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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123635, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254747

RESUMO

Presence of heavy metals in sludge can severely limit land application due to their bioavailability. The current work studied distribution and risk as well as leaching toxicity of heavy metals in textile sludge treated with hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at different conditions. Treatment temperature and time can significantly affect characteristics of heavy metals in sludge. For the treatment at 220 °C and 3 h, the content of Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn existed in form F1 + F2 (water soluble and bound to carbonate and Fe-Mn oxides) dropped by 4.7, 7.1, 8.8, and 7.3%, while the content of Cu, Cr, and Mn in form F4 (bound to quartz, feldspars, etc) increased by 12.9, 19.1, and 10.6%, respectively. This effectively lowered the bioavailability and leaching rate of heavy metals in sludge. Addition of weak alkaline Al(OH)3 could efficiently force the transformation of F1 to F4, possibly because of the increased pH value of sludge. HTC processing might be an effective way of fixing heavy metals in textile sludge.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143279, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162146

RESUMO

Estimating the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is challenging because NO2 generated by local fossil fuel combustion varies greatly in concentration across space and time. This study demonstrates an integrated hybrid approach combining dispersion modeling and land use regression (LUR) to predict daily NO2 concentrations at a high spatial resolution (e.g., 50 m) in the New York tri-state area. The daily concentration of traffic-related NO2 was estimated at the Environmental Protection Agency's NO2 monitoring sites in the study area for the years 2015-2017, using the Research LINE source (R-LINE) model with inputs of traffic data provided by the Highway Performance and Management System and meteorological data provided by the NOAA Integrated Surface Database. We used the R-LINE-predicted daily concentrations of NO2 to build mixed-effects regression models, including additional variables representing land use features, geographic characteristics, weather, and other predictors. The mixed model was selected by the Elastic Net method. Each model's performance was evaluated using the out-of-sample coefficient of determination (R2) and the square root of mean squared error (RMSE) from ten-fold cross-validation (CV). The mixed model showed a good prediction performance (CV R2: 0.75-0.79, RMSE: 3.9-4.0 ppb). R-LINE outputs improved the overall, spatial, and temporal CV R2 by 10.0%, 18.9% and 7.7% respectively. Given the output of R-LINE is point-based and has a flexible spatial resolution, this hybrid approach allows prediction of daily NO2 at an extremely high spatial resolution such as city blocks.

3.
mSystems ; 5(5)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082280

RESUMO

Ambient temperature (Ta ) is an important factor in shaping phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity is generally beneficial for animals in adapting to their environments. Gut microbiota are crucial in regulating host physiological and behavioral processes. However, whether the gut microbiota play a role in regulating host phenotypic plasticity under the conditions of repeated fluctuations in environmental factors has rarely been examined. We used intermittent Ta acclimations to test the hypothesis that the plasticity of gut microbiota confers on the host a metabolic adaptation to Ta fluctuations. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were acclimated to intermittent 5°C to 23°C, 37°C to 23°C or 23°C to 23°C conditions for 3 cycles (totally 3 months). Intermittent Ta acclimations induced variations in resting metabolic rate (RMR), serum thyroid hormones, and core body temperature (Tb ). We further identified that the ß-diversity of the microbial community varied with Ta and showed diverse responses during the 3 cycles. Some specific bacteria were more sensitive to Ta and were associated with host dynamic metabolic plasticity during Ta acclimations. In addition, depletion of gut microbiota in antibiotic-treated gerbils impaired metabolic plasticity, particularly at low Ta , whereas supplementation with propionate as an energy resource improved the inhibited thermogenic capacity and increased the survival rate in the cold. These findings demonstrate that both gut microbiota and their host were more adaptive after repeated acclimations, and dynamic gut microbiota and their metabolites may confer host plasticity in thermoregulation in response to Ta fluctuations. It also implies that low Ta is a crucial cue in driving symbiosis between mammals and their gut microbiota during evolution.IMPORTANCE Whether gut microbiota play a role in regulating host phenotypic plasticity in small mammals living in seasonal environments has rarely been examined. The present study, through an intermittent temperature acclimation model, indicates that both gut microbiota and their host were more adaptive after repeated acclimations. It also demonstrates that dynamic gut microbiota confer host plasticity in thermoregulation in response to intermittent temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, low temperature seems to be a crucial cue in driving the symbiosis between mammals and their gut microbiota during evolution.

