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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 72-79, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183718

RESUMO

This study encompassed the regular observation of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in particulate matter (PM) in Shanghai in summer and winter from 2010 to 2018. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Æ©PAHs in summer decreased by 24.7% in 2013 and 18.1% in 2017 but increased by 10.2% in 2015 compared to the data in 2010. However, the mean concentrations of Æ©PAHs in winter decreased by 39.7% from 2010 (12.8 ± 4.55 ng/m3) to 2018 (7.72 ± 3.33 ng/m3), and the mean concentrations of 1-nitropyrene in winter decreased by 79.0% from 2010 (42.3 ± 16.1 pg/m3) to 2018 (8.90 ± 2.09 pg/m3). Correlation analysis with meteorological conditions revealed that the PAH and NPAH concentrations were both influenced by ambient temperature. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs and factor analysis showed that they were mainly affected by traffic emissions with some coal and/or biomass combustion. The ratio of 2-nitrofluoranthene to 2-nitropyrene was near 10, which indicated that the OH radical-initiated reaction was the main pathway leading to their secondary formation. Moreover, backward trajectories revealed different air mass routes in each sampling period, indicating a high possibility of source effects from the northern area in winter in addition to local and surrounding influences. Meanwhile, the mean total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentrations in Shanghai in winter decreased by 50.8% from 2010 (1860 ± 645 pg/m3) to 2018 (916 ± 363 pg/m3). These results indicated the positive effects of the various policies and regulations issued by Chinese authorities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 581(Pt B): 656-668, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814189

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: For an oil droplet on calcite with an intervening brine film, the water contact angle θw may be reduced markedly (greater water wetness) with surface modified silica nanoparticles (NP). Modification with cationic, anionic, and nonionic ligands may be used to control the nanoparticle adsorption and interactions at the oil-brine and brine-calcite interfaces to influence the rate and degree of reduction in θw. EXPERIMENTS: The colloidal stability at 25 °C was determined in concentrated divalent brine (8 wt% NaCl and 2 wt% CaCl2) with dynamic light scattering, and the NP adsorption was determined on calcite. The NP adsorption at the oil-brine interface was characterized with the elastic dilational modulus. θw was measured for model decane-stearic acid droplets and crude oil droplets on calcite from 25 to 80 °C. FINDINGS: The fastest rate and greatest extent of reduction in θw for grafted ligands followed the order: cationic quaternary trimethylamine > sulfonate > methyl phosphonate > gluconamide. New mechanisms for reduction in θw were demonstrated on the basis of changes in interactions from NP adsorption at each interface. The greatest efficacy for the cationic NPs results from the weakest adsorption on calcite, steric repulsion at the three-phase contact line and the greatest desorption of carboxylate surfactants from the calcite.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172174

RESUMO

Daily PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) samples were simultaneously collected at two background sites (Wajima Air Monitoring Station (WAMS) and Fukue-Jima Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (FAMS)) in Japan in the East Asian winter and summer monsoon periods of 2017 and 2019, to compare the characteristics of air pollutants among different regions and to determine the possible variation during the long-range transport process. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were analyzed. Despite the PM2.5 concentrations at FAMS (8.90-78.5 µg/m3) being higher than those at WAMS (2.33-21.2 µg/m3) in the winter monsoon period, the average concentrations of ∑PAHs, ∑NPAHs, and ∑WSIIs were similar between the two sites. Diagnostic ratios indicated PAHs mainly originated from traffic emissions and mostly aged, whereas NPAHs were mostly secondarily formed during long-range transport. WSIIs at WAMS were mainly formed via the combustion process and secondary reactions, whereas those at FAMS mainly originated from sea salt and dust. Backward trajectories revealed the air masses could not only come from Asian continental coastal regions but also distant landlocked areas in the winter monsoon period, whereas most came from the ocean in the summer monsoon period. These findings can provide basic data for the establishment of prediction models of transboundary air pollutants in East Asia.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198453

