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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124671, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473527

RESUMO

In this study, Fe/Cu, Fe/Al/Cu, Fe/Cu/C and Fe/Al/Cu/C internal electrolysis systems (IESs) were constructed and used to treat methylene blue dye (MB) wastewater. The effects of filler mass ratio, filler dosage, solution pH, reaction time and reaction temperature on COD removal were discussed, while the kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism of COD removal were also investigated. The results showed that when the COD removal rates were basically the same, the reaction times of Fe/Al/Cu, Fe/Cu/C and Fe/Al/Cu/C IESs were shorter, and the filler dosages were lower. For the four systems, the appropriate pH was around 5, while the suitable reaction temperature was in the range of 20-25 °C. The COD removals of these four IESs were generally greater than 90%. The COD removal processes of the four systems could be better described by the improved pseudo-second-kinetic model, and the liquid film diffusion was the rate-controlling step. Moreover, the COD removal was a spontaneous and endothermic process. MB was degraded into inorganic substances in four steps. In addition, the FTIR characterization of the fillers before and after reaction suggests the four IESs have good stability.

2.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369215

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Targeted therapies are based on specific gene alterations. Various specimen types have been used to determine gene alterations, however, no systemic comparisons have yet been made. Herein, we assessed alterations in selected cancer-associated genes across varying sample sites in lung cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Targeted deep sequencing for 48 tumor-related genes was applied to 153 samples from 55 lung cancer patients obtained from six sources: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues, pleural effusion supernatant (PES) and pleural effusion cell sediments (PEC), white blood cells (WBCs), oral epithelial cells (OECs), and plasma. RESULTS: Mutations were detected in 96% (53/55) of the patients and in 83% (40/48) of the selected genes. Each sample type exhibited a characteristic mutational pattern. As anticipated, TP53 was the most affected sequence (54.5% patients), however this was followed by NOTCH1 (36%, across all sample types). EGFR was altered in patient samples at a frequency of 32.7% and KRAS 10.9%. This high EGFR/ low KRAS frequency is in accordance with other TCGA cohorts of Asian origin but differs from the Caucasian population where KRAS is the more dominant mutation. Additionally, 66% (31/47) of PEC samples had copy number variants (CNVs) in at least one gene. Unlike the concurrent loss and gain in most genes, herein NOTCH1 loss was identified in 21% patients, with no gain observed. Based on the relative prevalence of mutations and CNVs, we divided lung cancer patients into SNV-dominated, CNV-dominated, and codominated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous reports that EGFR mutations are more prevalent than KRAS in Chinese lung cancer patients. NOTCH1 gene alterations are more common than previously reported and reveals a role of NOTCH1 modifications in tumor metastasis. Furthermore, genetic material from malignant pleural effusion cell sediments may be a noninvasive manner to identify CNV and participate in treatment decisions.

3.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422404

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) addition for luteal support on pregnancy outcome in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. METHODS: Meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,584 cycles were identified from 13 randomized controlled trials. The cumulative analysis showed that GnRH-a addition for luteal supports significantly improved live birth rate (relative risk [RR] = 1.52; 95% CI 1.20-1.94; p = 0.0006), the clinical pregnancy rate (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.11-1.33; p < 0.0001), ongoing pregnancy rate (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.06-1.32; p = 0.004), pregnancy rate (RR 1.36; 95% CI 1.01-1.82; p = 0.04), implantation rate (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.17-1.77; p = 0.0007), and multiple pregnancy rate (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.04-1.88; p = 0.03) in comparison with control, but not for the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.32-2.89; p = 0.94). We also found that GnRH-a addition for luteal support had a tendency to decrease the abortion rate (RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.93; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the current meta-analysis showed a substantial efficacy of GnRH-a addition for luteal support on pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing IVF/ICSI and support the use of GnRH-a in luteal phase to improve the success of IVF/ICSI.

