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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111547, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254406

RESUMO

In this paper, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to sublethal doses of dichlorvos (spiked concentration of 0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg) in soil for 14 days, the metabolomics and activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4) of earthworms were analyzed aiming to identify sensitive biomarkers and reveal possible mode of toxic action. The results showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 activity appeared to be more sensitive than CYP3A4 activity in response to dichlorvos, and that metabolic responses based on the metabolomics depended on both of the length of exposure and exposure dose. Malate, ornithine, glucose, inosine, myo-inositol and some amino acids (glutamine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, histidine, glutamate, lysine) and CYP isozenzymes may be biomarkers to reveal the toxic effect of dichlorvos on earthworms. Compared to controls, when dichlorvos dose reached 1.0 and 10 mg/kg on day 14, glucose and ornithine increased significantly, malate and some amino acids (glutamine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine) decreased significantly, and activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 were inhibited significantly. The current results suggested that 1.0 and 10 mg/kg dichlorvos for 14 days of exposure blocked energy metabolism, disordered Krebs cycle, interfered amino acids metabolism and evoked toxic effects on earthworms.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113206, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750460

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Berberine is generally extracted from Rhizoma Coptidis (Coptis chinensis Franch), a traditional Chinese medicine, which can be used in the treatment of intestinal diseases, respiratory infections and cardiovascular diseases. Berberine is especially effective for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea because of the effect of heat-clearing and detoxifying in traditional Chinese medicine theory. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to examine the protective effect of berberine (BBR) on the damaged colonic epithelial barrier caused by peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). METHODS: The damage to intestinal epithelial barrier was examined by intraperitoneally injecting 4.25% dextrose-containing PDF in mice and establishing a long-term PD model in rats with renal failure. Then, the therapeutic potential of berberine on PD-related colonic injuries was examined. T84 colonic epithelial cells were used to test the effect of PDF and berberine in vitro. The damaging effect of PDF and the protective effect of berberine were evaluated by histology staining, histofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The migration of colonic epithelial cell and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) were tested by wound healing assay and Western blot to determine the possible mechanism in vitro. RESULTS: PD administration induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in the colon, and berberine alleviated the injury by increasing the tight junction and adhesion junction protein, both in vivo and in vitro. Berberine could also improve the morphology of microvillus. In the wound healing assay, berberine exhibited the ability to promote cell migration, indicating that berberine could probably recover the function of intestinal epithelial cells when the intestinal epithelial barrier was damaged by the PDF. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that berberine can ameliorate intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in the colon caused by long-term PDF through improving cell migration.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113595, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212175

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a traditional Chinese medicine, Taraxacum mongolicum has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases, and also clinically used as a remedy for mastitis. However, the scientific rationale and mechanism behind its use on mastitis in vivo are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect and potential mechanism of Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. (T. mongolicum) on mastitis infected by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female ICR mice were given intragastrically 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg of T. mongolicum extract twice per day for 6 consecutive days, and infected with S. aureus via teat canal to induce mastitis. Pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) levels were determined by ELISA. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and distribution were measured by reagent kit and immunohistochemistry. Histopathological changes of mammary gland tissues were observed by H&E staining. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression, phosphorylations of related proteins in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways were detected by western blot. RESULTS: T. mongolicum decreased TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß levels, and reduced MPO activity and distribution in sera and mammary glands with S. aureus-infected mastitis. In addition, T. mongolicum effectively attenuated histopathological damages and cell necrosis of mammary gland tissues infected by S. aureus. Moreover, T. mongolicum inhibited the expression of TLR2, and the phosphorylations of inhibitor κBα (IκBα), p65, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins in mammary glands with S. aureus-infected mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that T. mongolicum protects against S. aureus-infected mastitis by exerting anti-inflammatory role, which is attributed to the inhibition of TLR2-NF-κB/MAPKs pathways.

