1, 2019. All eligible participants who consented to participate completed a standardised electronic questionnaire of demographic and clinical questions and self-reported any symptoms associated with COVID-19 or previous diagnosis of COVID-19. A venous blood sample was taken for immunological testing on April 14-15, 2020. Blood samples were tested for the presence of pan-immunoglobulins, IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and neutralising antibodies were assessed. We did two successive follow-ups between June 11 and June 13, and between Oct 9 and Dec 5, 2020, at which blood samples were taken. FINDINGS: Of 4600 households randomly selected, 3599 families (78·2%) with 9702 individuals attended the baseline visit. 9542 individuals from 3556 families had sufficient samples for analyses. 532 (5·6%) of 9542 participants were positive for pan-immunoglobulins against SARS-CoV-2, with a baseline adjusted seroprevalence of 6·92% (95% CI 6·41-7·43) in the population. 437 (82·1%) of 532 participants who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins were asymptomatic. 69 (13·0%) of 532 individuals were positive for IgM antibodies, 84 (15·8%) were positive for IgA antibodies, 532 (100%) were positive for IgG antibodies, and 212 (39·8%) were positive for neutralising antibodies at baseline. The proportion of individuals who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins who had neutralising antibodies in April remained stable for the two follow-up visits (162 [44·6%] of 363 in June, 2020, and 187 [41·2%] of 454 in October-December, 2020). On the basis of data from 335 individuals who attended all three follow-up visits and who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins, neutralising antibody levels did not significantly decrease over the study period (median 1/5·6 [IQR 1/2·0 to 1/14·0] at baseline vs 1/5·6 [1/4·0 to 1/11·2] at first follow-up [p=1·0] and 1/6·3 [1/2·0 to 1/12·6] at second follow-up [p=0·29]). However, neutralising antibody titres were lower in asymptomatic individuals than in confirmed cases and symptomatic individuals. Although titres of IgG decreased over time, the proportion of individuals who had IgG antibodies did not decrease substantially (from 30 [100%] of 30 at baseline to 26 [89·7%] of 29 at second follow-up among confirmed cases, 65 [100%] of 65 at baseline to 58 [92·1%] of 63 at second follow-up among symptomatic individuals, and 437 [100%] of 437 at baseline to 329 [90·9%] of 362 at second follow-up among asymptomatic individuals). INTERPRETATION: 6·92% of a cross-sectional sample of the population of Wuhan developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, with 39·8% of this population seroconverting to have neutralising antibodies. Our durability data on humoral responses indicate that mass vaccination is needed to effect herd protection to prevent the resurgence of the epidemic. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, National Natural Science Foundation, and Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Prev Med ; 146: 106484, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647350

RESUMO

Since licensure of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in mainland China, little research has been conducted about healthcare providers' (HCPs) understanding and recommendation of HPV vaccine. A multi-stage convenience sample of Chinese HCPs (N = 5270) were surveyed, involving obstetrician-gynecologists, HCPs from Division of Expanded Program on Immunization (DEPI), Community Health Center (CHC) and other non-HPV closely related professions. Binary logistic regression was conducted to explore factors associated with knowledge and recommendation behaviors. Overall, HCPs showed basic HPV/HPV vaccine knowledge with median (interquartile range) score at 9.5 (7.5-11.6) out of 16 and relatively high recommendation behavior (74.8%). Identified knowledge gaps among HCPs included risk factors of HPV infection, best time to vaccinate, prophylactic functions of HPV vaccine and especially classification of low-risk and high-risk types. Profession-specific analysis in individual knowledge item showed HCPs from CHC were suboptimal on HPV while obstetrician-gynecologists were less competent on HPV vaccine knowledge. Obstetrician-gynecologists also recommended vaccination less frequently than HCPs from DEPI and CHC. Besides being key predictors of recommendation practice (2.74, 95% CI: 2.34-3.21), knowledge shared independent determinants with recommendation behavior on age and ethnicity and additionally associated with education and title by itself. Findings highlight overall and profession-specific gaps on HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and recommendation practice. Future education and training efforts should be profession-niche-targeting and focus much on HCPs with lower title or education background and from minorities.