5.
Fertil Steril ; 112(1): 89-97.e1, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether intrauterine injection of hCG before embryo transfer can improve IVF-ET outcomes. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Infertile women who underwent IVF-ET and received an intrauterine injection of hCG before ET. INTERVENTION(S): Infertile women treated with or without intrauterine hCG injection before ET. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcomes were live birth rate (LBR), ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR), and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and the secondary outcomes were implantation rate (IR) and miscarriage rate (MR). Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and successful ET rates were pooled to determine the effects of hCG on IVF-ET outcomes. RESULT(S): Fifteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a total of 2,763 participants were included. Infertile women in the experimental group (treated with intrauterine hCG injection before ET) exhibited significantly higher LBR (44.89% vs. 29.76%), OPR (48.09% vs. 33.42%), CPR (47.80% vs. 32.78%), and IR (31.64% vs. 22.52%) than those in the control group (intrauterine injection of placebo or no injection). Furthermore, MR was significantly lower (12.45% vs. 18.56%) in the experimental group than in the control group. CONCLUSION(S): The findings of this meta-analysis indicate that intrauterine injection of hCG can improve LBR, OPR, CPR, and IR after IVF-ET cycles. In addition, different timing and dosages of hCG administration may exert different effects on IVT-ET outcomes. Notably, infertile women treated with 500 IU hCG within 15 minutes before ET can achieve optimal IVF-ET outcomes.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the associations between meat intake and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was limited and inconsistent. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association between consumption of meats and meat mutagens with HCC risk using data from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for known liver-cancer risk factors. RESULTS: During up to 32 years of follow-up, we documented 163 incident HCC cases. The HRs of HCC for the highest vs the lowest tertile intake levels were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.16-2.92, Ptrend = 0.04) for processed red meats and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.40-0.91, Ptrend = 0.02) for total white meats. There was a null association between unprocessed red meats and HCC risk (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.68-1.63, Ptrend = 0.85). We found both poultry (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90, Ptrend = 0.01) and fish (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.47-1.05, Ptrend = 0.10) were inversely associated with HCC risk. The HR for HCC risk was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61-1.02) when 1 standard deviation of processed red meats was substituted with an equivalent amount of poultry or fish intake. We also found a suggestive positive association of intake of meat-derived mutagenicity or heterocyclic amines with risk of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Processed red meat intake might be associated with higher, whereas poultry or possibly fish intake might be associated with lower, risk of HCC. Replacing processed red meat with poultry or fish might be associated with reduced HCC risk.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

8.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317529

RESUMO

Cinnabarinic acid is a valuable phenoxazinone that has broad applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and dyeing industries. However, few studies have investigated the production of cinnabarinic acid or its derivatives using genetically engineered microorganisms. Herein, an efficient synthetic pathway of cinnabarinic acid was designed and constructed in Pseudomonas chlororaphis GP72 for the first tim, which was more straightforward and robust than the known eukaryotic biosynthetic pathways. First, we screened and identified trans-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (DHHA) dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli MG1655 (encoded by entA), Streptomyces sp. NRRL12068 (encoded by bomO) and Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL3882 (encoded by calB3 ) based on the structural similarity of the substrate and product, and the DHHA dehydrogenase encoded by calB3 was selected for the synthesis of cinnabarinic acid due to its high DHHA conversion rate. Subsequently, cinnabarinic acid was synthesized by the expression of the DHHA dehydrogenase CalB3 and the phenoxazinone synthase CotA in the DHHA-producing strain P. chlororaphis GP72, resulting in a cinnabarinic acid titer of 20.3 mg/L at 48 hr. Further fermentation optimization by the addition of Cu2+ , H2 O2 , and with adding glycerol increased cinnabarinic acid titer to 136.2 mg/L in shake flasks. The results indicate that P. chlororaphis GP72 may be engineered as a microbial cell factory to produce cinnabarinic acid or its derivatives from renewable bioresources.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(30): 11754-11758, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298855

RESUMO

Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are attractive for applications in a wide range of optoelectronic devices, due to their tremendous interesting physical properties. However, the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of TMDCs has been found to be too low, due to abundant defects and strong many-body effect. Here, we present a direct physical vapor growth of WO3-WS2 bilayer heterostructures, with WO3 monolayer domains attached on the surface of large-size WS2 monolayers. Optical characterizations revealed that the PLQY of the as-grown WO3-WS2 heterostructures can reach up to 11.6%, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of WS2 monolayers by the physical vapor deposition growth method (PVD-WS2) and about 13-times higher than that of mechanical exfoliated WS2 (ME-WS2) monolayers, representing the highest PLQY reported for direct growth TMDCs materials so far. The PL enhancement mechanism has been well investigated by time-resolved optical measurements. The fabrication of WO3-WS2 heterostructures with ultrahigh PLQY provides an efficient approach for the development of highly efficient 2D integrated photonic applications.