4.
PeerJ ; 8: e10105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083141

RESUMO

Background: Ovine milk is a rich source of bioactive proteins that supports the early growth and development of the newborn lambs. A large number of researches had targeted to the identification of ovine milk fat globule membrane proteins (MFGMPs), caseins (CNs), mastitis milk proteins in past years, but the dynamic change tendency of milk whey proteins during postnatal development has received limited attention. This research aimed to investigate the dynamic changes of ovine milk whey proteins after delivery, and explore the functions of whey proteins on early development of the newborns. Methods: In this research, Hu sheep milk samples were collected from six individuals by manual milking manner, at 0 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, 28 d and 56 d after delivery, respectively. The milk whey proteins were identified and quantified by the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem MS (MS/MS) methods. In addition, biological functions of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were annotated by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Results: A total of 310 proteins were identified , of which 121 were differentially expressed. In detail, 30 (10 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated), 22 (11 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated), 11 (four up-regulated and seven down-regulated), 11 (eight up-regulated and three down-regulated), 10 (six up-regulated and four down-regulated) DEPs were identified in 3 d vs. 0 d, 7 d vs. 3 d, 14 d vs. 7 d, 28 d vs. 14 d, 56 d vs. 28 d comparison groups, respectively. The GO annotation analysis revealed that biological process principally involved metabolic and biological regulation, the major cellular location were organelle, cell and extracellular region, and the mainly molecular function were binding and catalytic activity. Circadian rhythm, fatty acid biosynthesis and African trypanosomiasis were enriched by KEGG annotation analysis. Conclusion: The study reveals a comprehensive understanding of Hu sheep milk proteome, suggesting whey proteins change dramatically in early development of newborn lambs, which provide a potential guidance for early weaning of lambs.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14988, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917938

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in leukocytes has been regarded as a biomarker for various environmental exposures and chronic diseases. Our previous study showed that certain demographic factors (e.g. age, gender, BMI, etc.) significantly affect levels of leukocyte mtDNA copy number in Mexican Americans. However, the effect of the built environment on leukocyte mtDNA copy number has not been studied previously. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the association between multiple components of the built environment with leukocyte mtDNA copy number among 5,502 Mexican American adults enrolled in Mano-A-Mano, the Mexican American Cohort Study (MACS). Based on the median levels of mtDNA copy number, the study population was stratified into low mtDNA copy number group (< median) and high mtDNA copy number group (≥ median). Among all built environment exposure variables, household density and road/intersection ratio were found to be statistically significant between groups with low and high mtDNA copy number (P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, individuals living in areas with elevated levels of household density had 1.24-fold increased odds of having high levels of mtDNA copy number [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CIs) 1.08, 1.36]. Similarly, those living in areas with elevated levels of road/intersection ratio had 1.12-fold increased odds of having high levels of mtDNA copy number (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). In further analysis, when both variables were analyzed together in a multivariate logistic regression model, the significant associations remained. In summary, our results suggest that selected built environment variables (e.g. population density and road/intersection ratio) may influence levels of mtDNA copy number in leukocytes in Mexican Americans.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1386, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China is becoming an aging society at the fastest pace in history, and there are a large number of empty nesters in the country. With economic and social development, internal support systems among families are gradually weakening. Supporting the elderly is thus emerging as a significant issue, and promoting digital health technologies is an effective way to help address it. Encouraging the application of Internet to elderly care and Internet use among the elderly are important means of promoting digital health technologies. This paper examines the current state of the use of the Internet by the elderly and factors influencing it (including physical, psychological, and social) as well as demand among the elderly for smart services. METHODS: A total of 669 subjects over the age of 60 years were randomly selected from 13 cities in Heilongjiang province and surveyed using questionnaires from May 1 to July 31, 2018. The questionnaires were collected for descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, and the analysis of influential factors. RESULTS: Of the people surveyed, 38.6% used the Internet. Their favorite online activity was online dating (74.2%), and the health information they obtained through the Internet was mainly related to diet (63.1%) and exercise (47.1%). The subjects demanded smart bracelets (MD = 2.80) and emergency callers (MD = 2.77). Gender, age, education, monthly income, quality of life, number of friends, and social participation were found to have an impact on Internet use. CONCLUSIONS: More measures are needed to reduce barriers to the use of the Internet and promote digital health technologies. The society, equipment manufacturers, and family members of the elderly should work together to enable them to reap the benefits of online technologies.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 400: 123330, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947724

