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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 159, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419715

RESUMO

This study aimed to access the effect of heat stress on milk yield, antioxidative levels, and serum metabolites in primiparous and multiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early lactation stage. A total of 200 cows were selected based on their month of calving (June, temperature humidity index (THI) = 66.72; July, THI = 70.30; August, THI = 69.32; September, THI = 67.20; October, THI = 59.45). Blood samples were collected on days 0, 21, 50, 80, and 100 after calving for serum oxidative status analysis and milk yield was recorded daily. The lower average daily milk yield was recorded among the cows that calved in June and July (P < 0.05), and the average daily milk yield of multiparous cows was higher than that of primiparous cows that calved in the same month (P < 0.05) from d1 to d100, suggesting that seasonal (June, July) heat stress negatively affected milk yield in both primiparous and multiparous cows at early lactation. The study also indicated that there was seasonal variation in most of the serum metabolites across the studied months. The study shows that heat stress (average THI = 70.30) was higher among the cows calving in June vis-à-vis those calving in October and differences were also observed among the primiparous cows and multiparous cows, respectively. These metabolites (e.g., glycine, serine, etc.) which showed significant variations were mainly involved in the pathways of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and the metabolism of glycine, serine and threonine. These data suggested that heat stress negatively affected the elevation of the serum oxidative and antioxidative index and thus badly influence milk yield. Metabolic biomarkers in serum associated with heat stress could be a reliable way to identify heat stress of primiparas and multiparas dairy cows.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicina/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Gravidez , Serina/metabolismo
2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(7): 073603, 2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244448

RESUMO

Quantum metrology with ultrahigh precision usually requires atoms prepared in an ultrastable environment with well-defined quantum states. Thus, in optical lattice clock systems deep lattice potentials are used to trap ultracold atoms. However, decoherence, induced by Raman scattering and higher order light shifts, can significantly be reduced if atomic clocks are realized in shallow optical lattices. On the other hand, in such lattices, tunneling among different sites can cause additional dephasing and strongly broadening of the Rabi spectrum. Here, in our experiment, we periodically drive a shallow ^{87}Sr optical lattice clock. Counterintuitively, shaking the system can deform the wide broad spectral line into a sharp peak with 5.4 Hz linewidth. With careful comparison between the theory and experiment, we demonstrate that the Rabi frequency and the Bloch bands can be tuned, simultaneously and independently. Our work not only provides a different idea for quantum metrology, such as building shallow optical lattice clock in outer space, but also paves the way for quantum simulation of new phases of matter by engineering exotic spin orbit couplings.

3.
Chem Sci ; 13(6): 1569-1593, 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282621

RESUMO

A balance between activity and stability is greatly challenging in designing efficient metal nanoparticles (MNPs) for heterogeneous catalysis. Generally, reducing the size of MNPs to the atomic scale can provide high atom utilization, abundant active sites, and special electronic/band structures, for vastly enhancing their catalytic activity. Nevertheless, due to the dramatically increased surface free energy, such ultrafine nanostructures often suffer from severe aggregation and/or structural degradation during synthesis and catalysis, greatly weakening their reactivities, selectivities and stabilities. Porous molecule-based materials (PMMs), mainly including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and porous organic polymers (POPs) or cages (POCs), exhibit high specific surface areas, high porosity, and tunable molecular confined space, being promising carriers or precursors to construct ultrafine nanostructures. The confinement effects of their nano/sub-nanopores or specific binding sites can not only effectively limit the agglomeration and growth of MNPs during reduction or pyrolysis processes, but also stabilize the resultant ultrafine nanostructures and modulate their electronic structures and stereochemistry in catalysis. In this review, we highlight the latest advancements in the confinement synthesis in PMMs for constructing atomic-scale nanostructures, such as ultrafine MNPs, nanoclusters, and single atoms. Firstly, we illustrated the typical confinement methods for synthesis. Secondly, we discussed different confinement strategies, including PMM-confinement strategy and PMM-confinement pyrolysis strategy, for synthesizing ultrafine nanostructures. Finally, we put forward the challenges and new opportunities for further applications of confinement synthesis in PMMs.