10.
J Org Chem ; 84(16): 10088-10101, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329431

RESUMO

A new and operationally simple approach for palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization reactions utilizing an organophosphorus/sulfonate hypervalent iodine reagent as both an oxidant and the source of a functional group has been developed. Through this method, the oxidative phosphorylation-, sulfonation-, and hydroxylation of unactivated benzyl C(sp3)-H bonds, along with the hydroxylation and arylation of aryl C(sp2)-H bonds, are successfully realized under mild conditions and with excellent site-selectivity. The versatile C-OSO2R bond provides a platform for a wide array of subsequent diversification reactions.

12.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(6): 367-374, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040153

RESUMO

Although increasing evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect of nut consumption on various diseases, no epidemiologic study has yet examined the association between nut consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We prospectively examined this association in 88,783 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 51,492 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Nut consumption was assessed every 4 years using validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariable HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models after adjusting for HCC risk factors. After an average of 27.9 years of follow-up, we identified a total of 162 incident HCC cases. Higher total nut consumption was not significantly associated with HCC risk (the highest vs. lowest tertile intake, HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.56-1.26). For the same comparison, higher tree nut consumption was associated with a lower HCC risk (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.95). We found nonsignificant inverse associations with consumption of walnuts, peanuts, and peanut butter. Overall, nut consumption was not strongly associated with HCC risk. There was a suggestive inverse association with tree nut consumption. Future studies should carefully consider hepatitis B or C virus infections and examine these associations in other racial/ethnic groups.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044426

RESUMO

Epidemiologic evidence relating fiber intake to colorectal cancer (CRC) remains inconclusive and data are limited on different food sources of fiber and heterogeneity by tumor subsite and molecular profile. We prospectively followed for CRC incidence 90,869 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012) and 47,924 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the associations with CRC risk for total, cereal, fruit and vegetable fiber and whole grains. We also assessed the associations according to tumor subsites (proximal colon, distal colon and rectum) and molecular markers (microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype and KRAS mutation). We documented 3,178 CRC cases during 3,685,903 person-years of follow-up in the NHS and HPFS. Intake of total dietary fiber was not associated with CRC risk after multivariable adjustment in either women (hazard ratio [HR] comparing extreme deciles, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.92-1.48, ptrend = 0.55) or men (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.67-1.21, ptrend = 0.47). Higher intake of cereal fiber and whole grains was associated with lower CRC risk in men with an HR of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-1.00) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96), respectively. No heterogeneity was detected by tumor subsite or molecular markers (pheterogeneity > 0.05). Higher intake of total dietary fiber within the range of a typical American diet is unlikely to substantially reduce CRC risk. The potential benefit of cereal fiber and whole grains in men warrants further confirmation.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116416

RESUMO

Although increasing dairy product intake has been associated with risk of several cancers, epidemiological studies on hepatocellular carcinoma are sparse and have yielded inconsistent results. We prospectively assessed the associations of dairy products (total, milk, butter, cheese and yogurt) and their major components (calcium, vitamin D, fats and protein) with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development among 51,418 men and 93,427 women in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and the Nurses' Health Study. Diets were collected at baseline and updated every 4 years using validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression model. During up to 32 years of follow-up, a total of 164 hepatocellular carcinoma cases were documented. After adjustment for most known hepatocellular carcinoma risk factors, higher total dairy product intake was associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.19-2.88; ptrend = 0.009). For the same comparison, we observed significant positive associations of high-fat dairy (HR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.19-2.76; ptrend = 0.008) and butter (HR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.06-2.36; ptrend = 0.04) with hepatocellular carcinoma risk. There was a nonsignificant inverse association between yogurt intake and hepatocellular carcinoma risk (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.49-1.05; ptrend = 0.26). Our data suggest that higher intake of high-fat dairy foods was associated with higher, whereas higher yogurt consumption might be associated with lower risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma among U.S. men and women.

