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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124671, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473527

RESUMO

In this study, Fe/Cu, Fe/Al/Cu, Fe/Cu/C and Fe/Al/Cu/C internal electrolysis systems (IESs) were constructed and used to treat methylene blue dye (MB) wastewater. The effects of filler mass ratio, filler dosage, solution pH, reaction time and reaction temperature on COD removal were discussed, while the kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism of COD removal were also investigated. The results showed that when the COD removal rates were basically the same, the reaction times of Fe/Al/Cu, Fe/Cu/C and Fe/Al/Cu/C IESs were shorter, and the filler dosages were lower. For the four systems, the appropriate pH was around 5, while the suitable reaction temperature was in the range of 20-25 °C. The COD removals of these four IESs were generally greater than 90%. The COD removal processes of the four systems could be better described by the improved pseudo-second-kinetic model, and the liquid film diffusion was the rate-controlling step. Moreover, the COD removal was a spontaneous and endothermic process. MB was degraded into inorganic substances in four steps. In addition, the FTIR characterization of the fillers before and after reaction suggests the four IESs have good stability.

2.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adherence to a healthy diet has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may have overlapping mechanisms with T2D, such as inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, we examined the association between a previously developed T2D prevention dietary pattern and HCC risk. METHODS: We followed 87,943 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 49,665 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study for up to 32 years. The dietary diabetes risk reduction score, which includes dietary glycemic index, cereal fiber, ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fats, trans fat, sugar-sweetened beverages, nuts, coffee, and red and processed meats, was obtained using validated food frequency questionnaires and updated every 4 years. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate multivariable hazard ratios and confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: During over 1.9 million person-years, a total of 160 incident HCC cases were identified. The dietary diabetes risk reduction score was associated with a lower risk of HCC (top vs bottom quartile; hazard ratio: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.95; Ptrend = 0.03). All the individual food and beverage items were associated with the risk of HCC in the expected direction, although the association was weaker than the overall dietary pattern. DISCUSSION: Greater adherence to the T2D prevention diet was associated with a lower risk of developing HCC among US men and women. Further studies are needed to confirm and extend our findings.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the risk of CRC in night-shift workers might be different according to insulin receptor substrates status. METHODS: Among 77,470 eligible women having night work assessed in the Nurses' Health Study, we documented a total of 1,397 CRC cases, of which 304 or 308 had available data on IRS1 and IRS2, respectively. We used duplication method Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for competing risks to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for each CRC subtype. We measured tumor IRS1 or IRS2 expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with women who never worked night-shifts, those working ≥ 15 years night-shifts had a marginal trend of increased overall risk of CRC (Ptrend = 0.06, multivariable HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.45). Longer duration of night-shift work was associated with a higher risk of IRS2-positive tumors (multivariable HR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.89, Ptrend = 0.001, ≥ 15 years night-shifts vs. never) but not with IRS2-negative tumors (multivariable HR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.51, Ptrend = 0.72, Pheterogeneity for IRS2 = 0.008). Similarly, the corresponding multivariable HRs were 1.81 for IRS1-positive tumors (95% CI 0.94 to 3.48, Ptrend = 0.06) and 1.13 for IRS1-negative tumors (95% CI 0.71 to 1.80, Ptrend = 0.56, Pheterogeneity for IRS1 = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular pathological epidemiology data suggest a potential role of IRS in mediating carcinogenesis induced by night-shift work. IMPACT: Although these findings need validation, rotating night-shift might increase CRC risk in women with abnormal insulin receptor pathway.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677159

RESUMO

Obesity is known to be associated with primary liver cancer (PLC), but the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size are unclear. Thus, we examined the association between waist and hip circumference with risk of PLC overall and by histologic type - hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The Liver Cancer Pooling Project is a consortium of prospective cohort studies that includes data from 1,167,244 individuals (PLC n=2,208, HCC n=1,154, ICC n=335). Multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Waist circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with an 11% increased PLC risk (HR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.09-1.14), including when adjusted for hip circumference (HR=1.12, 95%CI: 1.08-1.17) and also when restricted to individuals in a normal body mass index (BMI) range (18.5-<25 kg/m2 ; HR=1.14, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21). Hip circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with a 9% increased PLC risk (HR=1.09, 95%CI: 1.06-1.12), but no association remained after adjustment for waist circumference (HR=0.99, 95%CI: 0.94-1.03). HCC and ICC results were similar. These findings suggest that excess abdominal size is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer, even among individuals considered to have a normal BMI. However, excess gluteofemoral size alone confers no increased risk. Our findings extend prior analyses, which found an association between excess adiposity and risk of liver cancer, by disentangling the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size through utilization of both waist and hip circumference measurements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
ACS Nano ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697469