RESUMO

For water treatment/remediation by zerovalent iron (ZVI), of particular concern is its selectivity toward contaminants over natural non-targets (e.g., O2 and H2O/H+). Hence, the effects of weak magnetic field (WMF) on the selectivity of ZVI toward metalloid oxyanions (i.e., As(III), As(V), Sb(III), Sb(V), Se(IV) and Se(VI)) were in-depth investigated under aerobic conditions. This study unraveled that, despite the electron utilization (EU) of ZVI with and without WMF were almost identical at reaction equilibrium, the application of a WMF could enhance the specific removal capacity (SRC) of ZVI toward metalloid oxyanions from 1.8-19.0 mg/g Fe to 12.6-85.3 mg/g Fe. Particularly, the electron efficiency (EE) of ZVI with WMF for reduction of Se(IV)/Se(VI) were 3.7- to 14.1-fold greater than that without WMF. Since the WMF-induced magnetic gradient force (FΔB) can derive the movement of both Fe2+ and metalloid oxyanions, the subsequent incorporation of metalloid oxyanions with in-situ generated iron oxides can also been mediated synchronously and thus leading to an enhanced SRC of ZVI (also EE for Se(IV) and Se(VI) reduction by ZVI). In general, our findings prove that WMF should be a promising method to promote the selectivity of ZVI for water decontamination under aerobic conditions.

8.
Nurs Ethics ; : 969733020945752, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Independent decision-making is one of the basic rights of patients. However, in clinical practice, most older cancer patients' treatment decisions are made by family members. OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to analyze the treatment decision-making process and formation mechanism for older cancer patients within the special cultural context of Chinese medical practice. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted. With the sample saturation principle, data collected by in-depth interviews with 17 family members and 12 patients were subjected to thematic analysis. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The study was approved by the ethics committees of Sun Yat-sen University. All participants provided verbal informed consent after being told their rights of confidentiality, anonymity, and voluntary participation. They had the right to refuse to answer questions and could withdraw at any time. RESULTS: Three themes emerged: (1) complex process; (2) transformation of family decision-making power; and (3) individual compromise. Family members inevitably had different opinions during the long process of treatment decision-making for older cancer patients. The direction of this process could be regarded as an extension of the family power relationship. The patient usually compromised the decision to survive, which was made by family members. CONCLUSION: This study describes the treatment decision-making process of older cancer patients in the context of Chinese culture. The reasons underlying this process are related to the views on life and death and family values. An individual is a part of the family, which is often seen as the minimal interpersonal unit in Chinese society. It is significant that while emphasizing patient autonomy in the decision-making process, health professionals should also pay attention to the important roles of culture and family.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15933, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985613

RESUMO

Climate change and rapid urbanization have greatly impacted urban forest ecosystems and the carbon (C) cycle. To assess the effects of urbanization on forest soil C and soil microorganisms, six natural forests in a highly-urbanized region were selected as the research objects. Soil samples were collected to investigate the content and fractions of the soil organic carbon (SOC), as well as the soil microbial community composition. The results showed that the SOC content and fractions were substantially lower in the urban forests than in the suburban forests. Meanwhile, the total amount of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) at suburban sites was twice more than that at urban sites, with shifts in microbial community structure. The potential differences in C inputs and nutrient limitation in urban forests may aggravate the low quantity and quality of SOC and consequently impact microbial community abundance and structure. Variation in microbial community structure was found to explain the loss of soil C pools by affecting the C inputs and promoting the decomposition of SOC. Therefore, the coupled changes in SOC and soil microorganisms induced by urbanization may adversely affect soil C sequestration in subtropical forests.