RESUMO

It has become an intelligent and environmental protection method to repair concrete cracks based on microbial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP). However, due to the high-alkali environment in concrete, even the microbial spores with strong alkali resistance find it difficult to survive for a long time, which affects the long-term self-healing effect of concrete cracks. In this paper, low-alkali sulfo-aluminate cement (SC) was used as a carrier to encapsulate spores, and the effects of the spore group and microbial group on the basic performances of concrete were studied. Then, the area repair ratio, water permeability, the repair ratio of anti-chloride ion penetration, and ultrasonic velocity were used to evaluate the self-healing efficiency of cracks, and the self-healing effects of two kinds of microbial self-healing agents on concrete cracks with different curing ages were further studied. Moreover, the growth, enzyme activity, and microbial morphologies of spores with and without encapsulation immersed in the simulated pore solution of cement-based materials at different times were studied to discuss the protective effect of the carrier on spores. Compared with the reference group, the results showed that the addition of two microbial self-healing agents would slightly affect the basic performances of concrete, but both were within the control range of concrete materials. For the early-age cracks, the two kinds of microbial self-healing agents could achieve a good self-healing effect, but for the later-age cracks, the concrete cracks of the microbial group could still be repaired well, while the self-healing effect of the spore group was greatly reduced. Moreover, the white precipitates generated at the crack mouth were all calcite CaCO3. In addition, the self-healing mechanism of different microbial self-healing agents on concrete cracks was discussed carefully. This study provides a new idea and method for the engineering application of microbial self-healing concrete.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159635

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a highly heterogeneous disease affecting multiple organs and is characterized by an aberrant immune response. Although the mortality of SLE has decreased significantly since the application of glucocorticoids, severe or refractory SLE can potentially cause irreversible organ damage and contribute to the disease morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of severe SLE or life-threatening conditions is of great challenge to clinicians since the onset symptoms can be rapid and aggressive, involving the visceral organs of the neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal, pulmonary, and cardiovascular systems, etc. Additionally, SLE patients with specific comorbidities and detrimental complications could lead to a clinical dilemma and contribute to poor prognosis. Prompt and adequate treatment for severe refractory SLE is crucial for a better prognosis. However, as evidence from well-designed randomized controlled trials is limited, this review aims to provide real-world evidence based on cohort studies from Peking Union Medical College Hospital, the national tertiary referral center in China, together with the literature, on clinical characteristics, risks and prognostic factors, and treatment strategies for severe and/or refractory SLE.

6.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 361, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228628

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Identifying topics and assessing the reporting quality of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) cohort studies. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature was performed. A descriptive approach to summarize the core study characteristics was prepared, along with structured tables and figures to identify salient points of differences noted across studies. The reporting quality of TCM cohort studies was assessed according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)-cohort checklist. RESULTS: A total of 199 TCM cohort studies were included. The largest number of TCM cohort studies was conducted in Mainland China (70.9%). The TCM cohort study was first published in 2003. The top three diseases studied were Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Stroke, and Asthma. As for the intervention methods, Chinese herbal medicine formulas (60.3%), acupuncture (14.1%) and single herbs (12.6%) accounted for the majority, followed by moxibustion (4.0%) and qigong (2.0%). The overage sufficient reporting rate of included TCM cohort studies according to the STROBE-cohort checklist was 42.9%. Comparing with Chinese literature, the reporting rates of English literature in most items were higher. CONCLUSION: For the application of cohort studies to inform the effects of TCM interventions, the interventions assessed and conditions studied were diverse, the reporting quality was unsatisfied.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1984, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133059

