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1.
Small ; : e2000363, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174002

RESUMO

Iridium(III) complexes are potent candidates for photodynamic therapy. However, their clinical usage is impeded by their poor water solubility, high dark toxicity, and negligible absorption in near-infrared region (NIR region). Here, it is proposed to solve these challenges by developing an iridium(III) complexe-based polymeric micelle system. This system is self-assembled using an iridium(III) complex-containing amphiphilic block polymer. The upconversion nanoparticles are included in the polymeric micelles to permit NIR excitation. Compared with the nonformulated iridium(III) complexes, under NIR stimulation, this polymeric micelle system exhibits higher 1 O2 generation efficiency, negligible dark toxicity, excellent tumor-targeting ability, and synergistic phototherapy-chemotherapy effect both in vitro and in vivo.

2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 194: 112229, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222677

RESUMO

Classical platinum(II) anticancer agents are widely-used chemotherapeutic drugs in the clinic against a range of cancers. However, severe systemic toxicity and drug resistance have become the main obstacles which limit their application and effectiveness. Because divalent cisplatin analogues are easily destroyed in vivo, their bioavailability is low and no selective to tumor tissues. The platinum(IV) prodrugs are attractive compounds for cancer treatment because they have great advantages, e.g., higher stability in biological media, aqueous solubility and no cross-resistance with cisplatin, which may become the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. In addition, platinum(IV) drugs could be taken orally, which could be more acceptable to cancer patients, breaking the current situation that platinum(II) drugs can only be given by injection. The coupling of platinum(IV) complexes with tumor targeting groups avoids the disadvantages such as instability in blood, irreversible binding to plasma proteins, rapid renal clearance, and non-specific distribution in normal tissues. Because of the above advantages, the combination of platinum complexes and tumor targeting groups has become the hottest field in the research and development of new platinum drugs. These approaches can be roughly categorized into two groups: active and passive targeted strategies. This review concentrates on various targeting and delivery strategies for platinum(IV) complexes to improve the efficacy and reduce the side effects of platinum-based anticancer drugs. We have made a summary of the related articles on platinum(IV) targeted delivery in recent years. We believe the results of the studies described in this review will provide new ideas and strategies for the development of platinum drugs.

3.
Plant J ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991023

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) is an essential plant nutrient and its deficiency typically limits plant growth. Long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are involved in adaptive responses to nutrient stress; however, it is not known whether they function in the regulation of the canonical Fe-deficiency response. The expression of Malus domestica (apple) lncRNA MSTRG.85814 is induced by Fe deficiency, as identified by high-throughput strand-specific RNA-seq analysis of an apple homograft system. MSTRG.85814 has a complex structure, with 13 predicted RNA sequence variants, four of which are upregulated in the roots of plants experiencing Fe deficiency. We found that one MSTRG.85814 splice variant (MSTRG.85814.11) positively modulated its cis target mRNA derived from the small auxin upregulated gene SAUR32. This in turn promoted the expression of SAUR32 and caused an increase in the expression of a plasma membrane proton ATPase, AHA10. Using a pH imaging technique, a significant decrease in the apoplastic pH was observed to occur in the root tips of MSTRG.85814.11 or SAUR32-overexpressing apple plants. Thus MSTRG.85814.11 was shown to positively promote SAUR32 expression, which then activated proton extrusion involved in the Fe-deficiency response. These results reveal a mechanism by which lncRNA promotes environmental Fe-deficiency stress adaption.

4.
Int J Pharm ; 576: 119001, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893540

RESUMO

The conventional medications are still facing a huge challenge for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thus, looking for an effective therapy of RA has became an urgent issue nowadays. In this study, a novel thermosensitive liposome loaded with sinomenine hydrochloride (SIN-TSL) was developed by a pH gradient method. The SIN-TSL had a mean particle size of around 100 nm, and an high entrapment efficiency and drug loading capacity. The results also suggested that SIN-TSL had a thermosensitive drug release behaviour, with the drug release rate at 43 °C was much faster than the one at 37 °C. The SIN-TSL could be effectively taken up by lipopolysaccharide-activated HUVECs, without any cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, both in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that the SIN-TSL combined with microwave hyperthermia exhibited superior anti-rheumatoid arthritis effect. Overall, these results suggest that SIN-loaded thermosensitive liposomes combined with microwave hyperthermia could provide an optional strategy for alleviating the clinical symptoms of RA.