4.
Immunobiology ; 225(6): 152025, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190003

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths, and the persistent inflammation is inextricably linked with the lung cancer tumorigenesis. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) is able to serve as a potent modulator of cancer. Mounting evidence indicates IL-33 has significant effect on lung cancer progression by regulating host immune response, but the current opinions about the function and mechanism of IL-33 in lung cancer are still controversial. Meanwhile, antibacterial peptide LL-37 also exerts a momentous effect on immune responses to lung cancer. LL-37 is regarded as versatile, including antimicrobial activities, chemotaxis and immunoregulation. However, the immunomodulatory mechanism of IL-33 and LL-37 in lung cancer remains thoroughly not defined. Here, we determined the secretion of LL-37 was up-regulated in lung cancer serum samples. Similarly, the expression of CRAMP was enhancive in macrophages after co-cultured with lung cancer cells. Moreover, we expounded that IL-33 could up-regulate LL-37 secretion in macrophages, resulting in the massive releases of IL-6 and IL-1ß. Additionally, LL-37 cooperated with IL-33 to increase the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 pathways, and augmented IL-6 and IL-1ß secretion, which resulting in the proliferation of lung cancer cells in vitro. In conclusion, our study identified that IL-33 aggravated the inflammation of lung cancer by increasing LL-37 expression in macrophages, thereby promoting lung cancer cell proliferation in vitro. It is contributed to our present understanding of the immunomodulatory relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and antibacterial peptides in the tumor immune response, and offer a novel perspective for controlling the progress of lung cancer.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182654

RESUMO

Most woody bamboos bloom only once after long vegetative growth phases and die immediately afterwards. It is difficult, however, to determine the timing of the floral transition, as little information is available on the molecular mechanism of plant maturity in bamboos. To uncover the bamboo floral transition mechanism, its morpho-physiological characteristics, transcriptomes and large-scale quantitative proteomes were investigated in leaves which were collected at different stages during floral transition in a woody bamboo, Dendrocalamus latiflorus. We identified many flowering time-associated genes and the continued increase and decrease genes were screened as flowering biomarker genes (e.g., the MADS14 and bHLH13 genes). These different genes were assigned to specific metabolic pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). And the photoperiod pathways depending on the circadian rhythm may play an essential role in the bamboo floral transition. In addition, a total of 721 differently expressed proteins of leaves from the vegetative-to-reproductive stages were identified. Fifty-five genes were specifically differentially expressed at both the transcriptomic and proteomic levels, including genes related to photosynthesis and nucleotide sugar, which may be involved in the floral transition. This work provides insights into bamboo flowers and the management of forest breeding.

6.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 1535370220966253, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175607

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs are a kind of endogenous ncRNAs with a length of more than 200 bp. Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs function as pivotal regulators in tumorigenesis and progression. However, their biological roles in breast cancer remain largely unknown. Here, we found that IGF2 antisense RNA (IGF2-AS) was significantly decreased in breast cancer tissues, cell lines, and plasma. Patients with low IGF2-AS were more likely to develop larger tumor size and later clinical stage. Overexpression of IGF2-AS evidently inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of MCF-7 and T47D cells in vitro, as well as retarded tumor growth in vivo. Further investigation revealed that IGF2-AS inhibited the expression of its sense-cognate gene IGF2 in an epigenetic DNMT1-dependent manner, resulting in the inactivation of downstream oncogenic PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Enforced expression of IGF2 could significantly block the tumor inhibitory effect of IGF2-AS. Importantly, we found that IGF2-AS could be used as an effective biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Taken together, our study indicates that IGF2-AS is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, restoration of IGF2-AS may be a promising treatment for this fatal disease.

7.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155431

RESUMO

Migraine is a debilitating neurological condition, with a global prevalence of 10.68% in men and 18.79% in women. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying migraines is of great importance for improving the quality of life of patients. The release of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal nerve terminals is involved in the pathogenesis of migraine. Recent studies have shown that up-regulation of miR-34a-5p expression is associated with acute migraine attacks. Here, we investigated whether alteration of the expression of miR-34a-5p induces the release of the vasoactive peptide CGRP. We isolated primary rat trigeminal ganglion neurons and performed gain and loss-of function assays to alter the expression level of miR-34a-5p. Downregulation of miR-34a-5p inhibited the expression of IL-1ß/COX2/PGE2, decreased IL-1ß, PGE2 and CGRP release and upregulated the expression of SIRT1 in trigeminal ganglion, while overexpression of miR-34a-5p enhanced the expression of IL-1ß/COX2/PGE2, increased the release of IL-1ß, PGE2 and CGRP, and decreased the expression of SIRT1 in trigeminal ganglion. In addition, overexpression of miR-34a induced apoptosis in primary rat trigeminal neurons. In summary, these findings suggest that miR-34a-5p up-regulates the IL-1ß/COX2/PGE2 inflammation pathway, induces apoptosis, and enhances release of CGRP via inhibition of SIRT1 expression in trigeminal ganglion neurons, and thus miR-34a-5p may have potential as a therapeutic target for treatment of migraine.