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Emerging evidence shows that neurogenic inflammation, induced by nociceptive neurons and T helper 17 cell (Th17) responses, has a fundamental role in maintaining the changes in the immune system due to psoriasis. Nociceptive neurons, specific primary sensory nerves, have a multi-faceted role in detecting noxious stimuli, maintaining homeostasis, and regulating the immunity responses in the skin. Therefore, it is critical to understand the connections and interplay between the nociceptive neurons and the immune system in psoriasis. Here, we review works on the altered innervation that occurs in psoriasis. We examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating inflammation. Numerous clinical studies report the dysfunction of nociceptive neurons in psoriasis. We discuss the mechanism behind the inconsistent activation of nociceptive neurons. Moreover, we review how neuropeptides, involved in regulating Th17 responses and the role of nociceptive neurons, regulate immunity in psoriasis. Understanding how nociceptive neurons regulate immune responses enhances our knowledge of the neuroimmunity involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may form the basis for new approaches to treat it.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170478

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical features and outcome of interstitial lung disease (ILD)-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive ILD-only patients. Arthritis-onset and ILD-onset RA-ILD and ACPA-positive ILD-only patients consecutively admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2008 to December 2017 were enrolled and followed-up. Their demographic, clinical, and laboratory features as well as outcome were collected and analyzed. Compared with arthritis-onset RA-ILD (n = 166, median arthritis-to-ILD interval: 60 months), the ILD-onset RA-ILD (n = 75, median ILD-to-arthritis interval: 2 months) had less rheumatoid nodules and higher titer of ACPA, and manifested more stable ILD (median estimated progression-free survival: 120 vs. 100 months, p = 0.019). Elder age (≥ 65 years) at ILD diagnosis and UIP pattern were associated with ILD progression by both univariate and Cox hazards modeling analysis (p < 0.05). In ACPA-positive ILD-only patients (n = 41), arthritis developed in 7 (17.1%) female patients after a median interval of 24 months. ACPA-positive ILD who subsequently developed arthritis exhibited higher frequency of rheumatoid factor (RF), higher titer of ACPA, and higher levels of ESR and CRP (p < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that positive RF (OR 12.55, 95% CI 1.31 to 120.48) was the independent risk factor for arthritis development in ACPA-positive ILD-only patients. ILD-onset RA-ILD had more stable ILD compared with arthritis-onset RA-ILD. ACPA-positive ILD patients with positive RF are at increased risk of developing RA.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179144

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are characterized with aberrant immune responses and their respective signaling pathways controlling cell differentiation, death, and survival. Cell metabolism is also an indispensable biochemical process that provides the very fundamental energy and materials. Accumulating evidences implicate that metabolism pathways have critical roles in determining the function of different immune subsets. Mechanisms of how immunometabolism participate in the pathogenesis of AIDs were also under intensive exploration. Here, in this review, we summarize the metabolic features of immune cells in AIDs and also the individual function of immunometabolism pathways, including glucose metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, in the setting of AIDs, mainly focusing on the potential targets for intervention. We also review studies that explore the intervention strategies targeting key molecules of metabolic pathways, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a), in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The highlight of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the status quo of immunometabolism studies in AIDs and the potential translatable drug targets.

10.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179280

RESUMO

AIMS: Existing epidemiological studies have suggested that periodontal disease (PD) may be a risk indicator for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no formal systematic review and meta-analysis has been performed. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between PD and CRC risk in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science to search for related articles published from January 1, 1966 to July 16, 2020. Stata (Version 15) software was used to calculate the total risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the included studies through the random effects model to assess the association PD and CRC risk. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the narrative synthesis, and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed that PD significantly increased the risk of CRC by 44% (RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.76; I2 , 55.2%). CONCLUSION: We found an association between PD and CRC. PD can be a potential risk indicator for the occurrence and development of CRC, further studies are needed to assess causality. Hence, effective periodontal treatment could be a valuable preventive measure for CRC.

