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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20241, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642414

RESUMO

Culex pipiens pallens is an important vector of lymphatic filariasis and epidemic encephalitis. Mosquito control is the main strategy used for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is an entomopathogenic bacterium widely used in mosquito control. In this study, we profiled the microbiota and transcriptional response of the larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens exposed to different concentrations of Bti. The results demonstrated that Bti induced a significant effect on both the microbiota and gene expression of Cx. pipiens pallens. Compared to the control group, the predominant bacteria changed from Actinobacteria to Firmicutes, and with increase in the concentration of Bti, the abundance of Actinobacteria was gradually reduced. Similar changes were also detected at the genus level, where Bacillus replaced Microbacterium, becoming the predominant genus in Bti-exposed groups. Furthermore, alpha diversity analysis indicated that Bti exposure changed the diversity of the microbota, possibly because the dysbiosis caused by the Bti infection inhibits some bacteria and provides opportunities to other opportunistic taxa. Pathway analysis revealed significant enhancement for processes associated with sphingolipid metabolism, glutathione metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism between all Bti-exposed groups and control group. Additionally, genes associated with the Toll and Imd signaling pathway were found to be notably upregulated. Bti infection significantly changed the bacterial community of larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens.

2.
Biometrics ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608993

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a frequentist model averaging method for quantile regression with high dimensional covariates. Although research on these subjects has proliferated as separate approaches, no study has considered them in conjunction. Our method entails reducing the covariate dimensions through ranking the covariates based on marginal quantile utilities. The second step of our method implements model averaging on the models containing the covariates that survive the screening of the first step. We use a delete-one cross-validation method to select the model weights, and prove that the resultant estimator possesses an optimal asymptotic property uniformly over any compact (0,1) subset of the quantile indices. Our proof, which relies on empirical process theory, is arguably more challenging than proofs of similar results in other contexts owing to the high-dimensional nature of the problem and our relaxation of the conventional assumption of the weights summing to one. Our investigation of finite-sample performance demonstrates that the proposed method exhibits very favorable properties compared to the LASSO and SCAD penalized regression methods. The method is applied to a microarray gene expression data set.

3.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(38): 7878-7908, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611689

RESUMO

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their global spread pose a great threat to human health. The 2019 World Health Organization report predicted that infection-related mortality will be similar to cancer mortality by 2050. Particularly, the global cumulative numbers of the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have reached 110.7 million cases and over 2.4 million deaths as of February 23, 2021. Moreover, the crisis of these infectious diseases exposes the many problems of traditional diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, such as time-consuming and unselective detection methods, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, serious side effects, and poor drug delivery. There is an urgent need for rapid and sensitive diagnosis as well as high efficacy and low toxicity treatments. The emergence of nanomedicine has provided a promising strategy to greatly enhance detection methods and drug treatment efficacy. Owing to their unique optical, magnetic, and electrical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for the fast and selective detection of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. NPs exhibit remarkable antibacterial activity by releasing reactive oxygen species and metal ions, exerting photothermal effects, and causing destruction of the cell membrane. Nano-based delivery systems can further improve drug permeability, reduce the side effects of drugs, and prolong systemic circulation time and drug half-life. Moreover, effective drugs against COVID-19 are still lacking. Recently, nanomedicine has shown great potential to accelerate the development of safe and novel anti-COVID-19 drugs. This article reviews the fundamental mechanisms and the latest developments in the treatment and diagnosis of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and discusses the challenges and perspectives in the application of nanomedicine.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Nanomedicina , Anti-Infecciosos/química , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
4.
Org Lett ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612035

RESUMO

Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of a [6,6] hollow bilayer cylindrical nanoring (HBCNR) from a planar macrocycle via a Diels-Alder and Yamamoto coupling reaction. The fluorescence quantum yield of HBCNR was determined to be ΦF = 52%, which is four times higher than its precursor. In addition, its hollow nanoring configuration was also simulated by theoretical studies, and the tension energy was estimated to be 47.1 kcal/mol.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647555