10.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess mitochondrial dysfunction in a murine model of supraspinatus tendinopathy. METHODS: Eighty-four mice (168 limbs) were included in the study. Supraspinatus tendinopathy was induced by inserting a microsurgical clip in the subacromial space of 63 mice bilaterally (126 limbs). Forty-two of these limbs were harvested at 4 weeks postoperatively, 42 underwent clip removal at 4 weeks after the initial procedure and were harvested at 2 weeks, and 42 underwent clip removal at 4 weeks and were harvested at 4 weeks. Forty-two limbs in the remaining 21 mice did not undergo surgical intervention and were utilized as the control group. Outcomes included biomechanical, histological, gene expression, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. RESULTS: Radiographs confirmed stable clip position in the subacromial space at 4 weeks. Biomechanical testing demonstrated a 60% decrease in failure force of the supraspinatus tendons at 4 weeks compared with the control group. The failure force gradually increased at 2 and 4 weeks after clip removal. Histological analysis demonstrated inflammation surrounding the tendon with higher modified Bonar scores at 4 weeks after clip placement followed by gradual improvement following clip removal. The expression of mitochondrial-related genes was decreased at 4 weeks after clip placement and then significantly increased after clip removal. SOD activity decreased significantly at 4 weeks after clip placement but increased following clip removal. TEM images demonstrated alterations in morphology and the number of mitochondria and cristae at 4 weeks after clip placement with improvement after clip removal. CONCLUSIONS: Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be associated with the development of tendinopathy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mitochondrial protection may offer a potential strategy for delaying the development of tendinopathy and promoting tendon healing.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796598

RESUMO

Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) causes severe yield losses in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. Studies have shown that the mechanisms of DNA methylation-mediated plant defense against DNA viruses and RNA viruses are different. However, in rice its function in response to infection of RBSDV, a double-stranded RNA virus, remains unclear. In this study, high-throughput single-base resolution bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq) was carried out to analyze the distribution pattern and characteristics of cytosine methylation in RBSDV-infected rice. Widespread differences were identified in CG and non-CG contexts between the RBSDV-infected and RBSDV-free rice. We identified a large number of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) along the genome of RBSDV-infected rice. Additionally, the transcriptome sequencing analysis obtained 1119 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Correlation analysis of DMRs-related genes (DMGs) and DEGs filtered 102 genes with positive correlation and 71 genes with negative correlation between methylation level at promoter regions and gene expression. Key genes associated with maintaining DNA methylation in rice were analyzed by RT-qPCR and indicated that OsDMT702 might be responsible for the global increase of DNA methylation level in rice under RBSDV stress. Our results suggest important roles of rice DNA methylation in response to RBSDV and provide potential target genes for rice antiviral immunity.

12.
Health Commun ; : 1-10, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835536

RESUMO

The current study tested the "corrective action hypothesis" by analyzing intentions to engage in discursive activities for mental health in response to news coverage of mass shootings. Hypotheses were proposed regarding how involvements with the news influence on people with mental health issues moderate preexisting attitude toward people with mental health issues in predicting perceived media bias, and how perceived media bias predicts intention to engage in discursive activities for mental health. Two hundred nighty eight respondents were surveyed through Qualtrics national research panels. The results suggested participants would not be motivated by their prior attitude toward mental health to take part in discursive activities unless they are highly involved with the news issue and in the meantime perceived mass shooting coverage is biased against people with mental health. The results extended the discussion of corrective action hypothesis to the context of media coverage of mass shooting - a significant issue nowadays that intertwines with public health concerns. The results also provide a basis for the discussion of the potential benefits of employing perceived media bias in educating the public by appealing to individuals' outcome concerns and value systems.

