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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 16, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitation analysis and chromatographic fingerprint of multi-components are frequently used to evaluate quality of herbal medicines but fail to reveal activity of the components. It is necessary to develop a rational approach of chromatography coupled with activity detection for quality assessment of herbal medicines. METHODS: An on-line HPLC-ultraviolet detection-2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) free radical scavenging (HPLC-UV-ABTS) method was developed to obtain the chromatographic fingerprints and ABTS+• inhibition profiles (active fingerprints) of Rehmanniae Radix (Dihuang) and Rehmannia Radix Praeparata (Shu Dihuang). Eighteen compounds showing ABTS+• inhibition activity were identified by HPLC-fourier-transform mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTMS). Verbascoside was used as a positive control to evaluate the total activities of the samples and the contribution rate of each compound. The similarities of the chromatographic and active fingerprints were estimated by the vectorial angle cosine method. RESULTS: The results showed that the HPLC-UV-ABTS method could efficiently detect antioxidant activity of the herbal medicine samples. The antioxidants were different between the two herbs and several new antioxidants were identified in Shu Dihuang. A function equation was generated in terms of the negative peak area (x) and the concentrations of verbascoside (y, µg/mL), y = 2E-07 × 4 - 8E-05 × 3 + 0.0079 × 2 + 0.5755x + 1.4754, R2 = 1. Iridoid glycosides were identified as main antioxidants and showed their higher contributions to the total activity of the samples. The total contributions of the three main active components in the Dihuang and Shu Dihuang samples to the total activity, such as echinacoside, verbascoside and an unknown compound, were 39.2-58.1% and 55.9-69.4%, respectively. The potencies of the main active components in the Shu Dihuang samples were two to ten times those in the Dihuang samples. Similarity values for S12 in the chromatographic fingerprints and S03, S12 and P03 in the active fingerprints were less than 0.9. The three batches of samples might show their different quality with the other samples. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the combination of "quantity-effect" research strategy and the HPLC-UV-ABTS analysis method could comprehensively evaluate the active components and quality of Dihuang and Shu Dhuang.

2.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(9): 1769-1779, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073107

RESUMO

Reactions of 1,3-ketoesters, -diesters, -diketones, and -ketoamides with [Me4N][SeCF3] in the presence of an appropriate oxidant provided a series of 2-trifluoromethylselenolated 1,3-dicarbonyls in moderate to good yields. The trifluoromethylselenolation featured simplicity, mildness, high efficiency, transition-metal-free conditions, and compatibility of various oxidants, and represented the first oxidative trifluoromethylselenolation of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with [Me4N][SeCF3]. This protocol was also applicable to the oxidative trifluoromethylthiolation of 1,3-dicarbonyls with [Me4N][SCF3]/NCS, and oxidative trifluoromethylchalcogenation with nucleophilic XCF3 (X = O, S, and Se) reagents were compared. The results demonstrated that these nucleophilic XCF3 salts showed different reaction profiles towards 1,3-dicarbonyls under oxidation conditions.

3.
Neurosci Lett ; 682: 74-78, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894769

RESUMO

Repeated corticosterone (CORT) injections reliably produce depressive-like behavior in rodents. Our previous study showed that sleep parameters were altered in rats after daily injections of CORT for 7 days, and sleep disturbances appeared to be correlated with depressive-like behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate time-dependent correlations between changes in sleep parameters and the formation of depressive-like behavior in rats after more prolonged treatment with CORT. Rats received daily injections of CORT (40 mg/kg, s.c.) for 7, 14, or 21 days. Electroencephalographic recordings were performed to study sleep parameters. The sucrose preference test and forced swim test were performed to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Western blot was used to detect protein levels. Our results showed that 7-day CORT treatment resulted in no significant depressive-like behavior or changes in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, the duration of non-REM sleep significantly decreased, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels significantly increased, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression decreased in the locus coeruleus. Treatment with CORT for 14 and 21 days increased depressive-like behavior, enhanced REM sleep, shortened REM sleep latency, decreased TH and GR levels, and increased the levels of the chaperone FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) in the locus coeruleus. These results indicate that the development of depression after chronic CORT treatment may be related to the formation of sleep disorders. Abnormalities of REM sleep may be a characteristic of sleep in models of depression that is induced by chronic CORT administration in rats. The noradrenergic system and GR pathway in the locus coeruleus may be involved in the formation of depression concomitant with sleep disturbances.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/administração & dosagem , Corticosterona/toxicidade , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Animais , Depressão/psicologia , Esquema de Medicação , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/tendências , Locus Cerúleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Locus Cerúleo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 16(1): 52, 2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890977