8.
Gene ; 767: 145181, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007372

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in China. It has been suggested that the genetic polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) might be in close relation to tumorigenesis and development of gastric cancer. In this study, we performed a case-control study to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of TLR3, 4, 5, 7 with the genetic susceptibility of gastric cancer. TLRs gene polymorphisms in 471 gastric cancer (GC) patients and 471 healthy controls were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restrictive fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis or TaqMan assays. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to evaluate the association of TLR4 variants with the GC risk via unconditional logistic regression. Our results suggested that variant genotypes of TLR4 rs7869402 (OR = 0.61, 95%CI = 0.40-0.92, P = 0.02) and TLR4 rs7873784 (OR = 0.17, 95%CI = 0.09-0.33, P < 0.01) gene polymorphisms reduced the risk of GC. Stratified analysis showed that rs7869402 T-containing genotype significantly decreased the susceptibility of GC among females (OR = 0.38, 95%CI = 0.16-0.91, P = 0.03), older subjects (OR = 0.48, 95%CI = 0.26-0.87, P = 0.02), non-smokers (OR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.23-0.71, P < 0.01) and non-drinkers (OR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.30-0.78, P < 0.01). In case of rs7873784 polymorphism, C-containing genotype reduced the risk of GC among males (OR = 0.08, 95%CI = 0.03-0.21, P < 0.01), but not among females (OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.22-1.27, P = 0.15). As to the other four SNPs (TLR3 rs5743303, TLR4 rs1927914, TLR5 rs1640816 and TLR7 rs3853839), no significant correlations were found to be related to the risk of gastric carcinoma. Our research demonstrated the significance of TLRs polymorphisms in decreasing the risk of GC.

9.
ISA Trans ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059904

RESUMO

The leader-following consensus problem is investigated for complex cyber-physical systems under cyber attacks. The communication channels of the agents in the cyber-physical systems may be destroyed by attacks, and the damage is assumed to be repaired after a period of time by a restoration mechanism. Considering the parameter disturbance in the wireless communication, a robust sampled-data control law is designed so that the leader-following consensus can be achieved. The sampling period, attack length rate and attack frequency are analyzed on the basis of Lipschitz condition or QUAD condition, respectively. By using proper Lyapunov functional and inequality techniques, it is shown that robust leader-following consensus of cyber-physical systems with sampled-data control can be guaranteed under cyber attack. Finally, two examples are provided to confirm the theoretical results.

10.
New Phytol ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111313

RESUMO

In grasses, two types of phased, small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs) are expressed largely in young, developing anthers. They are 21 or 24 nucleotides (nt) in length, and are triggered by miR2118 or miR2275, respectively. However, most of their functions and activities are not fully understood. We performed comparative genomic analysis of their source loci (PHAS) in five Oryza genomes, and combined this with analysis of high-throughput sRNA and degradome datasets. In total, we identified 8216 21-PHAS and 626 24-PHAS loci. Local tandem and segmental duplications mainly contributed to the expansion and supercluster distribution of the 21-PHAS loci. Despite their relatively conserved genomic positions, PHAS sequences diverged rapidly, except for the miR2118/2275 target sites, which were under strong selection for conservation. We found 21-nt phasiRNAs with a 5'-terminal uridine (U) demonstrated cis cleavage at PHAS precursors, and these cis-acting sites were also variable among close species. miR2118 could trigger phasiRNA production from antisense transcript of its own, and the derived phasiRNAs might reversely regulate miR2118 precursors. We hypothesized that successful initiation of phasiRNA biogenesis is conservatively maintained, while the phasiRNA products diverged quickly and are not individually conserved. In particular, phasiRNA production is under the control of multiple reciprocal regulation mechanisms.