RESUMO

Semiconducting p-n heterojunctions, serving as the basic unit of modern electronic devices, such as photodetectors, solar-energy conversion devices, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), have been extensively investigated in recent years. In this work, high performance self-powered broadband photodetectors were fabricated based on vertically stacked p-n heterojunctions though combining p-type WSe2 with n-type Bi2Te3 via van der Waals (vdW) epitaxial growth. Devices based on the p-n heterojunction show obvious current rectification behaviors in the dark and superior photovoltaic characteristics under light irradiation. Maximum short circuit current of 18 nA and open circuit voltage of 0.25 V can be achieved with the illumination light of 633 nm (power density: 26.4 mW/cm2), which are among the highest values compared with the ever reported 2D vdW heterojunctions synthesized by CVD method. Benefiting from the broadband absorption of the heterostructures, the detection range can be expanded from visible to near-infrared (375-1550 nm). Moreover, ascribing to the efficient carriers separation process at the junction interfaces, the devices can be further employed as self-powered photodetectors, where fast response time (≈210 µs) and high responsivity (20.5 A/W at 633 nm and 27 mA/W at 1550 nm) are obtained under zero bias voltage. The WSe2/Bi2Te3 p-n heterojunction-based self-powered photodetectors with high photoresponsivity, fast photoresponse time and broad spectral response will find potential applications in high speed and self-sufficient broadband devices.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699705

RESUMO

Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids, and emerging evidence suggests that BCAAs may mediate pathways related to cancer progression, possibly due to their involvement in insulin metabolism. We investigated the association between dietary intake of BCAAs with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in three prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study I [(NHS), number of participants (n) at baseline =77,017], NHS II (n=92,984), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study [(HPFS) n=47,255]. Validated food frequency questionnaires were administered every four years and follow-up questionnaires on lifestyle biennially. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Pooled HRs were obtained using random effect models. After up to 28 years of follow-up, 1660 cases were observed in NHS, 306 in NHS II and 1343 in HPFS. In multivariable adjusted models, we observed a weak inverse association between BCAA intake and CRC [highest vs. lowest quintile, pooled HR including all three cohorts (95% CI): 0.89 (0.80-1.00), Ptrend=0.06, HR per standard deviation (SD) increment 0.95 (0.92-0.99)]. However, after including dairy calcium to the models, BCAA intake was no longer associated with risk of CRC [HR 0.96 (0.85-1.08), Ptrend=0.50, HR per SD increment 0.97 (0.93-1.01)]. We did not find evidence that higher dietary BCAA intake is associated with higher risk of CRC. As this is the first prospective study to examine the association between BCAA intake and CRC, our findings warrant investigation in other cohorts.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647500

RESUMO

Importance: Dietary fiber (the main source of prebiotics) and yogurt (a probiotic food) confer various health benefits via modulating the gut microbiota and metabolic pathways. However, their associations with lung cancer risk have not been well investigated. Objective: To evaluate the individual and joint associations of dietary fiber and yogurt consumption with lung cancer risk and to assess the potential effect modification of the associations by lifestyle and other dietary factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis included 10 prospective cohorts involving 1 445 850 adults from studies that were conducted in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Data analyses were performed between November 2017 and February 2019. Using harmonized individual participant data, hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer risk associated with dietary fiber and yogurt intakes were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Participants who had a history of cancer at enrollment or developed any cancer, died, or were lost to follow-up within 2 years after enrollment were excluded. Exposures: Dietary fiber intake and yogurt consumption measured by validated instruments. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident lung cancer, subclassified by histologic type (eg, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma). Results: The analytic sample included 627 988 men, with a mean (SD) age of 57.9 (9.0) years, and 817 862 women, with a mean (SD) age of 54.8 (9.7) years. During a median follow-up of 8.6 years, 18 822 incident lung cancer cases were documented. Both fiber and yogurt intakes were inversely associated with lung cancer risk after adjustment for status and pack-years of smoking and other lung cancer risk factors: hazard ratio, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) for the highest vs lowest quintile of fiber intake; and hazard ratio, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76-0.87) for high vs no yogurt consumption. The fiber or yogurt associations with lung cancer were significant in never smokers and were consistently observed across sex, race/ethnicity, and tumor histologic type. When considered jointly, high yogurt consumption with the highest quintile of fiber intake showed more than 30% reduced risk of lung cancer than nonyogurt consumption with the lowest quintile of fiber intake (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.61-0.73] in total study populations; hazard ratio 0.69 [95% CI, 0.54-0.89] in never smokers), suggesting potential synergism. Conclusions and Relevance: Dietary fiber and yogurt consumption was associated with reduced risk of lung cancer after adjusting for known risk factors and among never smokers. Our findings suggest a potential protective role of prebiotics and probiotics against lung carcinogenesis.