RESUMO

To overcome the limitations of both LDHs and MXenes, we develop a self-sacrifice template strategy using a zeolite imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) to derive Co-LDH anchored on an MXene conductive substrate (Co-LDH/MXene). In this process, ZIF-67 grows on the MXene nanosheets, then spontaneously transforms into Co-LDH/MXene in aqueous solution at room temperature. As the LIB anode, it shows a reversible capacity of 854.9 and 398.0 mAh g-1 at 0.1 and 1 A g-1, respectively. This work proposes a feasible synthesis method for the in situ construction of a Co-LDH/MXene hybrid, which may be suitable for other MXenes.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640732

RESUMO

Road traffic accidents have been listed in the top 10 global causes of death for many decades. Traditional measures such as education and legislation have contributed to limited improvements in terms of reducing accidents due to people driving in undesirable statuses, such as when suffering from stress or drowsiness. Attention is drawn to predicting drivers' future status so that precautions can be taken in advance as effective preventative measures. Common prediction algorithms include recurrent neural networks (RNNs), gated recurrent units (GRUs), and long short-term memory (LSTM) networks. To benefit from the advantages of each algorithm, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-III (NSGA-III) can be applied to merge the three algorithms. This is named NSGA-III-optimized RNN-GRU-LSTM. An analysis can be made to compare the proposed prediction algorithm with the individual RNN, GRU, and LSTM algorithms. Our proposed model improves the overall accuracy by 11.2-13.6% and 10.2-12.2% in driver stress prediction and driver drowsiness prediction, respectively. Likewise, it improves the overall accuracy by 6.9-12.7% and 6.9-8.9%, respectively, compared with boosting learning with multiple RNNs, multiple GRUs, and multiple LSTMs algorithms. Compared with existing works, this proposal offers to enhance performance by taking some key factors into account-namely, using a real-world driving dataset, a greater sample size, hybrid algorithms, and cross-validation. Future research directions have been suggested for further exploration and performance enhancement.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Atenção , Previsões , Humanos , Memória de Longo Prazo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492113

RESUMO

Ambient dose equivalent dosemeters are widely distributed in nuclear facilities for routine continuous monitoring or nuclear accident emergency monitoring, they are inconvenient to be disassembled and sent to the metrology laboratory for calibration. To ensure the accuracy of such dosemeters, the research of in-situ calibration method has been carried out. Ambient dose equivalent secondary standard ionization chamber and portable gamma ray irradiation facility have been designed for in-situ calibration. The experiments of in-situ calibration were carried out in five typical sites located in China Institute of Atomic Energy, results showed that the relative deviation between in-situ calibration factors and metrology laboratory calibration factors are within 5%.The combined standard uncertainty of the in-situ calibration factor is 2.8%, and the expanded uncertainty is 5.6% (k=2).The in-situ calibration method can meet the calibration requirements of the fixed ambient dose equivalent dosemeters.

8.
Oncol Res ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493358

RESUMO

Long intergenic nonprotein coding RNA 1703 (LINC01703) has diagnostic significancein lung adenocarcinoma. However, its specific roles in non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) and downstream mechanisms have not been investigated. In the current study,we characterized the role of LINC01703 in NSCLC malignancy and elucidated itsdetailed mechanism of action. LINC01703 expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Theregulatory effects of LINC01703 on the malignancy of NSCLC cells were assessed bymultiple functional experiments. The targeted interaction was confirmed by RNAimmunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. Herein, overexpression ofLINC01703 in NSCLC was indicated in the TCGA database and further proven in ourcohort. Functional studies revealed that knocking down LINC01703 repressed cellproliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro, which wasaccompanied by the induction of apoptosis. The tumor growth of LINC01703-silencedcells was also inhibited in vivo. Mechanistic analyses revealed that LINC01703functioned as a competing endogenous RNA for microRNA-605-3p (miR-605-3p) inNSCLC cells, which thereby upregulated the miR-605-3p target metastasis associatedwith colon cancer 1 (MACC1). Rescue experiments highlighted that the regulatoryactions of LINC01703 ablation on NSCLC cells were abolished in response to miR-605-3p downregulation or MACC1 overexpression. In conclusion, LINC01703enhanced the aggressiveness of NSCLC cells by altering miR-605-3p/MACC1. Ourwork suggests the therapeutic potential of LINC01703/miR-605-3p/MACC1 in NSCLC.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18048, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508120