13.
ISME J ; 14(10): 2625-2645, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632263

RESUMO

Many small mammals engage in coprophagy, or the behavior of consuming feces, as a means to meet nutritional requirements when feeding on low-quality foods. In addition to nutritional benefits, coprophagy may also help herbivores retain necessary gut microbial diversity and function, which may have downstream physiological effects, such as maintaining energy balance and cognitive function. Here, we used collars to prevent Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) from engaging in coprophagy and monitored changes in microbial community structure, energy metabolism, and cognitive performance. In this research, we found that coprophagy prevention decreased alpha diversity of the gut microbiota, and altered proportions of microbial taxa such as Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Oscillospira. Preventing coprophagy resulted in a reduced body mass, and increased food intake. Importantly, coprophagy prevention decreased vole cognitive behavior and altered levels of neurotransmitters in brain. Daily acetate administration was able to reverse some of the coprophagy prevention-induced changes in microbiota composition, metabolism, neurochemistry, and cognitive behavior. These findings identify the functional importance of coprophagy behavior and interactions between the gut microbiota, energy metabolism, and neurological function. Our results suggest that coprophagy contributes to stabilizing the gut microbiota, promoting microbial metabolism, maintaining host energy balance and, consequently, altering cognitive performance.

14.
Exp Cell Res ; 395(1): 112170, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682783

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide with poor prognosis and high recurrence. Aberrant Wnt/ß-catenin signaling promotes oncogenesis by transcriptional activation of c-Myc and its downstream signals. EDAR is characterized as an important effector of canonical Wnt signaling in developing skin appendages, but the interplay between EDAR and Wnt signaling in tumorigenesis and progression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we revealed that EDAR expression is prevalently elevated in colorectal cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. Further analysis suggests there is a strict correlation between EDAR expression and colorectal cancer progression. EDAR silencing by shRNA in colorectal cancer cells showed proliferative suppression via retarding cell cycle at G1 phase. Xenograft mice transplanted with shEDAR-transduced tumor cells significantly alleviated tumor burden in comparison with control mice. Furthermore, downregulation of EDAR was accompanied by reduction of ß-catenin, c-Myc and other G1 cell cycle regulators, while ß-catenin agonist restored the expression of these proteins and overrode the proliferative block induced by EDAR knockdown. These findings indicate that EDAR functions as a component of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, and is a potential modulator in colorectal carcinogenesis.

15.
J Therm Biol ; 91: 102641, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716882

RESUMO

Evaporative water loss is an essential strategy to maintain stable body temperature in heat-exposed rodents. However, the thermoregulatory role and adjustment of evaporative heat loss capacity is unclear during prolonged heat exposure. Here, we studied the role of evaporative water loss in thermoregulation in Mongolian gerbils during heat acclimation. After 3 weeks of heat acclimation, gerbils exhibited a lower body temperature than the controls, and no difference in evaporative losses of water from the lung or saliva spreading compared with the controls. Heat acclimation did not alter the expression of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-5 in the lungs and the expression of aquaporin-5 in the salivary glands. The expression of aquaporin-2 in the kidneys was kept stable, while the expression of aquaporin-1 in the kidneys was down-regulated. In addition, resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis of heat-acclimated gerbils were reduced to 51% and 55% of the control group, respectively. Taken together, heat-acclimated Mongolian gerbils can reduce the metabolic thermogenesis without enhancing the evaporative water loss capacity for thermoregulation.

16.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643741

RESUMO

Spin orbit torque (SOT) has drawn widespread attention in the emerging field of magnetic memory devices, such as magnetic random access memory (MRAM). To promote the performance of SOT-MRAM, most efforts have been devoted to enhance the SOT switching efficiency by improving the damping-like torque. Recently, some studies noted that the field-like torque also plays a crucial role in the nanosecond-timescale SOT dynamics. However, there is not yet an effective way to tune its relative amplitude. Here, we experimentally modulate the field-like SOT in W/CoFeB/MgO trilayers through tuning the interfacial spin accumulation. By performing spin Hall magnetoresistance measurement, we find that the CoFeB with enhanced spin dephasing, either generated from larger layer thickness or from proper annealing, can distinctly boost the spin absorption and enhance the interfacial spin mixing conductance Gr. While the damping-like torque efficiency increases with Gr, the field-like torque efficiency is found to decrease with it. The results suggest that the interfacial spin accumulation, which largely contributes to the field-like torque, is reduced by higher interfacial spin transparency. Our work shows a new path to further improve the performance of SOT-based ultrafast magnetic devices.