11.
Anal Chem ; 93(13): 5420-5429, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752332

RESUMO

Tumor-specific imaging is a major challenge in clinical tumor resection. To overcome this problem, several activatable probes have been developed for use in tumor imaging. However, most of these probes are activated based on a single-factor stimulation and are irreversible. Therefore, false signals that make tumor-specific imaging difficult are easily generated. We have developed a new dual-stimulus responsive near-infrared (NIR) reversible adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-pH probe for fluorescence and photoacoustic ratiometric imaging of tumors. Since the H+ and ATP content is significantly higher in the tumor microenvironment than that in normal tissues, the Förster resonance energy transfer-based probe ATP-pH was constructed with silicon rhodamine as the donor, CS dye as the acceptor, and ATP/H+ recognition units that could only be activated when both H+ and ATP were connected to the acceptor. The ATP-pH probe is reversibly activated by both the H+ and ATP, which effectively reduces the cumulative response of the probe in circulation after intravenous injection. Further, the NIR ratiometric property of the probe makes it suitable for in vivo imaging. Finally, our probe was successfully utilized in ratiometric photoacoustic and fluorescence tumor imaging and ratiometric fluorescence imaging-guided tumor resection.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(13): 14985-14994, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779130

RESUMO

Multifunctional nanocarriers with a simple structure and biocompatibility for bioimaging, potential tumor targeting, and precise antitumor ability are promising in cancer therapy. Bioactive glass is an important biomaterial and has been used in clinical bone tissue repair due to the high biocompatibility and bioactivity. Herein, we report fetal bovine serum (FBS)-decorated europium-doped bioactive glass nanoparticles (EuBGN@FBS) with excellent biosafety and enhanced tumor targeting for cancer imaging and therapy. EuBGN@FBS showed the controlled photoluminescent properties and pH-responsive anticancer drug release behavior. The FBS decoration significantly enhanced the dispersibility in physiological medium and improved hemocompatibility and cellular uptake of EuBGN. Relative to EuBGN, EuBGN@FBS could also efficiently image the cancer cell and show significantly enhanced targeted tumor imaging and chemotherapy in vivo while retaining negligible side effects. The simple and biocompatible structure with efficient tumor targeting, imaging, and therapy makes EuBGN@FBS highly promising in future cancer therapy.

13.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649780

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported that the expression levels of far upstream element­binding protein 1 (FUBP1) were upregulated and served a crucial role in several types of cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and clinical significance of FUBP1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine the expression levels of FUBP1 in patients with PAAD and subsequently investigated the biological functions and mechanisms of FUBP1 using in vitro assays. FUBP1 expression levels and survival outcomes in patients with PAAD were analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas and starBase databases. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR was used to analyze the mRNA expression levels of FUBP1 in PAAD and adjacent normal tissues. In addition, the expression of FUBP1 was knocked down with small interfering RNA and overexpressed using FUBP1­overexpressed plasmids, and the effects on biological functions, including cell proliferation, migration and invasion, were investigated. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were used to determine the role of FUBP1 in epithelial­mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results of the present study revealed that the expression levels of FUBP1 were upregulated in PAAD tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues and the upregulated expression was significantly associated with poor survival. The knockdown of FUBP1 expression significantly inhibited the proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities of the PAAD PaTu8988 cell line, while the overexpression of FUBP1 promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in the PAAD SW1990 cell line. Furthermore, the knockdown of FUBP1 downregulated the expression levels of EMT­related markers, including N­cadherin, ß­catenin and vimentin, while the expression levels of E­cadherin were upregulated. The knockdown of FUBP1 was also revealed to regulate the TGFß/Smad signaling cascade by downregulating phosphorylated­Smad2/3 and TGFß1 expression levels. Conversely, the overexpression of FUBP1 reversed these effects. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that FUBP1 may be a potential oncogene that mediates the EMT of PAAD via TGFß/Smad signaling. These data suggested that FUBP1 may represent a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of PAAD or a target for the treatment of patients with PAAD.