RESUMO

Oral cancer is a common and aggressive cancer with high morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rate globally. Early detection is of utmost importance for cancer prevention and disease management. Currently, tissue biopsy remains the gold standard for oral cancer diagnosis, but it is invasive, which may cause patient discomfort. The application of traditional noninvasive methods-such as vital staining, exfoliative cytology, and molecular imaging-is limited by insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Thus, there is an urgent need for exploring noninvasive, highly sensitive, and specific diagnostic techniques. Nano detection systems are known as new emerging noninvasive strategies that bring the detection sensitivity of biomarkers to nano-scale. Moreover, compared to current imaging contrast agents, nanoparticles are more biocompatible, easier to synthesize, and able to target specific surface molecules. Nanoparticles generate localized surface plasmon resonances at near-infrared wavelengths, providing higher image contrast and resolution. Therefore, using nano-based techniques can help clinicians to detect and better monitor diseases during different phases of oral malignancy. Here, we review the progress of nanotechnology-based methods in oral cancer detection and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
5.
Mol Brain ; 9(1): 71, 2016 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27456222

RESUMO

Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are involved in the control of sleep-wake states. Our previous studies have indicated that calcium (Ca(2+)) modulation in the DRN plays an important role in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS) regulation during pentobarbital hypnosis. The present study investigated the effects of Ca(2+) in the DRN on sleep-wake regulation and the related neuronal mechanism in freely moving rats. Our results showed that microinjection of CaCl2 (25 or 50 nmol) in the DRN promoted wakefulness and suppressed NREMS including slow wave sleep and REMS in freely moving rats. Application of CaCl2 (25 or 50 nmol) in the DRN significantly increased serotonin in the DRN and hypothalamus, and noradrenaline in the locus coeruleus and hypothalamus. Immunohistochemistry study indicated that application of CaCl2 (25 or 50 nmol) in the DRN significantly increased c-Fos expression ratio in wake-promoting neurons including serotonergic neurons in the DRN, noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus, and orxinergic neurons in the perifornical nucleus, but decreased c-Fos expression ratio of GABAergic sleep-promoting neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. These results suggest that Ca(2+) in the DRN exert arousal effects via up-regulating serotonergic functions in the endogenous sleep-wake regulating pathways.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Microinjeções , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Neurochem ; 136(3): 609-19, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26558357

RESUMO

The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Benzilaminas/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Masculino , Microinjeções , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Privação do Sono , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26591007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic nightmares are a highly prevalent and distressing symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but have been the subject of limited phenomenological investigations. METHODS: We utilized a communication box to establish PTSD symptoms in rats through exposure to footshock stress (FS) and psychological stress (PS). The immunohistochemical test and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection were used to detect the activity and monoamine levels in the rats' arousal systems. RESULTS: Twenty-one days after traumatic stress, 14.17% of FS and 12.5% of PS rats exhibited startled awakening, and the same rats showed hyperfunction of the locus coeruleus/noradrenergic system and hypofunction of the perifornical nucleus/orexinergic system. Changes in serotonin levels in the dorsal raphe nucleus showed opposite trends in the FS and PS rats that were startled awake. No differences were found in other sleep/arousal systems. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that different clinically therapeutic strategies should be considered to treat different trauma-induced posttraumatic nightmares.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Terrores Noturnos/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrochoque , Feminino , , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neurônios/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Vigília/fisiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 5: 15976, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26530305