RESUMO

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a new acute respiratory disease that has spread rapidly throughout the world. In this paper, a lightweight convolutional neural network (CNN) model named multi-scale gated multi-head attention depthwise separable CNN (MGMADS-CNN) is proposed, which is based on attention mechanism and depthwise separable convolution. A multi-scale gated multi-head attention mechanism is designed to extract effective feature information from the COVID-19 X-ray and CT images for classification. Moreover, the depthwise separable convolution layers are adopted as MGMADS-CNN's backbone to reduce the model size and parameters. The LeNet-5, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, ResNet, VGGNet-16, and three MGMADS-CNN models are trained, validated and tested with tenfold cross-validation on X-ray and CT images. The results show that MGMADS-CNN with three attention layers (MGMADS-3) has achieved accuracy of 96.75% on X-ray images and 98.25% on CT images. The specificity and sensitivity are 98.06% and 96.6% on X-ray images, and 98.17% and 98.05% on CT images. The size of MGMADS-3 model is only 43.6 M bytes. In addition, the detection speed of MGMADS-3 on X-ray images and CT images are 6.09 ms and 4.23 ms for per image, respectively. It is proved that the MGMADS-3 can detect and classify COVID-19 faster with higher accuracy and efficiency.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Raios X
10.
Cell Rep ; 36(11): 109690, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525358

RESUMO

Recombinant bacterial colonization plays an indispensable role in disease prevention, alleviation, and treatment. Successful application mainly depends on whether bacteria can efficiently spatiotemporally colonize the host gut. However, a primary limitation of existing methods is the lack of precise spatiotemporal regulation, resulting in uncontrolled methods that are less effective. Herein, we design upconversion microgels (UCMs) to convert near-infrared light (NIR) into blue light to activate recombinant light-responsive bacteria (Lresb) in vivo, where autocrine "functional cellular glues" made of adhesive proteins assist Lresb inefficiently colonizing the gut. The programmable engineering platform is further developed for the controlled and effective colonization of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in the gut. The colonizing bacteria effectively alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice. We anticipate that this approach could facilitate the clinical application of engineered microbial therapeutics to accurately and effectively regulate host health.

11.
Am J Chin Med ; : 1-21, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530697

RESUMO

Biochanin A (BCA) is a dietary isoflavone, isolated from the leaves and stems of Trifolium pratense L and many other herbs of Chinese medicine. Recent findings indicated BCA as a promising drug candidate with diverse bioactive effects. On the purpose of evaluating the possibility of BCA in clinical application, this review is trying to provide a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological actions of BCA. The publications collected from PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Wiley databases were summarized for the last 10 years. Then, the potential therapeutic use of BCA on the treatment of various diseases was discussed according to its pharmacological properties, namely, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity effects as well as neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and osteoprotective effects. BCA might mainly regulate the MAPK, PI3K, NRF2, and NF-kB pathways, respectively, to exert its bioactive effects. However, the limited definitive targets, poor biological availability, and insufficient safety evaluation might block the clinical application of BCA. This review may provide new insights for the development of BCA in the application of related diseases.

12.
Nanoscale ; 13(31): 13437-13450, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477749

RESUMO

Developing eco-friendly and highly-efficient catalysts for the electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) under ambient conditions to replace the energy-intensive and environment-polluting Haber-Bosch process is of great significance, while remaining a long-standing challenge in the field of energy conversion today. Herein, through the first principles high-throughput screening, we systematically investigated the catalytic activity of a series of single metal atom immobilized on N-doped boron phosphide (N3-BP) for N2 reduction, denoted as MN3-BP. In particular, a "four-step" screening strategy, involving the structural stability, N2 chemisorption, low energy cost, as well as good selectivity, was adopted for the stringent screening of the promising MN3-BP candidates for NRR. Our results unveil that among these candidates, MoN3-BP eventually stands out, benefiting from its high selectivity and activity, as well as accompanying a considerably favorable limiting potential of -0.25 V for NRR. More impressively, the NRR activity origin of various candidates was revealed by the descriptor φ and ICOHP. Overall, our work not only accelerates the discovery of SACs for converting N2 into sustainable NH3 but also provides an exciting impetus for the rational design of NRR catalysts with high stability, high activity, and high selectivity.