5.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(2): 520-526, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is shown to be an effective methodology for multiple criteria decision-making from various heterogeneous data. Despite application of AHP to some decision-making problems in agriculture, research on AHP utilization for screening the safe use of pesticides for tea plantations based upon multiple criteria has not been reported. The overall safety chain from tea plantation to tea manufacture to tea cup after pesticides had been sprayed on a tea plantation was considered and the AHP network was constructed at two levels with two categories, tea-related parameters and pesticide toxicity. Seven criteria were selected as safety indexes, half-lives of pesticides on the tea plant (T1/2 ), water solubility (Ws), vapor pressure (Vp), acceptable daily intake (ADI), acute oral lethal dose of pesticides to rat (LD50 ), and ecotoxicity of pesticides including LD50 to bees and LD50 to aquatic organisms. RESULTS: According to the AHP, water solubility was the most important factor in the evaluation pesticide safety for use on a tea plantation, followed by the half-lives of the pesticides on the tea plant and the acceptable daily intake. Combined with the scale of seven criteria and relative weight (W), 48 pesticides with an overall score (S) < 25 could be regarded as relatively safe compounds when applied in tea plantations. CONCLUSION: An AHP approach was suggested to evaluate the safe use of pesticides on tea plantations. This study provides a new idea for the evaluation of safety in beverage crops. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1071-1078, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841622

RESUMO

Grapes are among the most popular fruits globally, and various fungicides are widely applied to grape crops. As such, the presence of multiple fungicide residues and dietary risks in grapes has become the focus of significant attention. In this study, an easy-to-implement and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS approach was developed to simultaneously determine pyraclostrobin, dimethomorph, cymoxanil, cyazofamid and its metabolite CCIM in grapes via QuEChERS. This approach achieved 78.1-106.0% recovery and a 0.01 mg kg-1 limit of quantitation (LOQ). Field trials revealed that these compounds had degradation half-lives ranging from 0.9 to 13.3 days. And their terminal residues ranging from < LOQ to 1.36 mg kg-1 were below the official maximum residue limit (MRL) in China. The short-term risk for each tested fungicide was below 54%. The long-term risk of individual chemicals ranged from 0.0086% to 3.1%, and their cumulative risk was 4.4%. Results indicated that the dietary risk of these fungicides in grapes was minor.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Vitis/química , China , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Meia-Vida , Imidazóis/química , Medição de Risco , Estrobilurinas/química , Sulfonamidas/química
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methoxyfenozide possesses efficacy against a variety of lepidopteron pests, including the major pests in cauliflower and tea, so it is of great importance to generalize the practical use of methoxyfenozide in the field. RESULTS: An efficient method was developed and validated in both vegetable matrix and extract-rich matrix (cauliflower and tea) using modified QuEChERS combined with UPLC/MS/MS analysis. The recoveries in cauliflower, made tea and tea shoots ranged from 94.5 to 108.0%, from 85.0 to 91.6% and from 77.3 to 82.0% respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 17.3% in all cases. The field results showed that methoxyfenozide dissipated in cauliflower with half-life (t1/2 ) at 2.5-3.5 days and in tea with t1/2 at 1.2 days. Combining the above experimental data and statistical food intake values, the risk quotient (RQ) values were significantly lower than 1. CONCLUSION: The quantification method of methoxyfenozide in cauliflower or tea has not been established until this study. The dissipation and dietary exposure risk assessment of methoxyfenozide in cauliflower and tea were investigated in the field. Methoxyfenozide dissipated rapidly in cauliflower despite different climates, and it dissipated faster in tea. The dietary risk of methoxyfenozide through cauliflower or tea was negligible to humans. This study not only provides guidance for the safe use of methoxyfenozide but also serves as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