15.
Adv Mater ; 31(27): e1901351, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095803

RESUMO

The rational control of the nucleation and growth kinetics to enable the growth of 2D vertical heterostructure remains a great challenge. Here, an in-depth study is provided toward understanding the growth mechanism of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) vertical heterostructures in terms of the nucleation and kinetics, where active clusters with a high diffusion barrier will induce the nucleation on top of the TMDC templates to realize vertical heterostructures. Based on this mechanism, in the experiment, through rational control of the metal/chalcogenide ratio in the vapor precursors, effective manipulation of the diffusion barrier of the active clusters and precise control of the heteroepitaxy direction are realized. In this way, a family of vertical TMDCs heterostructures is successfully designed. Optical studies and scanning transmission electron microscopy investigations exhibit that the resulting heterostructures possess atomic sharp interfaces without apparent alloying and defects. This study provides a deep understanding regarding the growth mechanism in terms of the nucleation and kinetics and the robust growth of 2D vertical heterostructures, defining a versatile material platform for fundamental studies and potential device applications.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 30(34): 345603, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051475

RESUMO

Heterostructures based on two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides semiconductors are reported to be promising building-blocks for next-generation integrated optoelectronic systems, owing to their atomic thin interface and interface-induced properties. Previously reported works have mostly been directed to focus on the 2D/2D heterostructures, and their optoelectronic performance is still inferior to the expectations for practical applications, mainly attributed to their non-ideal optical absorption when the thickness is confined at atomic scale. In this work, we have reported on high sensitivity photodetectors based on one-dimensional (1D)/2D heterostructures consisting of CdS nanowire and WS2 nanosheets grown by direct chemical vapor deposition. The components of the heterostructures were confirmed by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, photoluminescence and Raman spectra measurements, confirming the high quality heterostructures. Photodetectors were then fabricated based on the as-synthesized CdS/WS2 heterostructures, showing superior photodetection performances with a photoresponsivity of ∼50 A W-1 and an ultrahigh photodetectivity of ∼1012 Jones. Much higher responsivity of 5472 A W-1 and detectivity of 5 × 1013 Jones can be achieved through applying back gate voltage. The direct growth of such 1D/2D heterostructures may pave the way toward high performance integrated optoelectronics and systems.

17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 799-811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069578

RESUMO

An important premise of epidemiology is that individuals with the same disease share similar underlying etiologies and clinical outcomes. In the past few decades, our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, and disease classification systems have evolved to the point where no complex disease processes are considered homogenous. As a result, pathology and epidemiology have been integrated into the single, unified field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE). Advancing integrative molecular and population-level health sciences and addressing the unique research challenges specific to the field of MPE necessitates assembling experts in diverse fields, including epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, computational biology, bioinformatics, genomics, immunology, and nutritional and environmental sciences. Integrating these seemingly divergent fields can lead to a greater understanding of pathogenic processes. The International MPE Meeting Series fosters discussion that addresses the specific research questions and challenges in this emerging field. The purpose of the meeting series is to: discuss novel methods to integrate pathology and epidemiology; discuss studies that provide pathogenic insights into population impact; and educate next-generation scientists. Herein, we share the proceedings of the Fourth International MPE Meeting, held in Boston, MA, USA, on 30 May-1 June, 2018. Major themes of this meeting included 'integrated genetic and molecular pathologic epidemiology', 'immunology-MPE', and 'novel disease phenotyping'. The key priority areas for future research identified by meeting attendees included integration of tumor immunology and cancer disparities into epidemiologic studies, further collaboration between computational and population-level scientists to gain new insight on exposure-disease associations, and future pooling projects of studies with comparable data.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(16): e14975, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008927