RESUMO

Posttraumatic nightmares are a core component of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mechanistically linked to the development and maintenance of this disorder, but little is known about their mechanism. We utilized a communication box to establish an animal model of physiological stress (foot-shock [FS]) and psychological stress (PS) to mimic the direct suffering and witnessing of traumatic events. Twenty-one days after traumatic stress, some of the experimental animals presented startled awakening (i.e., were startled awake by a supposed "nightmare") with different electroencephalographic spectra features. Our neuroanatomical results showed that the secondary somatosensory cortex and primary auditory cortex may play an important role in remote traumatic memory retrieval in FS "nightmare" (FSN) rats, whereas the temporal association cortex may play an important role in PS "nightmare" (PSN) rats. The FSN and PSN groups possessed common emotion evocation circuits, including activation of the amygdala and inactivation of the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. The decreased activity of the granular and dysgranular insular cortex was only observed in PSN rats. The present results imply that different types of stress may cause PTSD-like "nightmares" in rodents and identified the possible neurocircuitry of memory retrieval and emotion evocation.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Sonhos/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Memória/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal
9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 36(8): 949-56, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26238289

RESUMO

AIM: 7-O-ethylfangchinoline (YH-200) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline derivative. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like action and underlying mechanisms of YH-200 in mice. METHODS: Mice were treated with YH-200 (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, ig) or tetrandrine (30 and 60 mg/kg, ig) before conducting forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), or open field test (OFT). RESULTS: YH-200 (60 mg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time in both FST and TST, and prolonged the latency to immobility in FST. YH-200 (60 mg/kg) was more potent than the natural bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid tetrandrine (60 mg/kg) in FST. Pretreatment with α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg/kg), ß-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (2 mg/kg), dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg), dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) or AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (10 mg/kg) prevented the antidepressant-like action of YH-200 (60 mg/kg) in FST. In contrast, pretreatment with α2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mg/kg) augmented the antidepressant-like action of YH-200 (30 mg/kg) in FST. Chronic administration of YH-200 (30 and 60 mg/kg for 14 d) did not produce drug tolerance; instead its antidepressant-like action was strengthened. Chronic administration of YH-200 did not affect the body weight of mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSION: YH-200 exerts its antidepressant-like action in mice via acting at multi-targets, including α1, α2 and ß-adrenoceptors, D1/D5 and D2 /D3 receptors, as well as AMPA receptors.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25970525

RESUMO

Studies suggest a tight relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) and circadian clock. However, the role of PKC in sleep-wake regulation remains unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of PKC signaling in sleep-wake regulation in the rat. Our results showed that the phosphorylation level of PKC in dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) was decreased after 6h sleep deprivation, while no alterations were found in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) or locus coeruleus (LC). Microinjection of a pan-PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride (CHEL, 5 or 10nmol), into DRN of freely moving rats promoted non rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) without influences on rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Especially, CHEL application at 5nmol increased light sleep (LS) time while CHEL application at 10nmol increased slow wave sleep (SWS) time and percentage. On the other hand, microinjection of CaCl2 into DRN not only increased the phosphorylation level of PKC, but also reduced NREMS time, especially SWS time and percentage. While CHEL abolished the inhibitory effect of CaCl2 on NREMS and SWS. These data provide the first direct evidence that inhibition of intracellular PKC signaling in DRN could increase NREMS time including SWS time and percentage, while activation of PKC could suppress NREMS and reduce SWS time and percentage. These novel findings further our understanding of the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms of sleep-wake regulation.


Assuntos
Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/enzimologia , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cloratos/farmacologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Locus Cerúleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Microinjeções , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Privação do Sono , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Sci Rep ; 5: 9442, 2015 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25801728

RESUMO

Stress induced constant increase of cortisol level may lead to sleep disorder, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here we described a novel model to investigate stress mimicked sleep disorders induced by repetitive administration of corticosterone (CORT). After 7 days treatment of CORT, rats showed significant sleep disturbance, meanwhile, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) level was notably lowered in locus coeruleus (LC). We further discovered the activation of noradrenergic neuron in LC, the suppression of GABAergic neuron in ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), the remarkable elevation of norepinephrine in LC, VLPO and hypothalamus, as well as increase of tyrosine hydroxylase in LC and decrease of glutamic acid decarboxylase in VLPO after CORT treatment. Microinjection of GR antagonist RU486 into LC reversed the CORT-induced sleep changes. These results suggest that GR in LC may play a key role in stress-related sleep disorders and support the hypothesis that repeated CORT treatment may decrease GR levels and induce the activation of noradrenergic neurons in LC, consequently inhibit GABAergic neurons in VLPO and result in sleep disorders. Our findings provide novel insights into the effect of stress-inducing agent CORT on sleep and GRs' role in sleep regulation.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/efeitos adversos , Locus Cerúleo/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Neurônios Adrenérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Adrenérgicos/patologia , Animais , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Locus Cerúleo/patologia , Mifepristona/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/metabolismo
12.
Behav Pharmacol ; 25(7): 648-60, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25171078