8.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631247

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is a common cause of disappointment and a big challenge after assisted reproduction technology treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing literature to explore whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells' (PBMCs) instillation could improve pregnancy outcomes among patients with RIF. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and various databases in China. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and three non-randomized controlled trials (non-RCTs) were included. We included subgroup and sensitivity analyses using Stata 12.0. RESULTS: The results of the three RCTs showed that PBMC improved outcomes in all patients compared with placebo or no-treatment [clinical pregnancy rate (CPR): odds ratio (OR) 2.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-3.91; implantation rate (IR): OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.48-4.09; live birth rate (LBR): OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.32-4.49]. However, the results of the three non-RCTs indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in the outcomes and that the heterogeneity was higher (I2 > 0%). Subgroup analysis further suggested that PBMCs treatment significantly increased the CPR, IR and LBR in the three or more implantation failure subgroups (CPR: OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.29-6.22; IR: OR 3.74, 95% CI 1.71-8.19; LBR: OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.15-7.98). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with three or more implantation failures, this treatment improved IR, LBR, and CPR compared to that in controls, due to the limited data available, PBMCs' intrauterine instillation should only be used in the context of clinical trials.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223084, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652270

RESUMO

The P16 (CDKN2Aink4a) gene is an endogenous CDK4/6 inhibitor. Palbociclib (PD0332991) is an anti-CDK4/6 chemical for cancer treatment. P16 is most frequently inactivated by copy number deletion and DNA methylation in cancers. It is well known that cancer cells with P16 deletion are more sensitive to palbociclib than those without. However, whether P16 methylation is related to palbociclib sensitivity is not known. By analyzing public pharmacogenomic datasets, we found that the IC50 of palbociclib in cancer cell lines (n = 522) was positively correlated with both the P16 expression level and P16 gene copy number. Our experimental results further showed that cancer cell lines with P16 methylation were more sensitive to palbociclib than those without. To determine whether P16 methylation directly increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to palbociclib, we induced P16 methylation in the lung cancer cell lines H661 and HCC827 and the gastric cancer cell line BGC823 via an engineered P16-specific DNA methyltransferase (P16-Dnmt) and found that the sensitivity of these cells to palbociclib was significantly increased. The survival rate of P16-Dnmt cells was significantly lower than that of vector control cells 48 hrs post treatment with palbociclib (10 µM). Notably, palbociclib treatment also selectively inhibited the proliferation of the P16-methylated subpopulation of P16-Dnmt cells, further indicating that P16 methylation can increase the sensitivity of cells to this CDK4/6 inhibitor. These results were confirmed in an animal experiment. In conclusion, inactivation of the P16 gene by DNA methylation can increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to palbociclib.

11.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422404

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) addition for luteal support on pregnancy outcome in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. METHODS: Meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,584 cycles were identified from 13 randomized controlled trials. The cumulative analysis showed that GnRH-a addition for luteal supports significantly improved live birth rate (relative risk [RR] = 1.52; 95% CI 1.20-1.94; p = 0.0006), the clinical pregnancy rate (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.11-1.33; p < 0.0001), ongoing pregnancy rate (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.06-1.32; p = 0.004), pregnancy rate (RR 1.36; 95% CI 1.01-1.82; p = 0.04), implantation rate (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.17-1.77; p = 0.0007), and multiple pregnancy rate (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.04-1.88; p = 0.03) in comparison with control, but not for the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.32-2.89; p = 0.94). We also found that GnRH-a addition for luteal support had a tendency to decrease the abortion rate (RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.93; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the current meta-analysis showed a substantial efficacy of GnRH-a addition for luteal support on pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing IVF/ICSI and support the use of GnRH-a in luteal phase to improve the success of IVF/ICSI.