11.
Virus Genes ; 56(6): 734-748, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009986

RESUMO

Fowlpox virus (FPV) is used as a vaccine vector to prevent diseases in poultry and mammals. The insertion site is considered as one of the main factors influencing foreign gene expression. Therefore, the identification of insertion sites that can stably and efficiently express foreign genes is crucial for the construction of recombinant vaccines. In this study, we found that the insertion of foreign genes into ORF054 and the ORF161/ORF162 intergenic region of the FPV genome did not affect replication, and that the foreign genes inserted into the intergenic region were more efficiently expressed than when they were inserted into a gene. Based on these results, the recombinant virus rFPVNX10-NDV F-E was constructed and immune protection against virulent FPV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was evaluated. Tests for anti-FPV antibodies in the vaccinated chickens were positive within 14 days post-vaccination. After challenge with FPV102, no clinical signs of FP were observed in vaccinated chickens, as compared to that in the control group (unvaccinated), which showed 100% morbidity. Low levels of NDV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in vaccinated chickens before challenge. After challenge with NDV ck/CH/LHLJ/01/06, all control chickens died within 4 days post-challenge, whereas 5/15 vaccinated chickens died between 4 and 12 days post-challenge. Vaccination provided an immune protection rate of 66.7%, whereas the control group showed 100% mortality. These results indicate that the ORF161/ORF162 intergenic region of FPVNX10 can be used as a recombination site for foreign gene expression in vivo and in vitro.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22872, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shock is a major public health problem worldwide. At present, the morbidity and mortality of shock patients are relatively high. Vasomotor dysfunction is 1 of the key pathological aspects of shock. Shenfu injection has been widely used for the treatment of shock in China. Pharmacological studies have suggested that Shenfu injection can reduce peripheral circulation resistance and improve microcirculation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect and safety of Shenfu injection on the microcirculation of patients with shock. METHODS: This review summarizes and meta-analyzes randomized controlled trials of Shenfu injection for the treatment of shock.Searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Data. The Cochrane risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials. All tests are analyzed according to the standards of the Cochrane Handbook. Review Manager 5.3, R-3.5.1 software and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation pro GDT web solution are used for data synthesis and analysis. RESULTS: This review focuses on the effects of Shenfu injection on the microcirculation of shock patients (blood lactic acid level, arteriovenous oxygen saturation, arteriovenous carbon dioxide partial pressure difference, sublingual microcirculation), 28-day mortality, 28-day ICU hospitalization and adverse reaction rate. CONCLUSION: This review provides a clear basis for evaluating the impact of Shenfu injection on the microcirculation of shock patients, as well as the effectiveness and safety of the treatment.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Injeções/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Choque/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 1535370220963197, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023330

RESUMO

IMPACT STATEMENT: In this study, we explored the expression profile of lncRNA in HCC tumor tissues and paracancerous tissues using microarray assays. Furthermore, a new lncRNA (lnc-ATG9B-4) was identified, which was about 3.5 times more expressed in tumor tissues than in paracancerous tissues. Through clinicopathological analysis, lnc-ATG9B-4 was determined to be related to the tumorous size, TNM stages, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), the tumor capsule, metastasis, and the degree of differentiation. Lnc-ATG9B-4 promoted the proliferation, invasion, as well as migration of the HCC cells by upregulating the expression of CDK5. Here, we further exploited the molecular mechanisms of lnc-ATG9B-4 to screen new drug intervention targets for recurrence and metastasis of HCC.

14.
J Org Chem ; 85(21): 13466-13471, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089682

RESUMO

Artatrovirenols A and B (1 and 2), two novel cagelike sesquiterpenoids, possess a unique 5/5/6/5/5-pentacyclic and a 5/5/6/5-tetracyclic system with an unprecedented tetracyclo[5.3.1.1.4,1101,5]dodecane scaffold from Artemisia atrovirens. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 including their absolute stereochemistry were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analyses, X-ray crystallography, and quantum chemical calculations. Plausible biosynthetic pathways for the new isolates were proposed from the naturally occurring arglabin (3) via the key intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against three human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, SMMC-7721, and Huh7) with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 123.8, 44.0, and 142.6 µΜ, respectively.