11.
J Int Med Res ; 48(11): 300060520969582, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Liver inflammatory activity staging is critical to guide the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection. Here, we aimed to identify practical clinical biomarkers of moderate inflammatory activity in hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-negative CHB patients. METHODS: Treatment-naïve HBeAg-negative CHB patients who underwent liver biopsy at our hospital from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2016 were enrolled. Markers of inflammatory activity were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROCC) was used to assess diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: A total of 106 HBeAg-negative treatment-naive CHB patients were enrolled. According to their METAVIR inflammatory scores, 30.2% of patients were in stage ≥A2. Total triiodothyronine (TT3) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels were predictors of moderate inflammatory activity (A ≥ 2). The AUROCCs of TT3 and HBV DNA levels were 0.651 and 0.797, respectively. The optimal cut-off values for TT3 and HBV DNA were 1.755 nmol/L and 4.61 log10 IU/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A sizable proportion of treatment-naive HBeAg-negative CHB patients required antiviral treatment (30.2%) after undergoing liver biopsy. TT3 and HBV DNA helps identify patients with moderate inflammatory activity (A ≥ 2), potentially reducing the need for liver biopsies and helping guide treatment of CHB patients.

12.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141223

RESUMO

Salinity-induced lipid alterations have been reported in many plant species, however, how lipid biosynthesis and metabolism are regulated and how lipids work in plant salt tolerance are much less studied. Here a constitutively much higher phosphatidylserine (PS) content in plasma membrane (PM) was found in the euhalophyte Salicornia europaea than Arabidopsis. A gene encoding phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS) was subsequently isolated from S. europaea, named SePSS, which was induced by salinity. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis suggested SePSS belong to base-exchange-type PSS, which locates in endoplasmic reticulum. Knockdown of SePSS in S. europaea suspension cells resulted in reduced PS content, decreased cell survival rate, increased PM depolarization and K+ efflux under 400 or 800 mM NaCl. By contrast, upregulation of SePSS leads to increased PS and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) levels and enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis, along with lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species, less membrane injury, less PM depolarization and higher K+/Na+ in the transgenic lines than WT. These results suggest the positive correlation between PS levels and plant salt tolerance, and SePSS participates in plant salt tolerance by regulating PS levels, hence PM potential and permeability, which help maintain ion homeostasis. Our work provides a potential strategy for improving plant growth under multiple stresses.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148807

RESUMO

The evolution of organic aerosol (OA) and brown carbon (BrC) in wildfire plumes, including the relative contributions of primary versus secondary sources, has been uncertain in part because of limited knowledge of the precursor emissions and the chemical environment of smoke plumes. We made airborne measurements of a suite of reactive trace gases, particle composition, and optical properties in fresh western US wildfire smoke in July through August 2018. We use these observations to quantify primary versus secondary sources of biomass-burning OA (BBPOA versus BBSOA) and BrC in wildfire plumes. When a daytime wildfire plume dilutes by a factor of 5 to 10, we estimate that up to one-third of the primary OA has evaporated and subsequently reacted to form BBSOA with near unit yield. The reactions of measured BBSOA precursors contribute only 13 ± 3% of the total BBSOA source, with evaporated BBPOA comprising the rest. We find that oxidation of phenolic compounds contributes the majority of BBSOA from emitted vapors. The corresponding particulate nitrophenolic compounds are estimated to explain 29 ± 15% of average BrC light absorption at 405 nm (BrC Abs405) measured in the first few hours of plume evolution, despite accounting for just 4 ± 2% of average OA mass. These measurements provide quantitative constraints on the role of dilution-driven evaporation of OA and subsequent radical-driven oxidation on the fate of biomass-burning OA and BrC in daytime wildfire plumes and point to the need to understand how processing of nighttime emissions differs.

14.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 197: 111379, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017716

RESUMO

The probing and quantitative detection of nitroaromatics is key for public safety and the monitoring of wastewater. Currently, most techniques used for the detection of nitroaromatics require ideal conditions rather than real conditions, making practical applications challenging. As nitroaromatics have strong absorption in the range of 350-370 nm, we can design a kind of KMgF3:Eu2+ nanophosphor with a strong f-f transition emission located at 362 nm, and an energy resonance transfer system based on the overlap of the emission peak of nanophosphors and the absorption peak of nitroaromatics can be constructed to realize the quantitative detection of nitroaromatics in municipal wastewater. Based on this, in this paper, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensor is designed by choosing polyethylenimine (PEI)-capped KMgF3:Eu2+ nanoparticles as an energy donor for the ultrasensitive detection of nitroaromatics, which can also work as an energy acceptor. The KMgF3:Eu2+ nanoparticle sensor shows great sensitivity and selectivity and good linear characteristics in both DI water and wastewater. The detection limits in municipal wastewater were 0.456, 0.598, 0.667, 0557 and 0.678 ng/mL for TNT, TNP, p-nitrotoluene, dinitrobenzene (DNB), and nitrobenzene (NB), respectively. The detection accuracy was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the sensor had superior sensitivity and great accuracy and could be used in practical applications.