8.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868909

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) deficiency limits the yield of fruit trees. When subjected to Fe-deficiency, H+ secretion increases in the rhizosphere of dicotyledonous plants and pH decreases. This leads to the acidification of the soil and promotes Fe3+ to Fe2+ conversion, which plants can better uptake. This study investigated the relationship between two inhibitory transcription factors (ethylene response factors MbERF4 and MbERF72) and the H+-ATPase gene MbHA2. Two species of apple woody plants were studied: the Fe-inefficient Malus baccata and the Fe-efficient Malus xiaojinensis. Yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that both MbERF4 and MbERF72 bind to the GCC cassette (AGCCGCC) of the MbHA2 promoter. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that MbERF4 interacts with MbERF72. Furthermore, ß-glucuronidase and luciferase reporter assays showed that the MbERF4- and MbERF72-induced repression of MbHA2 expression is synergistic. Virus-induced gene silencing of MbERF4 or MbERF72 increased MbHA2 expression, and thus lowered the rhizosphere pH in M. baccata. Consequently, the high expressions of MbERF4 and MbERF72 induced by Fe-deficiency contributed to the Fe sensitivity of M. baccata. Moreover, the low expressions of MxERF4 and MxERF72 contributed to the Fe-deficiency tolerance of M. xiaojinensis via different binding conditions to the HA2 promoter. In summary, this study identified the relationship of two inhibitory transcription factors with the H+-ATPase gene and proposed a model in which ERF4 and ERF72 affect the rhizosphere pH in response to Fe-deficiency.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744249

RESUMO

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a large, diverse, and ubiquitous superfamily that is involved in a broad range of processes. The completion of genome sequencing provides an opportunity to understand the phylogenetic history of the ABC transporter superfamily among Rosaceae species. This study identified a total of 1323 ABC transporter genes from nine Rosaceae genomes: 191 from Malus domestica, 174 from Pyrus communis, 138 from Prunus persica, 118 from Prunus avium, 141 from Prunus dulcis, 122 from Fragaria vesca, 98 from Rubus occidentalis, 162 from Prunus mume, and 179 from Rosa chinensis. Their chemical characterization, phylogenetic analysis, chromosomal localization, gene structure, gene duplication, and tissue-specific expression were studied. Their subcellular localization, transmembrane structures, and protein motifs were predicted. All the ABC transporter genes were grouped into eight subfamilies on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships and structural features. Furthermore, cis-element and expression analysis of 10 potential phytohormone transporters in MdABCG subfamily genes were also performed. Loss of the W-box in the promoter region of MdABCG28 was found to reduce the gene expression level and was linked to the dwarfing phenotype in apple rootstocks. MdABCG28 overexpression promoted shoot growth of atabcg14 mutants in Arabidopsis.

10.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 7451-7457, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686850

RESUMO

Purpose: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are emerging as promising biomarkers for various human malignancies. However, the application of circRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (SOC) remains to be elucidated. Here, we aim to investigate the feasibility of using serum circSETDB1, a tumor-promoting circRNA generated from the SET domain bifurcated histone lysine methyltransferase 1 (SETDB1), known to be upregulated in SOC,as a biomarker for detecting SOC progression, predicting relapse, and evaluating the effectiveness of SOC treatment. Methods: Serum circSETDB1 levels were measured using quantitative real-time RCR in 60 SOC patients (18 primary chemoresistance, 42 primary chemosensitive) and 60 healthy volunteers. Progression-free survival curve was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Diagnostic value was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) method. Results: Serum circSETDB1 expression is upregulated in SOC patients. Higher levels of circSETDB1 are positively associated with advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis of SOC patients. Notably, serum circSETDB1 levels are significantly increased in primary chemoresistance patients. Patients with higher levels of circSETDB1 have a shorter progression-free survival time. In addition, diagnostic value analyses revealed that serum circSETDB1 can distinguish patients with SOC from healthy volunteers as well as patients with primary chemoresistance from those with primary chemosensitivity. Conclusion: Our data suggest that serum circSETDB1 may serve as a novel non-invasive biomarker for detecting SOC progression and predicting response to chemotherapy and relapse in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

11.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109483, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513999