RESUMO

To characterize the sedative and hypnotic profile of the novel adenosine derivative ((3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(6-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)amino)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) methyl diaconate (WS0701), we performed a variety of behavioural tests and investigated the influence of WS0701 on various sleep stages. In mice, WS0701 significantly increased the number of entries and time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating an anxiolytic effect. WS0701 decreased locomotor activity counts and head dips in the hole-board test and enhanced sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis. However, WS0701 did not induce the loss of the righting reflex or amnesic effects in behavioural models. In rats, WS0701 exerted a sedative effect and markedly prolonged the time spent in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, especially slow-wave sleep, but reduced the time spent in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). Pretreatment with the selective adenosine A2a receptor antagonist SCH58261 attenuated the sedative and hypnotic effects of WS0701. WS0701 did not protect mice against picrotoxin-induced seizures, but inhibited adenosine deaminase activity and increased adenosine levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of mice. In conclusion, WS0701 shows anxiolytic, sedative as well as sleep stage alterative effects, which may be related to the adenosine system.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Decanoatos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Fases do Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fenobarbital/farmacologia , Picrotoxina/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo , Triazóis/farmacologia
13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 35(7): 879-88, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989251

RESUMO

AIM: Disrupted sleep may be a prodromal symptom or a predictor of depressive disorders. In this study we investigated the relationship between depression symptoms and disrupted sleep using a novel model of stress-mimicked sleep disorders in rats. METHODS: SD rats were injected with corticosterone (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle for 7 d. Their sleep-wake behavior was monitored through implanted EEG and EMG electrodes. Their depressive behaviors were assessed using forced swim test, open field test and sucrose preference test. RESULTS: The corticosterone-treated rats showed significantly reduced sleep time, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and altered power spectra during non-REM sleep. All depressive behavioral tests did not show significant difference across the groups. However, individual correlation analysis revealed statistically significance: the immobility time (despair) was negatively correlated with REM sleep latency, slow wave sleep (SWS) time ratio, SWS bouts and delta power density, and it was positively correlated with REM sleep bouts and beta power density. Meanwhile, sucrose preference (anhedonia) was positively correlated with total sleep time and light sleep bouts, and it was negatively correlated with the REM sleep time ratio. CONCLUSION: In stress-mimicked rats, sleep disturbances are a predictor of depressive disorders, and certain symptoms of depression may be related to the disruption of several specific sleep parameters.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/metabolismo , Depressão/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 151(1): 729-32, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24269338

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Radix of Stephania tetrandrae S. Moore has been used since antiquity in China as an antirheumatic, antihypertension, analgesic and antipyretic agent. Tetrandrine is the major component of Stephania tetrandrae. This study aims to evaluate the antihypertensive and hypnotic effect of tetrandrine on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) were recorded in freely moving rats and the sleep parameters were analyzed with SleepSign software. The levels of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and their metabolites were examined to investigate the underlying mechanisms by using HPLC-ECD. Blood pressure was measured by noninvasive blood pressure tail cuff test. RESULTS: Tetrandrine (100mg/kg, i.g.) significantly suppressed blood pressure of SHR rats day by day during three days treatment. Meanwhile, tetrandrine remarkably improved the sleep efficiency by increasing total sleep time, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep (including deep sleep and light sleep) time from the first day. Three days treatment of tetrandrine induced 5-HT concentration decrease in DRN, 5-HIAA concentration increase in LC and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increase in VTA and LC. In contrast, no changes in NE and DA concentrations in the DRN, VTA and LC occurred in SHR after tetrandrine treatment. These results indicate that modulation of 5-HT, its metabolite 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in DRN, VTA and LC are likely the mechanism of antihypertensive and hypnotic effects of tetrandrine at least in part. CONCLUSION: This is the first observation that tetrandrine possesses both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in SHR and suggested that tetrandrine may be useful for the treatment of hypertension patients who accompanied with short sleep time and poor sleep efficiency.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Benzilisoquinolinas/química , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
15.
Am J Chin Med ; 40(2): 279-93, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22419423