15.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 247, 2020 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moxibustion is a common intervention of Chinese medicine (CM). Systematic reviews (SRs) on moxibustion are increasing. Although the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement provides guidelines for SRs, the quality of moxibustion-related SRs is still not satisfactory. In particular, descriptions of the interventions and the rationale for using moxibustion are insufficient. To address these inadequacies, the working group developed this PRISMA extension for reporting SRs of moxibustion (PRISMA-M 2020). METHODS: A group of CM clinical professionals, methodologists of SRs, reporting guideline developers, and journal editors developed this PRISMA-M 2020 through a comprehensive process that includes registration, literature review, consensus meetings, Delphi exercises for soliciting comments, and revision, resulting in this final draft. RESULTS: Seven of the 27 PRISMA checklist items, namely title (1), rationale (3), eligibility criteria (6), data item (11), additional analyses (16), study characteristics (18), and additional analysis (23), were extended, with specific reference to the application of moxibustion. Illustrative examples and explanations for each item are provided. CONCLUSION: The PRISMA-M 2020 will help improve the reporting quality of SRs with moxibustion. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: We have registered it on the EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) network, particularly under the item of PRISMA-TCM: http://www.equator-network.org/library/reporting-guidelines-under-development/reporting-guidelines-under-development-for-systematic-reviews/#65 .

16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111464, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075589

RESUMO

Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure correlates with adverse cardiometabolic effects. The underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully understood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as the central stress response system, regulates cardiometabolic homeostasis and is implicated in the progression of various adverse health effects caused by inhalational airborne pollutant exposure. In this study, we investigated whether ambient PM2.5 exposure activates HPA axis and its effect mediating PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammation. C57Bl/6 J mice were intratracheally instilled with different concentrations of diesel exhaust PM2.5 (DEP), and plasma was harvested at different times. Assessments of plasma stress hormones revealed that DEP instillation dose- and time-dependently increased mouse circulating corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, strongly supporting that DEP instillation activates HPA axis. To determine which components of DEP activate HPA axis, C57Bl/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of DEP. Plasma analyses showed that water-insoluble but not -soluble fraction of DEP increased circulating corticosterone and ACTH levels. Consistently, concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) exposure significantly increased mouse urine and hair corticosterone levels, corroborating the activation of HPA axis by ambient PM2.5. Furthermore, deletion of stress hormones by total bilateral adrenalectomy alleviated PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammation, providing insights into the contribution of central neurohormonal mechanisms in modulating adverse health effects caused by exposure to PM2.5.