15.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 413, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischaemic stroke has become the main cause of death and severe neurological disorders, for which effective restorative treatments are currently limited. While stem cell transplantation offers therapeutic potential through neural regeneration, this approach is associated with the challenges of limited applicable sources. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are multipotential cells that can differentiate into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages and proliferate for long periods. The therapeutic potentials of HFSCs have not been investigated in ischaemic stroke models, and therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine whether they could survive and migrate to ischaemic areas after a stroke attack. METHODS: A rat model of middle cerebral artery ischaemia/reperfusion was established and intravenously administered HFSCs. The potential of HFSCs to migrate and differentiate into neuron-like cells as well as their ability to reduce the infarct size was evaluated. Rat brain tissue samples were collected 2 weeks after cell transplantation and analysed via TTC staining, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry methods. The data were statistically analysed and presented as the means ± standard deviations. RESULTS: Intravenously administrated rat HFSCs were able to migrate to the penumbra where they expressed neuron-specific markers, reduced the infarct volume and promoted neurological recovery. CONCLUSION: HFSC transplantation has therapeutic potential for ischaemic stroke and is, therefore, worthy of further investigation toward possible clinical development for treating stroke patients.

16.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(12): 3381-3393, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870326

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A novel, stably expressed, and plant height-independent QTL for spike extension length on 5AS was identified and validated in different populations using a newly developed and tightly linked KASP marker. As an important component of plant height (PH), spike extension length (SEL) plays a significant role in formation of an ideotype in wheat. Despite the fact that numerous loci for SEL in wheat have been reported, our knowledge on PH-independent loci remains to be limited. In this study, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations genotyped using the Wheat55K SNP were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling SEL across six environments. A total of 30 QTL for SEL were detected in these two RIL populations, and four of them, i.e., QSEL.sicau-2CN-4D, QSEL.sicau-2SY-4B.2, QSEL.sicau-2SY-4D.1, and QSEL.sicau-2CN-5A, were stably expressed. Genetic and conditional QTL analysis showed that the first three were significantly associated with PH, while the last one, QSEL.sicau-2CN-5A, is independent of PH. Comparison of genetic and physical maps suggested that only QSEL.sicau-2CN-5A located on chromosome arm 5AS is likely a novel QTL. A Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP) marker, KASP-AX-110413733, tightly linked to this novel QTL was developed to successfully confirm its effect in three different genetic populations. Further, in the interval where QSEL.sicau-2CN-5A was located on 'Chinese Spring' wheat reference genome, three promising genes mainly expressed in wheat stem were predicated and they all encode the cytochrome P450 that was demonstrated to be closely associated with SEL elongation in rice. In addition, significant correlations between SEL and PH, spikelet number per spike, and thousand-grain weight were also detected. Altogether, our results broaden our understanding on genetic basis of SEL and will be useful for marker-based selection of lines with different SELs and fine mapping the novel and PH-independent QTL QSEL.sicau-2CN-5A.

17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(20): 8813-8823, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinesis) is a rising experimental animal and has been used for studying a variety of human diseases, such as metabolic and viral infectious diseases. METHODS: In this study, we established an immortalized tree shrew hepatic cell line, ITH6.1, by introducing the simian virus 40 large T antigen gene into primary tree shrew hepatocytes (PTHs). RESULTS: The ITH6.1 cell line had a stable cell morphology and proliferation activity. This cell line could be infected by enterovirus 71 (EV71), but not hepatitis C virus (HCV), although the known HCV entry factors, including CD81, SR-BI, CLDN1 and OCLN, were all expressed in the PTHs and ITH6.1 of different passages. Comparison of the transcriptomic features of the PTHs and different passages of the ITH6.1 cells revealed the dynamic gene expression profiles during the transformation. We found that the DNA replication- and cell cycle-related genes were upregulated, whereas the metabolic pathway-related genes were downregulated in early passages of immortalized hepatocytes compared to the PTHs. Furthermore, expression of hepatocytes function-related genes were repressed in ITH6.1 compared to that of PTHs. CONCLUSION: We believe these cellular expression alterations might cause the resistance of the ITH6.1 cell to HCV infection. This tree shrew liver cell line may be a good resource for the field. KEY POINTS: • A tree shrew hepatic cell line (ITH6.1) was established. • ITH6.1 cells could be infected by EV71, but not HCV. • ITH6.1 had an altered expression profiling compared to the primary hepatocytes.