RESUMO

Terrestrial ecosystems have received considerable attention as a significant sink for organic carbon at regional to global scales. Previous studies were focused on assessment and quantification of carbon sinks for one ecotype, and few have worked on the interconnection of terrestrial sinks. In this paper, we synthesized the data from China's second national soil survey and direct measurements from 54 lakes. Meanwhile, we investigated the controlling factors of carbon accumulation dynamics in soils and lakes. Results showed varied spatial distribution of soil and lake organic carbon in different regions, and three storage modes were found. The storage mode of watershed collection was observed in the region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, while the northeast China and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau revealed another storage mode of autochthonous deposition, and the mode of human activities affection was represented by the East Plain and Mongolia-Xinjiang Plateau. The spatial difference throughout China was regulated by various climate patterns, geological conditions and anthropogenic interference. Our results provide insights into carbon storage modes in various regions, and also inform strategies for enhancing global carbon sequestration and future mitigation policies towards global climate change.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Sequestro de Carbono , China , Ecossistema , Humanos , Lagos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540316

RESUMO

Genetic modifications of floral organs are important in the breeding of Malus species. Flower-specific promoters can be used to improve floral organs specifically, without affecting vegetative organs, and therefore developing such promoters is highly desirable. Here, we characterized two paralogs of the Arabidopsis thaliana gene AGAMOUS (AG) from Malus domestica (apple): MdAG1 and MdAG2. We then isolated the second-intron sequences for both genes, and created four artificial promoters by fusing each intron sequence to a minimal 35S promoter sequence in both the forward and reverse directions. When transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated stable transformation, one promoter, rMdAG2I, exhibited activity specifically in flowers, whereas the other three also showed detectable activity in vegetative organs. A test of the four promoters' activities in the ornamental species Malus micromalus by Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation showed that, as in tobacco, only rMdAG2I exhibited a flower-specific expression pattern. Through particle bombardment transformation, we demonstrated that rMdAG2I also had flower-specific activity in the apple cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. The flower-specific promoter rMdAG2I, derived from M. domestica, thus has great potential for use in improving the floral characteristics of ornamental plants, especially the Malus species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Clonagem Molecular , Evolução Molecular , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Íntrons , Malus/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
13.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 994, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417600

RESUMO

The vegetative phase change in flowering plants is controlled by microRNA156 (miR156) under transcriptional regulation. However, the developmental signals upstream of miR156 are not well understood. The glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratios and GSH levels decline significantly during phase change, which is consistent with miR156 expression in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Here, we found that the content of protein conjugated glutathione was remarkably higher in chloroplasts and nuclei of adult than juvenile phase apple hybrids. The decrease in miR156 expression was most relevant to the activities of serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and soluble γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and the expressions of MdGGT1 or MdSATs. Transgenic apples over-expressing MdMIR156 or miR156-mimetic (MIM156) did not alter MdGGT1 expression or the soluble GGT activity. Inhibition of GGT activity with serine-borate complex or acivicin led to significant reduction in GSH content, the GSH/GSSG ratio, and the expressions of MdMIR156a5, MdMIR156a12, and miR156. Depletion of GSH with diethyl maleate without altering GGT activity caused a dramatic decrease in the expression of MdMIR156a5, MdMIR156a12, and miR156. Manipulating GGT activity and GSH homeostasis by transgenic over-expressing or RNAi MdGGT1 increased or decreased MdMIR156a5 and MdMIR156a12 levels, respectively. These data provided novel evidence that MdGGT1 participates in transcriptional level of transcription regulation of miR156 precursors during ontogenesis. HIGHLIGHTS: - MdGGT1 affects thiol redox status and indirectly participates in the regulation of miR156 expression during vegetative phase change.

14.
Food Res Int ; 121: 776-784, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108808

RESUMO

The percent transfer of pesticide residue from tea to infusion is an important factor that should be taken into consideration for setting realistic Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and risk assessment, as infusion prepared from dry tea is generally consumed, rather than the dry tea. The aim of this study is to investigate the inherent regularity of pesticides' transfer behavior, and to understand the effects of pesticide's physico-chemical parameters on its transfer behavior. A series of field trials, manufacturing and brewing experiments of 42 pesticides were conducted. Results indicated that transfer potential of a pesticide is related to its physical-chemical properties but not much to its type. Regression of transfer rate (TR) prediction model was logTR = 1.242 + 0.306log(Ws) (R2 = 0.893). Thus, water solubility (Ws) can be used to predict the drinking safety of pesticides potentially introduced into tea plantation. Furthermore, as a case study on tea, this approach could also provide references for other beverage crops.