4.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 17, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169113

RESUMO

The continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants highlights the need of developing vaccines with broad protection. Here, according to the immune-escape capability and evolutionary convergence, the representative SARS-CoV-2 strains carrying the hotspot mutations were selected. Then, guided by structural and computational analyses, we present a mutation-integrated trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mutI-tri-RBD) as a broadly protective vaccine candidate, which combined heterologous RBDs from different representative strains into a hybrid immunogen and integrated immune-escape hotspots into a single antigen. When compared with a homo-tri-RBD vaccine candidate in the stage of phase II trial, of which all three RBDs are derived from the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain, mutI-tri-RBD induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against the Delta and Beta variants, and maintained a similar immune response against the prototype strain. Pseudo-virus neutralization assay demonstrated that mutI-tri-RBD also induced broadly strong neutralizing activities against all tested 23 SARS-CoV-2 variants. The in vivo protective capability of mutI-tri-RBD was further validated in hACE2-transgenic mice challenged by the live virus, and the results showed that mutI-tri-RBD provided potent protection not only against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also against the Delta and Beta variants.

5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 524: 18-24, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The a-secretase A disintegrin and metalloprotease-10 (ADAM-10) may have deleterious effects in acute brain injury. This study was designed to discern if a relationship between plasma ADAM-10 levels and functional outcome exists in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A total of 109 patients with basal ganglia hemorrhage and 100 healthy controls were included. Their plasma ADAM-10 levels were gauged. Ninety-day prognosis was assessed and poor outcome was defined as death or major disability (modified Rankin Scale score of 3 or greater). RESULTS: Plasma ADAM-10 levels were substantially elevated in patients, as compared to controls. ADAM-10 levels were independently correlated with hematoma size and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Plasma ADAM-10, NIHSS score and hematoma size emerged as the independent predictors for 90-day poor outcome. Under receiver operating characteristic curve, plasma ADAM-10 levels exhibited similar prognostic capability, as compared to hematoma size and NIHSS score; moreover, it significantly improved prognostic abilities of NIHSS and hematoma size. CONCLUSIONS: Rising plasma ADAM-10 levels are independently related to increasing severity and poor long-term functional outcome after hemorrhagic stroke, substantializing serum ADAM-10 as a useful prognostic biomarker of ICH.


Assuntos
Hemorragia dos Gânglios da Base , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Hemorragia dos Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Hematoma , Humanos , Prognóstico
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 115: 245-255, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sequelae and cognitive profiles resulting from severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. METHODS: 294 HFMD cases were included in a retrospective follow-up study. Physical examinations were conducted. The Chinese Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV) was used to assess intelligence. RESULTS: 58 mild HFMD cases and 99 severe HFMD cases with mild CNS involvement did not present any neurological sequelae. In comparison, the sequelae incidence for severe HFMD with more severe CNS complications was 50.0%. The proportion of full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) impairment was 45.0%. In the 2:6-3:11 age group, severe HFMD with more severe CNS complications and lower maternal education level were risk factors for verbal comprehension disorder. Urban-rural residence and lower paternal education level were risk factors for FSIQ disorder. Furthermore, in the 4:0-6:11 age group, severe HFMD with more severe CNS complication was a risk factor for visual spatial disorder and fluid reasoning disorder. Lower paternal education level was a risk factor for FSIQ disorder. CONCLUSION: Early assessment and intervention among severe HFMD patients with more severe CNS involvement at a very young age will prove beneficial for their future performance.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/complicações , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Front Nutr ; 8: 727714, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540880

RESUMO

High levels of starch is known to have positive effects on both energy supply and milk yield but increases the risk of rumen acidosis. The use of sugar as a non-structural carbohydrate could circumvent this risk while maintaining the benefits, but its effects and that of the simultaneous use of both sugar and starch are not as well-understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different combinations of sugar and starch concentrations on ruminal fermentation and bacterial community composition in vitro in a 4 ×4 factorial experiment. Sixteen dietary treatments were formulated with 4 levels of sugar (6, 8, 10, and 12% of dietary dry matter), and 4 levels of starch (21, 23, 25, and 27% of dietary dry matter). Samples were taken at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after cultivation to determine the disappearance rate of dry matter, rumen fermentation parameters and bacterial community composition. Butyric acid, gas production, and Treponema abundance were significantly influenced by the sugar level. The pH, acetic acid, and propionic acid levels were significantly influenced by starch levels. However, the interactive effect of sugar and starch was only observed on the rate of dry matter disappearance. Furthermore, different combinations of starch and sugar had different effects on volatile fatty acid production rate, gas production rate, and dry matter disappearance rate. The production rate of rumen fermentation parameters in the high sugar group was higher. Additionally, increasing the sugar content in the diet did not change the main phylum composition in the rumen, but significantly increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was reduced. At the genus level, the high glucose group showed significantly higher relative abundance of Treponema (P < 0.05) and significantly lower relative abundance of Ruminobacter, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus (P < 0.05). In conclusion, different combinations of sugar and starch concentrations have inconsistent effects on rumen fermentation characteristics, suggesting that the starch in diets cannot be simply replaced with sugar; the combined effects of sugar and starch should be considered to improve the feed utilization rate.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 60(17): 13471-13478, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492758