13.
J Gen Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483223

RESUMO

Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial strain for amino acids and a key model organism for human pathogens. The study of C. glutamicum oxidoreductases, such as mycoredoxin 1 (Mrx1), dithiol-disulfide isomerase DsbA, and DsbA-like Mrx1, is helpful for understanding the survival, pathogenic infection, and stress resistance of its homologous species. However, the action mode and enzymatic function of C. glutamicum NCgl0018 preserving the Cys-Pro-Phe-Cys motif, annotated as a putative DsbA, have remained enigmatic. Here, we report that the NCgl0018-deleted strain increased sensitivity to various oxidative stresses. The ncgl0018 expression was induced in the stress-responsive extracytoplasmic function-sigma (ECF-σ) factor SigH- and organic peroxide- and antibiotic-sensing regulator (OasR)-dependent manner by stress. NCgl0018 reduced S-mycothiolated mixed disulfides and intramolecular disulfides via a monothiol-disulfide mechanism preferentially linking the mycothiol/mycothione reductase/NADPH electron pathway. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed Cys107 was the resolving Cys residue, while Cys104 was the nucleophilic cysteine that was oxidized to a sulfenic acid and then could form an intramolecular disulfide bond with Cys107 or a mixed disulfide with mycothiol under stress. Biochemical analyses indicated that NCgl0018 lacked oxidase properties like the classical DsbA. Further, enzymatic rates and substrate preferences of NCgl0018 were highly similar to those of DsbA-like Mrx1. Collectively, our study presented the first evidence that NCgl0018 protected against stresses by functioning as a novel DsbA-like Mrx1 but not DsbA and Mrx1.

14.
Adv Mater ; : e2101368, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561914

RESUMO

With the increasing demand for wearable electronics (such as smartwatch equipment, wearable health monitoring systems, and human-robot interface units), flexible energy storage systems with eco-friendly, low-cost, multifunctional characteristics, and high electrochemical performances are imperative to be constructed. Nanocellulose with sustainable natural abundance, superb properties, and unique structures has emerged as a promising nanomaterial, which shows significant potential for fabricating functional energy storage systems. This review is intended to provide novel perspectives on the combination of nanocellulose with other electrochemical materials to design and fabricate nanocellulose-based flexible composites for advanced energy storage devices. First, the unique structural characteristics and properties of nanocellulose are briefly introduced. Second, the structure-property-application relationships of these composites are addressed to optimize their performances from the perspective of processing technologies and micro/nano-interface structure. Next, the recent specific applications of nanocellulose-based composites, ranging from flexible lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors to emerging electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-sulfur batteries, sodium-ion batteries, and zinc-ion batteries, are comprehensively discussed. Finally, the current challenges and future developments in nanocellulose-based composites for the next generation of flexible energy storage systems are proposed.

15.
Vaccine ; 39(41): 6050-6056, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521552

RESUMO

The development of an effective vaccine to control the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of utmost importance. In this study, a synthetic DNA-based vaccine candidate, known as pSV10-SARS-CoV-2, expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was designed and tested in 39 BALB/c mice with BC01, an adjuvant derived from unmethylated CpG motif-containing DNA fragments from the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin genome. Mice vaccinated with pSV10-SARS-CoV-2 with BC01 produced early neutralizing antibodies and developed stronger humoral and cellular immune responses compared to mice that received the DNA vaccine only. Moreover, sera from mice vaccinated with pSV10-SARS-CoV-2 with BC01 can neutralize certain variants, including 614G, 614G + 472 V, 452R, 483A, 501Y.V2, and B.1.1.7. The results of this study demonstrate that the addition of BC01 to a DNA-vaccine for COVID-19 could elicit more effective neutralizing antibody titers for disease prevention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas de DNA , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacina BCG , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , DNA , Genômica , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
16.
Vet Res Commun ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581981

RESUMO

Porcine interferon (PoIFN) complex represents an ideal model for studying IFN evolution that resulted from viral pressure during domestication. IFN-αω is an emergent subtype of type I IFNs which has been primarily characterized in domestic pigs. In this study, the PoIFN-αω cDNA was cloned from Chinese Bama miniature pigs by RT-PCR, and its tissue expression profile was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The antiviral activities of recombinant PoIFN-αω (rPoIFN-αω) against four different pig viruses were measured using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay. Although the PoIFN-αω sequence of Bama miniature pigs was identical to that of domestic pigs, the tissue expression profiles differed significantly between the two pig species. The rPoIFN-αω showed dose-dependent pre-infection antiviral activities against porcine pseudorabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, but not against porcine circovirus type 2. When used as treatment post infection with the three viruses, rPoIFN-αω showed the efficacy in decreasing CPE in the infected cells in a time-dependent manner. Therefore, the expressed rPoIFN-αω could be used as an antiviral agent against pig virus infections.