15.
Hortic Res ; 6: 59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962944

RESUMO

In 2010, a major scientific milestone was achieved for tree fruit crops: publication of the first draft whole genome sequence (WGS) for apple (Malus domestica). This WGS, v1.0, was valuable as the initial reference for sequence information, fine mapping, gene discovery, variant discovery, and tool development. A new, high quality apple WGS, GDDH13 v1.1, was released in 2017 and now serves as the reference genome for apple. Over the past decade, these apple WGSs have had an enormous impact on our understanding of apple biological functioning, trait physiology and inheritance, leading to practical applications for improving this highly valued crop. Causal gene identities for phenotypes of fundamental and practical interest can today be discovered much more rapidly. Genome-wide polymorphisms at high genetic resolution are screened efficiently over hundreds to thousands of individuals with new insights into genetic relationships and pedigrees. High-density genetic maps are constructed efficiently and quantitative trait loci for valuable traits are readily associated with positional candidate genes and/or converted into diagnostic tests for breeders. We understand the species, geographical, and genomic origins of domesticated apple more precisely, as well as its relationship to wild relatives. The WGS has turbo-charged application of these classical research steps to crop improvement and drives innovative methods to achieve more durable, environmentally sound, productive, and consumer-desirable apple production. This review includes examples of basic and practical breakthroughs and challenges in using the apple WGSs. Recommendations for "what's next" focus on necessary upgrades to the genome sequence data pool, as well as for use of the data, to reach new frontiers in genomics-based scientific understanding of apple.

16.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(5): 1663-1678, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910819

RESUMO

Apple fruit ring rot (FRR), caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a worldwide disease that impacts Asian apple production regions. However, no substantial progress has thus far been made toward the mapping of candidate genes or the development of effective genetic makers. In this five-year study, the resistance of 1,733 F1 hybrids from the cross 'Jonathan' × 'Golden Delicious' was phenotyped by non-wounding inoculation with four B. dothidea isolates. We first conducted systematic comparison of different analytic strategies for bulk segregant analysis by re-sequencing (BSA-Seq) and obtained suitable one for outbreeding species such as Malus Forty-six quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance/susceptibility to the four isolates, including one QTL 'hotspot' on chromosome 14, were identified via BSA-Seq. Using integrated multi-omics strategies including RNA-sequencing, parental re-sequencing, BSA-Seq and meta-analysis of RNA-sequencing, fifty-seven candidate genes and corresponding functional mutations from the QTL were predicted. Functional mutations located on the candidate genes were validated using kompetitive allele-specific PCR in hybrids and Malus germplasm accessions with extremely resistant/susceptible phenotypes. Ten effective markers for apple ring rot were developed. The results provide an example of rapid candidate gene mapping for complex traits in outbreeding species.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Malus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Algoritmos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Malus/classificação , Malus/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transcriptoma
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 172: 530-537, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743169

RESUMO

Penconazole is a typical triazole fungicide with wide use on fruits, vegetables, and tea plants to control powdery mildew. In the present study, an efficient graphite carbon black solid phase extraction (GCB-SPE) purification combined with chiral ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of penconazole enantiomers in different complex matrices, including grape, tea, soil, lotus root, lotus leaf, lotus seed and hulls. The method was then applied to investigate the enantioselective dissipation of penconazole enantiomers in a real field experiment of grape and soil. As a result, a satisfactory separation of penconazole enantiomers on a chiral Lux Cellulose-2 column (150 mm × 2 mm i.d., 3 µm) was obtained with 0.1% formic acid in methanol and 10 mmol L-1 ammonium acetate in water (75/25, v/v) as mobile phase at 0.25 mL min-1. The enantiomer (+)-penconazole was firstly eluted, and (-)-penconazole was then eluted. The method showed reliable performances in linearity, recovery and precision, the recoveries of (+)-penconazole and (-)-penconazole in all of six matrices were between 70.5% and 121.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 0.8% to 23.6% at the low, medium and high spiked levels. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) of this method were lower than 0.0025 mg kg-1 in grape, soil and lotus root, 0.005 mg kg-1 in lotus leaf, lotus seed meat and lotus seed shell, and 0.0125 mg kg-1 in tea. Results of field trials indicated that (-)-penconazole degraded faster than its (+)-isomer in grape. While only a moderate stereoselectivity was observed in soil, with (-)-penconazole preferential degraded. The proposed method could be used to investigate enantioselective environmental behavior of penconazole enantiomers in complex matrices. And results in this study could provide useful information on realistic risk assessment of penconazole in grape.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/análise , Solo/química , Chá/química , Triazóis/análise , Verduras/química , Vitis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Estereoisomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Clin Genet ; 95(5): 590-600, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811583