12.
Cancer Med ; 8(12): 5673-5686, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369215

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Targeted therapies are based on specific gene alterations. Various specimen types have been used to determine gene alterations, however, no systemic comparisons have yet been made. Herein, we assessed alterations in selected cancer-associated genes across varying sample sites in lung cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Targeted deep sequencing for 48 tumor-related genes was applied to 153 samples from 55 lung cancer patients obtained from six sources: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues, pleural effusion supernatant (PES) and pleural effusion cell sediments (PEC), white blood cells (WBCs), oral epithelial cells (OECs), and plasma. RESULTS: Mutations were detected in 96% (53/55) of the patients and in 83% (40/48) of the selected genes. Each sample type exhibited a characteristic mutational pattern. As anticipated, TP53 was the most affected sequence (54.5% patients), however this was followed by NOTCH1 (36%, across all sample types). EGFR was altered in patient samples at a frequency of 32.7% and KRAS 10.9%. This high EGFR/ low KRAS frequency is in accordance with other TCGA cohorts of Asian origin but differs from the Caucasian population where KRAS is the more dominant mutation. Additionally, 66% (31/47) of PEC samples had copy number variants (CNVs) in at least one gene. Unlike the concurrent loss and gain in most genes, herein NOTCH1 loss was identified in 21% patients, with no gain observed. Based on the relative prevalence of mutations and CNVs, we divided lung cancer patients into SNV-dominated, CNV-dominated, and codominated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous reports that EGFR mutations are more prevalent than KRAS in Chinese lung cancer patients. NOTCH1 gene alterations are more common than previously reported and reveals a role of NOTCH1 modifications in tumor metastasis. Furthermore, genetic material from malignant pleural effusion cell sediments may be a noninvasive manner to identify CNV and participate in treatment decisions.

13.
J Org Chem ; 84(16): 10088-10101, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329431

RESUMO

A new and operationally simple approach for palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization reactions utilizing an organophosphorus/sulfonate hypervalent iodine reagent as both an oxidant and the source of a functional group has been developed. Through this method, the oxidative phosphorylation-, sulfonation-, and hydroxylation of unactivated benzyl C(sp3)-H bonds, along with the hydroxylation and arylation of aryl C(sp2)-H bonds, are successfully realized under mild conditions and with excellent site-selectivity. The versatile C-OSO2R bond provides a platform for a wide array of subsequent diversification reactions.

14.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 116(11): 3072-3083, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317529

RESUMO

Cinnabarinic acid is a valuable phenoxazinone that has broad applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and dyeing industries. However, few studies have investigated the production of cinnabarinic acid or its derivatives using genetically engineered microorganisms. Herein, an efficient synthetic pathway of cinnabarinic acid was designed and constructed in Pseudomonas chlororaphis GP72 for the first tim, which was more straightforward and robust than the known eukaryotic biosynthetic pathways. First, we screened and identified trans-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (DHHA) dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli MG1655 (encoded by entA), Streptomyces sp. NRRL12068 (encoded by bomO) and Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL3882 (encoded by calB3 ) based on the structural similarity of the substrate and product, and the DHHA dehydrogenase encoded by calB3 was selected for the synthesis of cinnabarinic acid due to its high DHHA conversion rate. Subsequently, cinnabarinic acid was synthesized by the expression of the DHHA dehydrogenase CalB3 and the phenoxazinone synthase CotA in the DHHA-producing strain P. chlororaphis GP72, resulting in a cinnabarinic acid titer of 20.3 mg/L at 48 hr. Further fermentation optimization by the addition of Cu2+ , H2 O2 , and with adding glycerol increased cinnabarinic acid titer to 136.2 mg/L in shake flasks. The results indicate that P. chlororaphis GP72 may be engineered as a microbial cell factory to produce cinnabarinic acid or its derivatives from renewable bioresources.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(30): 11754-11758, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298855

RESUMO

Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are attractive for applications in a wide range of optoelectronic devices, due to their tremendous interesting physical properties. However, the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of TMDCs has been found to be too low, due to abundant defects and strong many-body effect. Here, we present a direct physical vapor growth of WO3-WS2 bilayer heterostructures, with WO3 monolayer domains attached on the surface of large-size WS2 monolayers. Optical characterizations revealed that the PLQY of the as-grown WO3-WS2 heterostructures can reach up to 11.6%, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of WS2 monolayers by the physical vapor deposition growth method (PVD-WS2) and about 13-times higher than that of mechanical exfoliated WS2 (ME-WS2) monolayers, representing the highest PLQY reported for direct growth TMDCs materials so far. The PL enhancement mechanism has been well investigated by time-resolved optical measurements. The fabrication of WO3-WS2 heterostructures with ultrahigh PLQY provides an efficient approach for the development of highly efficient 2D integrated photonic applications.