RESUMO

Two rare-earth (RE) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) formulated as {(Me2NH2)2[RE9(µ3-OH)8(µ2-OH)3(DCPB)6(H2O)3]}n (RE = Y3+ and Tb3+; termed JXNU-10) built from a triangular 3,5-di(4'-carboxylphenyl)benzoic acid (DCPB3-) ligand are presented. JXNU-10 features the rarely observed 18-connected nonanuclear [RE9(µ3-OH)8(µ2-OH)3] clusters, one-dimensional-nanosized tubular channels, and trigonal-bipyramidal cavities. The presence of the high-nuclear RE-oxo clusters and the robust coordination bonds between the highly charged RE ions and the hard base of the carboxylate/hydroxyl oxygen atoms yielded the water-resistant JXNU-10 materials. JXNU-10 exhibits highly selective sorption of C2H2 over CO2 and highly efficient separation of a C2H2 and CO2 mixture. The carboxylate oxygen atoms and the rich π systems of the organic ligands on the pore walls are the desirable binding sites for a C2H2 molecule with acidic hydrogen atoms and an alkyne group, facilitating the excellent efficiency of JXNU-10 for C2H2/CO2 separation demonstrated by breakthrough experiments.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(6): 063602, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420322

RESUMO

The interplay of interactions, symmetries, and gauge fields usually leads to intriguing quantum many-body phases. To explore the nature of emerging phases, we study a quantum Rabi triangle system as an elementary building block for synthesizing an artificial magnetic field. We develop an analytical approach to study the rich phase diagram and the associated quantum criticality. Of particular interest is the emergence of a chiral-coherent phase, which breaks both the Z_{2} and the chiral symmetry. In this chiral phase, photons flow unidirectionally and the chirality can be tuned by the artificial gauge field, exhibiting a signature of broken time-reversal symmetry. The finite-frequency scaling analysis further confirms the associated phase transition to be in the universality class of the Dicke model. This model can simulate a broad range of physical phenomena of light-matter coupling systems, and may have an application in future developments of various quantum information technologies.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(3): 033601, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328785

RESUMO

The quantum system under periodical modulation is the simplest path to understand the quantum nonequilibrium system because it can be well described by the effective static Floquet Hamiltonian. Under the stroboscopic measurement, the initial phase is usually irrelevant. However, if two uncorrelated parameters are modulated, their relative phase cannot be gauged out so that the physics can be dramatically changed. Here, we simultaneously modulate the frequency of the lattice laser and the Rabi frequency in an optical lattice clock (OLC) system. Thanks to the ultrahigh precision and ultrastability of the OLC, the relative phase could be fine-tuned. As a smoking gun, we observed the interference between two Floquet channels. Finally, by experimentally detecting the eigenenergies, we demonstrate the relation between the effective Floquet Hamiltonian and the one-dimensional topological insulator with a high winding number. Our experiment not only provides a direction for detecting the phase effect but also paves a way in simulating the quantum topological phase in the OLC platform.

11.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009745, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252166