RESUMO

Multiple morphological abnormalities of flagella (MMAF) is one kind of severe teratozoospermia. Gene mutations reported in previous works only revealed the pathogenesis of approximately half of the MMAF cases, and more genetic defects in MMAF need to be explored. In the present study, we performed a genetic analysis on Han Chinese men with MMAF using whole-exome sequencing. After filtering out the cases with known gene mutations, we identified five novel mutation sites in the DNAH2 gene in three cases from three families. These mutations were validated through Sanger sequencing and absent in all control individuals. In silico analysis revealed that these DNAH2 variations are deleterious. The spermatozoa with DNAH2 mutations showed severely disarranged axonemal structures with mitochondrial sheath defection. The DNAH2 protein level was significantly decreased and inner dynein arms were absent in the spermatozoa of patients. ICSI treatment was performed for two MMAF patients with DNAH2 mutations and the associated couples successfully achieved pregnancy, indicating good nuclear quality of the sperm from the DNAH2 mutant patients. Together, these data suggest that the DNAH2 mutation can cause severe sperm flagella defects that damage sperm motility. These results provide a novel genetic pathogeny for the human MMAF phenotype.

19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 99(6): 561-573, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734902

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: SlPIN8 is expressed specifically within tomato pollen, and that it is involved in tomato pollen development and intracellular auxin homeostasis. The auxin (IAA) transport protein PIN-FORMED (PIN) plays key roles in various aspects of plant development. The biological role of the auxin transporter SlPIN8 in tomato development remains unclear. Here, we examined the expression pattern of the SlPIN8 gene in vegetative and reproductive organs of tomato. RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic lines specifically silenced for the SlPIN8 gene were generated to identify the role of SlPIN8 in pollen development. We found that SlPIN8 mRNA is expressed specifically within tomato pollen. In the anthers, the highest mRNA expression and ß-glucuronidase (GUS) activity of promoter-SlPIN8-GUS was detected during late stages of anther development, when pollen maturation occurred. The downregulation of SlPIN8 did not drastically affect the vegetative growth of tomato. However, in SlPIN8-RNAi transgenic plants, approximately 80% of the pollen grains were identified to be abnormal and lack viability; they were shriveled and flattened. Furthermore, the downregulation of SlPIN8 affected the gene expression of some anther development-specific proteins. SlPIN8-RNAi transgenic plants induced seedless fruits because of defective pollen function rather than defective female gametophyte function. In addition, SlPIN8 was found to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum, consistent with the changes in the auxin levels of SlPIN8-RNAi lines, whereas the level of free IAA was increased in SlPIN8-overexpressing protoplasts, indicating that SlPIN8 is involved in intracellular auxin homeostasis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Transporte Biológico , Regulação para Baixo , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642065

RESUMO

Castanopsis lamontii is traditionally used to prevent inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis and pharyngitis by residents in southwest China. However, little scientific evidence has been found to support this. In this research, the antibacterial activities of Castanopsis lamontii water extract (CLE) were assessed using the micro-dilution method. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of CLE were investigated in RAW264.7 cells. Key bioactive compounds in CLE were also explored. Results showed that CLE was capable of inhibiting the periodontitis pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the pharyngitis pathogen ß-hemolytic Streptococcus. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells via inactivating the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Besides, it reduced oxidative stress-induced cell injury via scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chemical composition analysis revealed that CLE was rich in epicatechin and procyanidin B2. Further studies confirmed that epicatechin predominantly contributed to the antibacterial activities of CLE, while procyanidin B2 was mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities of CLE. Both compounds contributed to the antioxidant activities of CLE. Acute oral toxicity tests proved that CLE was practically non-toxic. These results provide experimental evidences of the health-beneficial effects of CLE and may help promote the application of CLE in the food and health industries.


Assuntos
Fagaceae/química , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
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