17.
Vaccine ; 38(47): 7464-7471, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041097

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine hesitancy is cited as one of the top threats to global health. The Changchun Changsheng Biotechnology Company was found to have violated good manufacturing practices in July 2018, leading to widespread distribution of sub-potent vaccines in China. We estimated the prevalence and determinants of vaccine hesitancy following the Changchun Changsheng vaccine incident (CCVI). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in China in January 2019, and 2,124 caregivers of children < 6 years old completed self-administered questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the determinants of vaccine hesitancy; the potential determinants included demographics, socioeconomic status, vaccine confidence, and knowledge of the CCVI. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. RESULTS: Around 89% of caregivers had heard of the CCVI. Although 83% and 88% of caregivers agreed that vaccines are safe and effective, respectively, 60% expressed some hesitancy about vaccination. Of those hesitant, 26% vaccinated their children at times with doubts, 31% delayed vaccination and 3% refused specific vaccines. Multinomial regression analysis showed that confidence in vaccine safety was associated with a reduced odds of doubts on vaccination (AOR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.44-0.94), whereas caregivers who had heard of the CCVI had a significantly higher odds of doubts on vaccination (AOR = 1.61; 95%CI = 1.05-2.45). Confidence in the vaccine delivery system and government were associated with a lower odds of vaccine hesitancy. Caregivers with higher education and Buddhism or other religions were significantly more hesitant to vaccinate their children. CONCLUSION: Vaccine hesitancy was prevalent following the CCVI. Over half the caregivers either accepted childhood vaccination with doubts or delayed vaccines; only a small number were active refusers. Our findings highlight the importance of addressing vaccine hesitancy, especially following vaccine incidents. Tailored communications are needed to reduce vaccine hesitancy, especially among the highly educated and Buddhist caregivers.

18.
Cell Chem Biol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113407

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-based therapeutics are a breakthrough in cancer treatment; however, they are hampered by constitutive activation, which leads to worrisome side effects. Engineering CAR-T cells to be as tightly controllable as possible remains a topic of ongoing investigation. Here, we report a photoswitchable approach that uses a mediator for the at-will regulation of CAR-T cells. This mediator carries dual folate and fluorescein isothiocyanate moieties tethered by an ortho-nitrobenzyl ester photocleavable linker. CAR-T cells were shown to be highly cytotoxic to targeted cells only in the presence of the mediator and acted in a dose-dependent manner. The toxicity of CAR-T cells can be rapidly terminated by cleavage of the mediator, and the effects of CAR-T cells can be activated again by resupplementation with the mediator without compromising tumor therapy. The approach described here provides a direction for enhancing the controllability of CAR-T cells and can likely be applied in other immunotherapies.

19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The changes of gut microbiota have been linked with systemic lupus erythematosus, but knowledge is limited. Our study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the contribution of gut microbiota to the immunopathogenesis of SLE. METHODS: The fecal metagenomes from 117 non-treated SLE patients and 52 SLE patients post-treatment aligned with 115 matched healthy controls were analyzed by whole-genome profiling. For comparison, we assessed the fecal metagenome of MRL/lpr mice. The oral microbiota-origin of the gut species that existed in SLE patients was documented by SNP-based strain-level analyses. Functional validation assays were performed to demonstrate the molecular mimicry of newly-found microbial peptides. RESULTS: The gut microbiota of SLE display significant differences in microbial composition and function compared with healthy controls. Certain species, including Clostridium sp. ATCC BAA-442, Atopobium rimae,Shuttleworthia satelles,Actinomyces massiliensis,Bacteroides fragilis, and Clostridium leptum were enriched in SLE gut and reduced after treatment. Enhanced lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis aligned with reduced branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis was observed in the SLE gut. The findings from mice are consistent with our findings from patients. Interestingly, some species with an oral microbiota-origin were enriched in the gut of SLE patients. Functional validation assays demonstrated the pro-inflammatory capacities of some microbial peptides derived from SLE-enriched species. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides detailed information on the microbiota of non-treated patients with SLE, including their functional signatures, similarities with murine counterparts, oral origin, and the definition of autoantigen-mimicking peptides. Our data argue that microbiome altering approaches may offer valuable adjuvant therapies.

20.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 510-513, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018039

RESUMO

Electroencephalography (EEG) based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) attracts more and more attention. Motor Imagery (MI) is a popular one among all the EEG paradigms. Building a subject-independent MI EEG classification procedure is a main challenge in practical applications. Recently, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has been introduced and achieved state-of-the-art performance in related areas. To extract subject-independent features in MI EEG classification, we propose the MI3DNet, using a remapped signal cubic as the input. Experiments show that MI3DNet has a higher performance with fewer parameters and layers. We also give a method to plot the parameters of the dense layer, and explain its effect.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Imaginação , Algoritmos , Eletroencefalografia , Redes Neurais de Computação
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