RESUMO

Norovirus (NoV) is the major pathogen causing the outbreaks of the viral gastroenteritis across the world. Among the various genotypes of NoV, GII.4 is the most predominant over the past decades. GII.4 NoVs interact with the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) to invade the host cell, and it is believed that the receptor HBGAs may play important roles in selecting the predominate variants by the nature during the evolution of GII.4 NoVs. However, the evolution-induced changes in the HBGA-binding affinity for the GII.4 NoV variants and the mechanism behind the evolution of the NoV-HBGA interactions remain elusive. In the present work, the virus-like particles (VLPs) of the representative GII.4 NoV stains epidemic in the past decades were expressed by using the Hansenula polymorpha yeast expression platform constructed by our laboratory, and then the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based HBGA-binding assays as well as the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with the molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MMGBSA) calculations were performed to investigate the interactions between various GII.4 strains and different types of HBGAs. The HBGA-binding assays show that for all the studied types of HBGAs, the evolution of GII.4 NoVs results in the increased NoV-HBGA binding affinities, where the early epidemic strains have the lower binding activity and the newly epidemic strains exhibit relative stronger binding intensity. Based on the MD simulation and MMGBSA calculation results, a physical mechanism that accounts for the increased HBGA-binding affinity was proposed. The evolution-involved residue mutations cause the conformational rearrangements of loop-2 (residues 390-396), which result in the narrowing of the receptor-binding pocket and thus tighten the binding of the receptor HBGAs. Our experimental and computational studies are helpful for better understanding the mechanism behind the evolution-induced increasing of HBGA-binding affinity, which may provide useful information for the drug and vaccine designs against GII.4 NoVs.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Norovirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Norovirus/genética , Ligação Viral
12.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 91, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E, an acute zoonotic disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), has a relatively high burden in developing countries. The current research model on hepatitis E mainly uses experimental animal models (such as pigs, chickens, and rabbits) to explain the transmission of HEV. Few studies have developed a multi-host and multi-route transmission dynamic model (MHMRTDM) to explore the transmission feature of HEV. Hence, this study aimed to explore its transmission and evaluate the effectiveness of intervention using the dataset of Jiangsu Province. METHODS: We developed a dataset comprising all reported HEV cases in Jiangsu Province from 2005 to 2018. The MHMRTDM was developed according to the natural history of HEV cases among humans and pigs and the multi-transmission routes such as person-to-person, pig-to-person, and environment-to-person. We estimated the key parameter of the transmission using the principle of least root mean square to fit the curve of the MHMRTDM to the reported data. We developed models with single or combined countermeasures to assess the effectiveness of interventions, which include vaccination, shortening the infectious period, and cutting transmission routes. The indicator, total attack rate (TAR), was adopted to assess the effectiveness. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2018, 44 923 hepatitis E cases were reported in Jiangsu Province. The model fits the data well (R2 = 0.655, P < 0.001). The incidence of the disease in Jiangsu Province and its cities peaks are around March; however, transmissibility of the disease peaks in December and January. The model showed that the most effective intervention was interrupting the pig-to-person route during the incidence trough of September, thereby reducing the TAR by 98.11%, followed by vaccination (reducing the TAR by 76.25% when the vaccination coefficient is 100%) and shortening the infectious period (reducing the TAR by 50.05% when the infectious period is shortened to 15 days). CONCLUSIONS: HEV could be controlled by interrupting the pig-to-person route, shortening the infectious period, and vaccination. Among these interventions, the most effective was interrupting the pig-to-person route.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Suínos , Vacinação
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5813-5817, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787377

RESUMO

It is essential for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients to receive timely revascularization. However, intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is not recommended for AIS patients with warfarin associated hypocoagulability. Meanwhile, monotherapy of coagulation factors or vitamin K is unable to reverse anticoagulation of warfarin in emergency. Thus, developing an effective IVT strategy poses a challenging task for these fragile population. Herein, an 82-year-old male, on regular administration with warfarin because of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), suffered from AIS and had an elevated international normalized ratio value of 1.72 and prolonged prothrombin time of 18.2 s at stroke onset. For normalizing INR, combination of 4 factor prothrombin complex concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K1 were administrated. Finally, the patient successfully received recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), with an obviously neurological improvement. This case shows a feasible role of IVT therapy with rt-PA after reversal of coagulation regarding AIS patients with warfarin-related hypocoagulability.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
14.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 167: 109426, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039760

RESUMO

A method for preparing 125I brachytherapy seeds is presented. Carbon bars were used as the substrates, on which a silver coating was deposited by electroless plating, and then, 125I was adsorbed by iodinating the silver coating so as to prepare source cores. The radioactive cores were sealed individually in the titanium capsule to fabricate the 125I brachytherapy seeds. Quality control checking of the encapsulated 125I seeds for dimension, leakage and surface contamination were performed. And the 125I seeds using carbon bar as the core substrate underwent computed tomography (CT) scan and X-ray imaging to determine the visualization. This paper provides valuable experiences and data for the preparation of 125I brachytherapy seeds.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Carbono/química , Radioisótopos do Iodo/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Prata/química , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(51): 23322-23328, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897617

RESUMO

Porous molecular crystals sustained by hydrogen bonds and/or weaker connections are an intriguing type of adsorbents, but they rarely demonstrate efficient adsorptive separation because of poor structural robustness and tailorability. Herein, we report a porous molecular crystal based on hydrogen-bonded cyclic dinuclear AgI complex, which exhibits exceptional hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 134°, and high chemical stability in water at pH 2-13. The seemingly rigid adsorbent shows a pore-opening or nonporous-to-porous type butane adsorption isotherm and complete exclusion of isobutane, indicating potential molecular sieving. Quantitative column breakthrough experiments show slight co-adsorption of isobutane with an experimental butane/isobutane selectivity of 23, and isobutane can be purified more efficiently than for butane. In situ powder/single-crystal X-ray diffraction and computational simulations reveal that a trivial guest-induced structural transformation plays a critical role.