18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(41): 11434-11448, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965110

RESUMO

The dried fruits of Amomum tsao-ko were first revealed to have hypoglycemic effects on db/db mice at a concentration of 200 mg/kg. In order to clarify the antidiabetic constituents, 19 new flavanol-fatty alcohol hybrids, tsaokoflavanols A-S (1-19), were isolated and determined by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD calculations. Most of the compounds showed α-glucosidase and PTP1B dual inhibition, among which 1, 2, 6, 11, and 18 exhibited obvious activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 5.2-9.0 µM, 20-35 times stronger than that of acarbose (IC50, 180.0 µM); meanwhile, 6, 10-12, and 19 were PTP1B/TCPTP-selective inhibitors with IC50 values of 56.4-80.4 µM, 2-4 times stronger than that of suramin sodium (IC50, 200.5 µM). Enzyme kinetics study indicated that compounds 1, 2, 6, and 11 were α-glucosidase and PTP1B mixed-type inhibitors with Ki values of 13.0, 11.7, 2.9, and 5.3 µM and 142.3, 88.9, 39.2, and 40.8 µM, respectively. Docking simulations proved the importance of hemiacetal hydroxy, the orientation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl, and the length of alkyl in binding with α-glucosidase and PTP1B.

19.
J Cell Biol ; 219(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997736

RESUMO

Tau protein in vitro can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS); however, observations of this phase transition in living cells are limited. To investigate protein state transitions in living cells, we attached Cry2 to Tau and studied the contribution of each domain that drives the Tau cluster in living cells. Surprisingly, the proline-rich domain (PRD), not the microtubule binding domain (MTBD), drives LLPS and does so under the control of its phosphorylation state. Readily observable, PRD-derived cytoplasmic condensates underwent fusion and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching consistent with the PRD LLPS in vitro. Simulations demonstrated that the charge properties of the PRD predicted phase separation. Tau PRD formed heterotypic condensates with EB1, a regulator of plus-end microtubule dynamic instability. The specific domain properties of the MTBD and PRD serve distinct but mutually complementary roles that use LLPS in a cellular context to implement emergent functionalities that scale their relationship from binding α-beta tubulin heterodimers to the larger proportions of microtubules.

20.
J Control Release ; 327: 384-396, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791079

RESUMO

A d-peptide ligand of the nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), termed DCDX, enables drug delivery to the brain when incorporated into liposomes and has shown promise as a nanocarrier for treating brain diseases. However, few reports have described the mechanisms whereby DCDX-modified liposomes traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms enabling DCDX (and its associated liposomes) to cross an in vitro BBB using a simulated cerebral endothelium monolayer formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (bEnd.3 cells). We also examined the mechanisms whereby DCDX-modified liposomes cross the BBB in vivo using the brain efflux-index method. Transport of DCDX and its modified liposomes was dominantly mediated via the lipid raft/caveolae endocytic pathway. Both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex participated in delivering DCDX-modified liposomes to the plasma membrane (PM). DCDX-modified liposomes also participated in the endosome/lysosome pathway (with high-efficiency BBB crossing observed in vitro), while competing for the ER/Golgi/PM pathway. In addition, nAChR α7 did not promote the transportation of DCDX-modified liposomes in vivo or in vitro, as assessed with α7-knockout mice and by performing α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt) binding-competition experiments. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was identified as the main efflux transporter across the BBB, in vivo and in vitro. Using a xenograft nude mouse model of human glioblastoma multiforme, blocking the efflux function of P-gp with verapamil enhanced the therapeutic efficiency of DCDX-modified liposomes that were formulated with doxorubicin against glioblastoma. The findings of this study reveal novel mechanisms underlying crossing of the BBB by DCDX-modified liposomes, suggesting that DCDX-modified liposomes can potentially serve as a powerful therapeutic tool for treating glioma.

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