14.
Org Lett ; 23(7): 2514-2520, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724855

RESUMO

A simple and efficient methodology for the synthesis of large sterically hindered triarylamines in a single step was developed. A direct N,N-diarylation of 8-aminoquinoline with sterically hindered bromides, making use of inexpensive nickel as a catalyst and simple sodium salt as a base, gives the products in good to excellent yields. Various bromides and substituted 8-aminoquinolines are tolerated. Preliminary fluorescence results indicate that these sterically hindered and conjugated triarylamines may have some potential in material chemistry.

15.
Theranostics ; 11(7): 3502-3511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537100

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as one of the most up-and-coming non-invasive therapeutic modalities for cancer therapy in rencent years. However, its therapeutic effect was still hampered by the short life span, limited diffusion distance and ineluctable depletion of singlet oxygen (1O2), as well as the hypoxic microenvironment in the tumor tissue. Such problems have limited the application of PDT and appropriate solutions are highly demand. Methods: Herein, a programmatic treatment strategy is proposed for the development of a smart molecular prodrug (D-bpy), which comprise a two-photon photosensitizer and a hypoxia-activated chemotherapeutic prodrug. A rhodamine dye was designed to connect them and track the drug release by the fluorescent signal generated through azo bond cleavage. Results: The prodrug (D-bpy) can stay on the cell membrane and enrich at the tumor site. Upon light irradiation, the therapeutic effect was enhanced by a stepwise treatment: (i) direct generation of 1O2 on the cell membrane induced membrane destruction and promoted the D-bpy uptake; (ii) deep tumor hypoxia caused by two-photon PDT process further triggered the activation of the chemotherapy prodrug. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments, D-bpy have exhabited excellent tumor treatment effect. Conclusion: The innovative programmatic treatment strategy provides new strategy for the design of follow-up anticancer drugs.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626083

RESUMO

The cultivation and production of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) are severely affected by viral disease. Yet there have been few studies of the molecular response of passion fruit to virus attack. In the present study, RNA-based transcriptional profiling (RNA-seq) was used to identify the gene expression profiles in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) leaves following inoculation with cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Six RNA-seq libraries were constructed comprising a total of 42.23 Gb clean data. 1,545 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained (701 upregulated and 884 downregulated). Gene annotation analyses revealed that genes associated with plant hormone signal transduction, transcription factors, protein ubiquitination, detoxification, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism were significantly affected by CMV infection. The represented genes activated by CMV infection corresponded to transcription factors WRKY family, NAC family, protein ubiquitination and peroxidase. Several DEGs encoding protein TIFY, pathogenesis-related proteins, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases also were upregualted by CMV infection. Overall, the information obtained in this study enriched the resources available for research into the molecular-genetic mechanisms of the passion fruit/CMV interaction, and might provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and management of passion fruit viral disease in the field.

17.
Bioresour Technol ; 327: 124795, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579566

RESUMO

A novel energy-efficient DPR + PDA (denitrifying phosphorus removal and partial denitrification anammox) process for enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal was developed in the combined ABR-CSTR reactor. After 220 days operation, excellent total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and phosphorus removal (97.57% and 95.66%, respectively) were obtained under external C/NO3--N of 0.7, with the effluent TIN and PO43--P concentrations of 3.51 mg/L and 0.28 mg/L, respectively. At the steady period, DPR contributed major TN removal (58.65%), while PDA mediated an increasingly considerable impact and finally achieved 37.07%, in which anammox accounted for a significant percentage. Batch tests demonstrated that efficient PD with nitrate-to-nitrite transformation ratio of 97.67% supplying stable nitrite for anammox, and phosphorus was mainly removed using nitrate as electron acceptor via DPR with the ideal phosphorus release/uptake rate (7.73/22.17 mgP/gVSS/h). Accumulibacter (6.24%) dominated high phosphorus removal performance, while Thauera (8.26%) and Candidatus Brocadia (2.57%) represented the superior nitrogen removal performance.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos
18.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129645, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465615