RESUMO

Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID) is a widely used procedure, but its success rate in China remains uncharacterized. This study investigated the factors associated with occurrence of clinical pregnancy and live birth and evaluated the birth outcomes in the offspring after AID in Northwest China.We retrospectively reviewed the results of 1805 AID courses in 1046 couples during 2006-2015. We analyzed whether the number of AID cycles, age of the female patient, and number of sperm with progressive motility were associated with the occurrence of clinical pregnancy and live birth. We also evaluated the birth outcomes in the offspring.Among the 1805 cycles, 447 (24.8%) resulted in clinical pregnancy and 384 (21.3%) resulted in a live birth. Miscarriage occurred in 57 of the 447 cases of clinical pregnancy (12.8%). The proportion of cycles resulting in a live birth decreased significantly with age (P < .001). The proportion of clinical pregnancies that resulted in miscarriage increased with age (P < .001). Cumulative pregnancy rate (the proportion of patients achieving a clinical pregnancy) increased progressively from 23.0% after 1 cycle to 42.7% after ≥5 cycles. The proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy did not vary with the total number of sperm with progressive motility administered per cycle. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that superovulation treatment and number of cycles were factors associated with clinical pregnancy, while superovulation treatment, number of cycles, and patient age were factors associated with live birth. Among the 384 live births, only one case (0.3%) of birth defect (hexadactyly) was observed.In patients undergoing AID, clinical pregnancy is associated with superovulation treatment and number of cycles, and live birth is associated with superovulation treatment, number of cycles, and patient age. The risk of birth defects in the offspring after AID is low.


Assuntos
Inseminação Artificial , Espermatozoides , Adulto , Fatores Etários , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 237: 100-105, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research suggests the efficacy of progesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles using gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues. Our study objective was to compare the efficacy of two available preparations of progesterone, vaginal gel and intramuscular injection, for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. STUDY DESIGN: This study included data gathered from 18 reproductive centers in China. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive progesterone gel or intramuscular progesterone (IMP). The progesterone gel group received micronized progesterone in gel (8%, 90 mg) once daily; the IMP group received IMP (progesterone oil) once daily. The ongoing pregnancy rate was calculated (number of women with a viable pregnancy at 12 weeks divided by the number of women who had undergone an oocyte pickup cycle). RESULTS: A total of 1313 patients were enrolled in the study, 1248 of whom began treatment. The intention-to-treat set included 527 and 531 patients in the gel and IMP groups, respectively. The ongoing pregnancy rate in the progesterone gel group was non-inferior to that in the IMP group (48.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 44.0, 52.8] vs. 46.3% [95% CI: 42.0, 50.7]); the between-group rate difference was 2.1% (-4.0, 8.1). There was no difference between the gel group and IMP group on most secondary endpoints, including implantation rate, biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, early abortion rate, and vaginal bleeding rate, but there was a between-group difference in luteal phase bleeding rate. The safety analysis showed no difference in the incidence of total adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Progesterone gel showed good efficacy and safety outcomes and therefore provides an alternative method of luteal support in Chinese in vitro fertilization patients.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(17): 15813-15820, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964265

RESUMO

Semiconductor heterostructures are basic building blocks for modern electronics and optoelectronics. However, it still remains a great challenge to combine different semiconductor materials in single nanostructures with tailored geometry and chemical composition. Here, a polar-induced selective epitaxial growth method is reported to alternately grow CdS and CdS xSe1- x heterostructure nanoribbons (NRs) side by side in the lateral direction, with the heterointerface (junction) number to be well controlled. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spatial-resolved µ-PL spectra are employed to characterize the heterostructure NRs, which indicate that the achieved NRs are high-quality heterostructures with sharp interfaces. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and femtosecond pump-probe characterizations further confirm the efficient charge-transfer process across the interfaces in the multijunction NRs. Photodetectors based on the achieved NRs are realized and systematically investigated, demonstrating junction number-dependent optoelectronic response behaviors. NRs with more junctions exhibit more superior device performances, reflecting the important roles of the high-quality interface regions. Based on this multijunction NRs device, high on-off ratio (107) and remarkable responsivity (1.5 × 105 A/W) are demonstrated, both of which represent the best results compared to the reported CdS, CdSe, and their heterostructures. These novel multijunction NRs may find broad applications in future integrated photonics and optoelectronics devices and systems.

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