RESUMO

Antioxidant fractions from Ophioglossum thermale were extracted with five different polar solvents using a Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ethyl acetate fraction of O. thermale was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and lipid-peroxidation reduction at different concentrations. Results revealed that the EtOAc fraction exhibited the best performance in the DPPH assay, NBT assay and lipid peroxidation. All fractions showed more potent antioxidant capacity than green tea extract, a well-known antioxidant. Furthermore, the EtOAc fraction has the highest total phenolic content (475.65 mg of EGCG/g). In addition, the EtOAc fraction at 0.005% and 0.01% (g/100 ml) also significantly inhibited UVB irradiation-induced ROS generation in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). In a carrageenan-induced edema model, the EtOAc fraction showed an inhibitory effect (21.5%, p < 0.05) at 200 mg/kg (p.o.) after 300 min administration. Consequently, 3-O-methylquercetin (3MQ) was also isolated from the antioxidative EtOAc fraction. The data obtained using the above in vitro and in vivo tests suggest that the antioxidant activity of O. thermale and its anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced acute inflammation can be attributed to its ameliorating effect on oxidative damage, and thus it has great potential as a source for natural health products. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from O. thermale.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Gleiquênias/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Camundongos
16.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 64(2): 277-82, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22221104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether spinosin potentiates pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) in mice via 5-HT(1A) receptors. METHODS: Our primary endpoint for sedation was LORR. In addition, the basal rectal temperature was measured. KEY FINDINGS: The results demonstrated that the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT (s.c.) induced reductions in duration of LORR at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg (P < 0.01), and prolongation of LORR latency at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg (s.c., P < 0.01) in pentobarbital (45 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated mice. This effect of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized either by 5-HT(1A) antagonist p-MPPI (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or by spinosin (15 mg/kg, i.g.) with significance, respectively. Co-administration of spinosin and p-MPPI both at ineffective doses (spinosin at 5.0 mg/kg, i.g. and p-MPPI at 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant augmentative effects in reducing latency to LORR, and increasing LORR duration (P < 0.01) in pentobarbital-treated mice. On the other hand, spinosin inhibited 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia, which has been generally attributed to the activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our previous results and the present data, it should be presumed that presynaptic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor mechanisms may be involved in the inhibitory effect of spinosin on 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia and also in the potentiating effect of spinosin on pentobarbital-induced LORR in mice.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Pentobarbital/toxicidade , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptores Pré-Sinápticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Reflexo de Endireitamento/efeitos dos fármacos , 8-Hidroxi-2-(di-n-propilamino)tetralina/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Hipotermia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 139(3): 796-800, 2012 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22207209

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi) is a basidiomycete white-rot macrofungus that has been used as a tranquilizing agent (i.e., An-Shen effect) for the treatment of restlessness, insomnia, and palpitation in China for hundreds of years. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate whether Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) influences the sleep of freely moving rats and the potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ganoderma lucidum extract was extracted from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. Rats were treated with GLE orally for 3 days, and on the third day, electroencephalographic and electromyographic recordings were made for 6h from 9:00 p.m. to 3:00 a.m. in freely moving rats. Sleep parameters were analyzed using SleepSign software. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Three-day administration of GLE significantly increased total sleep time and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time at a dose of 80 mg/kg (i.g.) without influencing slow-wave sleep or REM sleep in freely moving rats. TNF-α levels were significantly increased concomitantly in serum, the hypothalamus, and dorsal raphe nucleus. The hypnotic effect of GLE (80 mg/kg, i.g.) was significantly inhibited by intracerebroventricular injection of TNF-α antibody (2.5 µg/rat). Co-administration of GLE (40 mg/kg, i.g.) and TNF-α (12.5 ng/rat, i.c.v.), both at ineffective doses, revealed an additive hypnotic effect. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that GLE has hypnotic effects in freely moving rats. The mechanism by which the extract promoted sleep remains unclear, but this effect appears to be primarily related to the modulation of cytokines such as TNF-α. Furthermore, these data at least partially support the ethnomedical use of Ganoderma lucidum.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Carpóforos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Sono REM/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
18.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 99(4): 566-72, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21689675