RESUMO

The solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) is increasingly affecting the aquatic ecosystems due to the long-term antropic damage to the stratospheric ozone. The distrupted interspecies competition is one of the primary causes driving the plankton community composition shifts under UVB stress. To reveal the competitive responses to enhanced UVB radiation, we grew two green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and the unicellular cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in monocultures and in cocultures under differerent UVB intensities (0, 0.3 and 0.7 W m-2), respectively. Results showed that elevated UVB radiation consistently decreased the population carrying capacies and the photosynthesis of the three species in monocultures. While cocultivated, C. pyrenoidosa was competively excluded by the presence of S. obliquus, and the competitive outcome was not affected by UVB exposure. By contrast, unicellular M. aeruginosa overwhelmingly suppressed the population growth of S. obliquus under no UVB, yet S. obliquus tended to be a better competitor under 0.3-0.7 W m-2 UVB exposure. The species-specific photosynthesis sensitivity to UVB can partly explain the different tolerance of the algae to UVB and the change of competition outcome under elevated UVB. The present study elucidated the potential role of increased UVB radiation in determining the competitions between phytoplankton species, contributing to the understanding of phytoplankton community shifts under enhanced UVB stress.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microcystis , Ecossistema , Fotossíntese , Dinâmica Populacional
19.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2235-2243, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400485

RESUMO

Mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probes are highly important to obtain mitochondrial function information. However, the accuracy of the current mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probes is unsatisfactory owing to the following two reasons. In the first case, some probes that always have a mitochondria-targeting group, thus, would react with the analytes outside of mitochondria and enter mitochondria with the generated fluorophore signal, which leads to a false-positive result. In the other case, after response to the analytes in mitochondria, some probes could diffuse from mitochondria to other organelles, thus triggering a false-negative result. To avoid the two problems, herein, we develop a precipitated fluorophore-based probe, which precipitates in situ after reacting with analytes, for the accurate detection of mitochondrial analytes. The probe was modified with HQPQ, a novel solid-state fluorophore that is insoluble in water. As a proof of concept, we designed and synthesized a probe (HQPQ-B) for H2O2 detection. Based on the different mitochondria-targeting capacities of quinoline salts and quinolone, HQPQ loses the mitochondria-targeting ability after reacting with analytes outside of mitochondria, thus avoiding a false-positive result. On the contrary, when the probe first localized in mitochondria and then reacted with analytes, HQPQ would precipitate and remain in mitochondria without diffusing to other sites, thus avoiding a false-negative result. Therefore, HQPQ enables the accurate detection of mitochondrial analytes. We believe that the novel strategy based on HQPQ will be a general strategy for accurate detection of mitochondrial analytes without interference from other sites, which enables an accurate study on mitochondrial function.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Mitocôndrias/química , Precipitação Química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Quinolinas/química
20.
Vaccine ; 39(1): 35-44, 2021 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been increasingly discussed in mainland China since its first approval in 2016. To date, nearly all studies assessing HPV vaccine perceptions and attitudes were implemented during pre-licensure period. Therefore, the nationwide post-marketing survey was conducted to update knowledge, attitudes and practice on HPV vaccine among general population in mainland China. METHODS: Participants aged 18-45 years living in mainland China were recruited in April 2019 by multi-stage non-randomized sampling. Sociodemographic factors, HPV and HPV vaccine related awareness, knowledge, attitudes, vaccine uptake and potential obstacles were assessed in questionnaires. Bivariate analysis and multivariate regression were used to identify disparity among subgroups with different sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: 4,000 women (32.1 ± 7.81y) and 1,000 men (31.8 ± 7.96y) were included in final analysis. Less than one third of participants had heard of HPV (female: 31%; male: 22%) and HPV vaccine (female: 34%; male: 23%). Knowledge score was also unfavorable on HPV (female: 3 out of 13; male: 1.8 out of 13) and HPV vaccine (female: 3 out of 6; male: 2 out of 5). Only 3% females had been vaccinated three years after HPV licensure in China, although willingness to get vaccinated among those unvaccinated were high (mean willingness score ± SD: female: 3.3 ± 0.97; male: 3.0 ± 0.98). Industry of employment and household income were the major factors related to awareness and knowledge of vaccine, whereas HPV and HPV vaccine awareness were key influential factors for willingness. The main obstacles of vaccination were safety concerns, lack of knowledge, and high price of HPV vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight a lack of vaccine awareness, knowledge, and poor uptake in mainland China and underscore the necessity of health education campaigns. The identified priority groups, contents to be delivered and practical obstacles could furthermore provide insight into health education to reduce disparities and accelerate HPV vaccine roll-out in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
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