17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the associations between meat intake and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was limited and inconsistent. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association between consumption of meats and meat mutagens with HCC risk using data from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for known liver-cancer risk factors. RESULTS: During up to 32 years of follow-up, we documented 163 incident HCC cases. The HRs of HCC for the highest vs the lowest tertile intake levels were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.16-2.92, Ptrend = 0.04) for processed red meats and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.40-0.91, Ptrend = 0.02) for total white meats. There was a null association between unprocessed red meats and HCC risk (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.68-1.63, Ptrend = 0.85). We found both poultry (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90, Ptrend = 0.01) and fish (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.47-1.05, Ptrend = 0.10) were inversely associated with HCC risk. The HR for HCC risk was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61-1.02) when 1 standard deviation of processed red meats was substituted with an equivalent amount of poultry or fish intake. We also found a suggestive positive association of intake of meat-derived mutagenicity or heterocyclic amines with risk of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Processed red meat intake might be associated with higher, whereas poultry or possibly fish intake might be associated with lower, risk of HCC. Replacing processed red meat with poultry or fish might be associated with reduced HCC risk.

18.
Fertil Steril ; 112(1): 89-97.e1, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether intrauterine injection of hCG before embryo transfer can improve IVF-ET outcomes. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Infertile women who underwent IVF-ET and received an intrauterine injection of hCG before ET. INTERVENTION(S): Infertile women treated with or without intrauterine hCG injection before ET. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcomes were live birth rate (LBR), ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR), and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and the secondary outcomes were implantation rate (IR) and miscarriage rate (MR). Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and successful ET rates were pooled to determine the effects of hCG on IVF-ET outcomes. RESULT(S): Fifteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a total of 2,763 participants were included. Infertile women in the experimental group (treated with intrauterine hCG injection before ET) exhibited significantly higher LBR (44.89% vs. 29.76%), OPR (48.09% vs. 33.42%), CPR (47.80% vs. 32.78%), and IR (31.64% vs. 22.52%) than those in the control group (intrauterine injection of placebo or no injection). Furthermore, MR was significantly lower (12.45% vs. 18.56%) in the experimental group than in the control group. CONCLUSION(S): The findings of this meta-analysis indicate that intrauterine injection of hCG can improve LBR, OPR, CPR, and IR after IVF-ET cycles. In addition, different timing and dosages of hCG administration may exert different effects on IVT-ET outcomes. Notably, infertile women treated with 500 IU hCG within 15 minutes before ET can achieve optimal IVF-ET outcomes.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 3040-3051, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044426

RESUMO

Epidemiologic evidence relating fiber intake to colorectal cancer (CRC) remains inconclusive and data are limited on different food sources of fiber and heterogeneity by tumor subsite and molecular profile. We prospectively followed for CRC incidence 90,869 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012) and 47,924 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the associations with CRC risk for total, cereal, fruit and vegetable fiber and whole grains. We also assessed the associations according to tumor subsites (proximal colon, distal colon and rectum) and molecular markers (microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype and KRAS mutation). We documented 3,178 CRC cases during 3,685,903 person-years of follow-up in the NHS and HPFS. Intake of total dietary fiber was not associated with CRC risk after multivariable adjustment in either women (hazard ratio [HR] comparing extreme deciles, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.92-1.48, ptrend = 0.55) or men (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.67-1.21, ptrend = 0.47). Higher intake of cereal fiber and whole grains was associated with lower CRC risk in men with an HR of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-1.00) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96), respectively. No heterogeneity was detected by tumor subsite or molecular markers (pheterogeneity > 0.05). Higher intake of total dietary fiber within the range of a typical American diet is unlikely to substantially reduce CRC risk. The potential benefit of cereal fiber and whole grains in men warrants further confirmation.

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