RESUMO

It has been reported that the sedative component of pentobarbital is mediated by GABA receptors in an endogenous sleep pathway and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO)-tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) or VLPO-dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neural circuit is important in the sedative response to pentobarbital. Our previous findings indicated that the VLPO-TMN neuronal circuit may play crucial part in the augmentative effect of diltiazem on pentobarbital sleep and the serotonergic system may be involved. This study was designed to investigate the role of DRN and the serotonergic receptors 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/2C) in the augmentative effect of diltiazem on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis in rats. The results showed that diltiazem (5mg/kg, i.g.) significantly reversed pentobarbital-induced (35 mg/kg, i.p.) reduction of c-Fos expression in 5-HT neurons of DRNV (at -7.5mm Bregma), DRND, DRNVL and MRN (at -8.0mm Bregma). However it did not influence this reducing effect of pentobarbital on non-5-HT neurons either in DRN or in MRN. Moreover, the effect of diltiazem (1 or 2mg/kg, i.g.) on pentobarbital-induced (35 mg/kg, i.p.) hypnosis was significantly inhibited by 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) and 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist DOI (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), and potentiated by 5-HT(1A) antagonist p-MPPI (2mg/kg, i.p.) and 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonist ritanserin (2mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. From these results, it should be presumed that the augmentative effect of diltiazem on pentobarbital-induced sleep may be related to 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors, and DRN may be involved. In addition, it also suggested that the DRN may play a multi-modulating role in sleep-wake regulation rather than being recognized simply as arousal nuclei.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Diltiazem/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Pentobarbital/farmacologia , Núcleos da Rafe/fisiologia , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Células , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletromiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes fos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Polissonografia , Núcleos da Rafe/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia
19.
Brain Res ; 1403: 12-8, 2011 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21684530

RESUMO

Our previous studies indicated that L-type calcium channel blocker diltiazem could potentiate pentobarbital-induced hypnosis through serotonergic system. In view of the important role of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) on the sleep regulation and the pharmacological actions of calcium channel blocker, we presumed that Ca(2+) in the DRN may play an important role in sleep regulation in pentobarbital treated rats. Therefore, we investigated whether the Ca(2+) modulation in DRN by the microinjection of L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist diltiazem, agonist BAY-K-8644, Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and CaCl(2) would alter the sleep parameters in pentobarbital treated rats. Results showed that perfusion of the agents attenuating Ca(2+) function, such as diltiazem (5 or 20 nmol) or EGTA (3 or 6 pmol) into DRN significantly increased pentobarbital (35 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced total sleep (TS), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and the slow wave sleep (SWS) ratio in NREM sleep. On the contrary, the DRN injection of the agents improving Ca(2+) function, such as BAY-K-8644 (10 nmol) or CaCl(2) (50 or 100 nmol) significantly reduced pentobarbital (35 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced TS, NREM sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and REM sleep ratio in TS without influence on SWS. These results suggested that the suppression of Ca(2+) function in DRN could increase NREM sleep including SWS, and the elevation of Ca(2+) function could reduce both NREM and REM sleep in pentobarbital treated rats.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Pentobarbital/farmacologia , Núcleos da Rafe/metabolismo , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/fisiologia , Animais , Agonistas dos Canais de Cálcio , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Núcleos da Rafe/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 31(5): 748-50, 2008 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18826153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the matrix formulation of cataplasm used to cure infantile diarrhea. METHODS: The optimum proportion of matrix for the preparation technology process of cataplasm was selected by uniform design and SPSS regression analysis. A check-up for adhibition , peeling strength, nonflowing, content of cream was founded. RESULTS: The best matrix's prescription gelatin: CMC-Na: PANA: kaolin: aluminum trichloride: citric acid: PVP K-30: PEG400: trimethylene glycol: tween-80 was 0.25 : 0.1 : 0.2 : 1.5 : 0.4 : 0.6 : 0.8 : 2 : 1 : 0.5. CONCLUSION: The preparation technique of cataplasm is feasible, and its quality is steerable, it is a safe and effective transdermal-drug delivery system.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Gelatina/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Adesividade , Análise de Variância , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Química Farmacêutica , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos
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