16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As we all know, pulmonary edema can be diagnosed by lung ultrasound (LUS), but how to accurately and quantitatively evaluate lung water content by ultrasound is a difficult problem that needs to be solved urgently. B-line assessment with LUS has recently been proposed as a reliable, noninvasive semiquantitative tool for evaluating extravascular lung water (EVLW). To date, however, there has been no easy quantitative method to evaluate EVLW by LUS. OBJECTIVE: (1) To explore the feasibility of establishing a rabbit model with increased EVLW by injecting warm normal saline (NS) into the lungs via the endotracheal tube. (2) To establish a simple, accurate and clinically operable method for quantitative assessment of EVLW using LUS. (3) To develop LUS into a resource for guiding the clinical treatment of patients with increased EVLW. METHODS: Forty-five New Zealand rabbits were randomized into nine groups (n = 5). After anesthesia, each group of rabbits was injected with different amounts of warm sterile NS (0 ml/kg, 2 ml/kg, 4 ml/kg, 6 ml/kg, 8 ml/kg, 10 ml/kg, 15 ml/kg, 20 ml/kg, 30 ml/kg) via the endotracheal tube. Each rabbit was examined by LUS before and after NS injection. At the same time, the spontaneous respiratory rate (RR, breaths per minute), heart rate (HR, bpm) and arterial blood gas (ABG) of the rabbits were recorded. Then, both lungs were dissected to obtain the wet and dry weight and conduct a complete histological examination. RESULTS: Injecting NS into the lungs through a tracheal tube can successfully establish a rabbit model with increased EVLW. The extent of EVLW increase is related to the volume of NS injected into the lungs. As the EVLW increases, three different types of B-lines can be seen in the LUS. When the NS injection volume is 2-6 ml/kg, comet-tail artifacts and B-lines are the main patterns found on LUS; as additional NS is injected into the lungs, the rabbits' RR gradually increases, while their HR gradually decreases, ABG remains normal or shows mild metabolic acidosis (MA). Confluent B-lines grow gradually but significantly, reaching a dominant position when the NS injection volume reaches 6-8 ml/kg and predominating almost entirely when the NS injection volume is 8-15 ml/kg; at that time, rabbits' RRs and HRs decrease sharply, and the ABG indicated type I respiratory failure (RF).Compact B-lines occur and predominate almost entirely when the NS injection volume reaches 10 ml/kg and 15-20 ml/kg, respectively. At that time, rabbits begin to enter cardiac and respiratory arrest, and ABG shows type II RF and MA. CONCLUSION: In this study, the establishment of an animal model with increased EVLW confirmed that different lung water content had corresponding manifestations in ultrasound and was associated with different degrees of clinical symptoms, and the study results can be used to guide clinical practice.

17.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(3): 231-237, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for minimally invasive surfactant administration (MISA) failure in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and the influence of MISA failure on neonatal outcome. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 148 preterm infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and a clinical diagnosis of RDS, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of eight tertiary hospitals in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province from July 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018 and were treated with MISA (bovine pulmonary surfactant, PS). According to whether MISA failure (defined as the need for mechanical ventilation within 72 hours after MISA) was observed, the infants were divided into two groups: MISA failure group (n=16) and MISA success (n=132). A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for MISA failure and its influence on neonatal outcome. RESULTS: The MISA failure rate was 10.8% (16/148). The logistic regression analysis showed that a high incidence rate of grade >II RDS before PS administration, low mean arterial pressure and high pulse pressure before administration, a low dose of initial PS administration, and long injection time and operation time were the risk factors for MISA failure (OR=5.983, 1.210, 1.183, 1.055, 1.036, and 1.058 respectively, P<0.05). After the control for the above risk factors, the logistic regression analysis showed that the MISA failure group had a significantly higher incidence rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (OR=8.537, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A high grade of RDS, a low mean arterial pressure, and a high pulse pressure before administration are independent risk factors for MISA failure, and a low dose of initial PS administration, a long injection time, and a long operation time may increase the risk of MISA failure. MISA failure may increase the incidence rate of BPD in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Displasia Broncopulmonar , Bovinos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tensoativos
18.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(1): 212-223, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733004