17.
Soc Sci Med ; 289: 114415, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560472

RESUMO

With the urgent need to regulate provider behaviors, China developed a novel patient classification with global budget payment system, expecting to achieve both easy implementation and cost containment. The new system, called "diagnosis-intervention packet (DIP)" payment, is based on a deterministic patient classification approach, which groups patients according to the combination of principal diagnosis ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) codes and procedure ICD-9-CM3 (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes and links each group to relative historical costs market-wide. This study investigated the impact of the DIP-based payment on inpatient costs, length of stay, and quality of care in the largest DIP pilot city of China. In 2018, the city changed from the "fixed rate per admission with a cap on annual total compensation" policy to DIP with global budget for all insured inpatients. A difference-in-differences approach was employed to identify changes in outcome variables before and after the DIP policy among insured relative to uninsured patients. We found an average of 8.5% (p = 0.000) increase in inpatient costs per case (as intended), trivial changes in length of stay, and a 3.6% (p = 0.046) reduction in postoperative complication rate in response to DIP adoption among patients with high severity. Our findings suggested that the DIP-based payment helped regulate provider behaviors when treating high-risk patients. And the new payment has the potential for rapid rollout in resource-limited areas where lack a uniform coding practice or high-quality historical data.

18.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113335, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375227

RESUMO

During the last few decades, China's transformation from a low-income country to an emerging economy causes carbon emission to rise extensively. Being the largest carbon emitter, China's continuous economic growth may inevitably cause more carbon emissions in the future. To achieve carbon neutrality targets, the country is striving to promote cleaner technologies. However, to finance these environmentally friendly projects, a well-developed financial system is a pre-requisite. This study examines the role of financial development along with output, financial risk index, renewable energy electricity and human capital on carbon emissions. This study uses updated time series data from 1988 to 2018 for China employing novel econometric approaches, i.e., Narayan and Pop unit root test with structural breaks, Maki cointegration and frequency domain causality test for long, short and medium run causality. The empirical outcome shows that improvement in financial development, renewable energy electricity, and human capital index cause to limit carbon emissions. In contrast, gross domestic product, financial risk index and structural break of 2001 increase carbon emissions. Moreover, structural break year of 2008 and financial development index reduces carbon emissions. The negative association between financial development and carbon emissions supports the positive school of thoughts of financial development that promotes a sustainable environment. This study recommends the promotion of quality human capital and green financial development along with increasing the shares of renewable energy in electricity for achieving China 2030 climate targets of reducing pollution.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eletricidade , Humanos , Energia Renovável
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382643

RESUMO

Quantifying the physiology of aging is essential for improving our understanding of age-related disease and the heterogeneity of healthy aging. Recent studies have shown that in regression models using "-omic" platforms to predict chronological age, residual variation in predicted age is correlated with health outcomes, and suggest that these "omic clocks" provide measures of biological age. This paper presents predictive models for age using metabolomic profiles of cerebrospinal fluid from healthy human subjects, and finds that metabolite and lipid data are generally able to predict chronological age within 10 years. We use these models to predict the age of a cohort of subjects with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and find an increase in prediction error, potentially indicating that the relationship between the metabolome and chronological age differs with these diseases. However, evidence is not found to support the hypothesis that our models will consistently over-predict the age of these subjects. In our analysis of control subjects, we find the carnitine shuttle, sucrose, biopterin, vitamin E metabolism, tryptophan, and tyrosine to be the most associated with age. We showcase the potential usefulness of age prediction models in a small dataset (n = 85), and discuss techniques for drift correction, missing data imputation, and regularized regression, which can be used to help mitigate the statistical challenges that commonly arise in this setting. To our knowledge, this work presents the first multivariate predictive metabolomic and lipidomic models for age using mass spectrometry analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.

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