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast culture (YC) on the growth performance, caecal microbial community and metabolic profile of broilers. A total of 350 1-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to seven treatment groups. The first group received a basal diet without YC supplementation, whereas the remaining groups received a basal diet supplemented with either YC fermented for 12, 24, 36, 48 or 60 hr, or a commercial YC product (SZ2). MiSeq 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the bacterial community structure, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the metabolites in the caeca of broilers. The broilers that received a diet supplemented with YC had a higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than those received YC-free or SZ2-enriched diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of YCs fermented for 24 hr resulted in the best feed efficiency, whereas the FCR of YC fermented for 60 hr resulted in poor feed efficiency (p < .05). In the caeca of broilers, the bacterial communities were well separated, as determined by principal component analysis, and the proportions of the eight genera were significantly different among the seven groups (p < .05). The genus Akkermansia was the most abundant when the diet supplemented with YC fermented for 24 hr (p < .05). Furthermore, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was positively correlated with the FCR in the caecum (r = .47, p < .005). Five differentially expressed metabolites (i.e., L-alanine, benzeneacetic acid, D-mannose, D-arabitol and cholesterol) were identified in the caeca of broilers that received diets supplemented with YCs fermented for 24 or 60 hr. In summary, the different fermentation times of the YCs can markedly improve the growth performance and FCR of broilers by altering the caecal microbial community, and the growth performance which is related to the changes in key metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Leveduras/fisiologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Masculino
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10032, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296896

RESUMO

The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Galleriinae), is a ubiquitous pest of the honeybee, and poses a serious threat to the global honeybee industry. G. mellonella pheromone system is unusual compared to other lepidopterans and provides a unique olfactory model for pheromone perception. To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in G. mellonella, we conducted a transcriptomic analysis on the antennae of both male and female adults of G. mellonella using high-throughput sequencing and annotated gene families potentially involved in chemoreception. We annotated 46 unigenes coding for odorant receptors, 25 for ionotropic receptors, two for sensory neuron membrane proteins, 22 for odorant binding proteins and 20 for chemosensory proteins. Expressed primarily in antennae were all the 46 odorant receptor unigenes, nine of the 14 ionotropic receptor unigenes, and two of the 22 unigenes coding for odorant binding proteins, suggesting their putative roles in olfaction. The expression of some of the identified unigenes were sex-specific, suggesting that they may have important functions in the reproductive behavior of the insect. Identification of the candidate unigenes and initial analyses on their expression profiles should facilitate functional studies in the future on chemoreception mechanisms in this species and related lepidopteran moths.


Assuntos
Antenas de Artrópodes/citologia , Células Quimiorreceptoras/citologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Feromônios/genética , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Mariposas/genética , Feromônios/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(5): 1274-1282, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149756

RESUMO

The effects of yeast culture (YC) supplementation and the dietary ratio of non-structural carbohydrate to fat (NSCFR) on growth performance, carcass traits and fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle in lambs were determined in a 2 × 3 full factorial experiment. Thirty-six Small-tailed Han lambs were randomly divided into six groups with six replicates per group. The lambs were fed one of the six pelleted total mixed rations (TMRs) for 60 days after 15 adaption days. The six rations were formed by two NSCFRs (11.37 and 4.57) and three YC supplementation levels (0, 0.8 and 2.3 g/kg dietary dry matter). The average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) data of each lamb were recorded and calculated. All the lambs were slaughtered for determining carcass traits and fatty acid profile of the LD muscle. DMI was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in a quadratic fashion with 0.8 g/kg of YC supplementation. Carcass weight (CW) and dressing percentage (DP) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in a linear fashion with 2.3 g/kg of YC supplementation. Animals fed with high-NSCFR diet had higher (p < 0.05) contents of myristoleic acid (C14:1), pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1), and lower (p < 0.05) stearic acid (C18:0) content in LD muscle than those fed with low-NSCFR diet. Moreover, ADG, growth rate (GR), backfat thickness (BFT), percentages of crude fat (CF) and crude protein (CP), SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs in LD muscle, were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by interaction of dietary NSCFR and supplemental YC level. Overall, YC not only improved the growth performance and carcass traits of the animals but also modified the fatty acid profile of the LD muscle. Furthermore, the effects of YC supplementation may depend on dietary compositions.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/química , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
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