17.
J Comp Physiol B ; 190(5): 641-654, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556536

RESUMO

Desert rodents are faced with many challenges such as high dietary salt in their natural habitats and they have evolved abilities to conserve water and tolerate salt. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in water and salt balances in desert rodents are unknown. We hypothesized that desert rodents regulated water and salt balances by altering the expression of AQP2 and α-ENaC in the kidney. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), a desert species, were acclimated to drinking water with different salt contents: (0, control; 4% NaCl, moderate salt, MS; 8% NaCl, high salt, HS) for 4 weeks. The gerbils drinking salty water had lower body mass, food intake, water intake, metabolic water production and urine volume. The HS gerbils increased the expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the hypothalamus, and also enhanced the expression of AQP2 and cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway in the kidney. In addition, these gerbils reduced serum aldosterone levels and α-ENaC expression in the kidney. Creatinine clearance was lower in the HS group than that in the control group, but serum and urine creatinine levels did not change. These data indicate that desert rodents rely on AVP-dependent upregulation of AQP2 and aldosterone-dependent downregulation of α-ENaC in the kidney to promote water reabsorption and sodium excretion under high salt intake.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513795

RESUMO

Here, the antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance mechanisms, and clonality of Mobiluncus sp. isolates recovered from gynecological outpatients in China were investigated. Compared to M. mulieris, M. curtisii exhibited higher antimicrobial resistance to metronidazole, clindamycin, and tetracycline. Whole-genome sequencing indicated that the clindamycin resistance gene erm(X) was located on a transposable element, Tn5432, which was composed of two IS1249 sequences. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Mobiluncus spp. had high diversity, with isolates being grouped into several sporadic clades.

19.
Bioorg Chem ; 100: 103915, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450383

RESUMO

In the present study, the effects of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) mice model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were determined. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to assess the intestines of mice treated with DSS and DHA. The expression of inflammatory factors and cell junction-associated genes was measured using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot. The effects of DSS and DHA on the gut microbiome were measured using 16S recombinant (r) DNA gene analysis. DHA could improve the diarrhea and bloody stool induced by DSS, and decrease the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-23 of the DSS group. DHA could notably reduce the infiltration of the inflammatory cells and significantly decrease the expression of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the intestines of the DSS treated mice. The expression of cell junction-associated genes such as EpCAM and Claudins, were down-regulated in the DSS group, and DHA could recover the expression of these cell junction-associated genes. The 16S rDNA gene analysis demonstrated that Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia decreased, while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased in the DSS group, and DHA could recover the abundance of these gut bacteria altered by DSS. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that DHA could partly recover the pathways altered by DSS. DHA could obviously ameliorate the symptoms of IBD induced by DSS by regulation of the expression of inflammation and cell junction-associated genes and gut microbiota, suggesting its potential for the treatment of IBD.

20.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(2): 707-714, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468008

RESUMO

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin, which has been found to exhibit a broad range of biological activities, excluding antimalarial effects; however its effects on the gut microbiota remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of DHA on the gut microbiome in mice and to determine its potential biological and pharmaceutical activities through its alteration of the gut microbiota. Serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, lipopolysaccharide, high density lipoprotein­cholesterol, low density lipoprotein­cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in mice treated with DHA were analyzed using the corresponding detection kits. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to determine the pathological effects of DHA on the liver, kidney and intestinal tissues of mice, and the effects of DHA on the gut microbiome were analyzed using 16S ribosomal (r)DNA gene analysis. The results demonstrated that the TG serum levels of mice treated with DHA were significantly decreased compared with the control group. Furthermore, 16S rDNA gene analysis demonstrated that the bacterial diversity of mice treated with DHA was enriched compared with the control group. The DHA group exhibited increased numbers of Firmicutes and Saccharibacteria, and decreased Deferribacteres and Actinobacteria compared with the control group at the phylum level. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes signaling pathway enrichment analysis also revealed that the signaling pathways associated with 'Energy metabolism' and 'Nucleotide metabolism' were upregulated, whereas the signaling pathways associated with 'Infectious diseases and 'Neurodegenerative diseases' were downregulated in the DHA group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that DHA may significantly decrease the serum TG levels and alter the gut microbiota, which suggested its potential to be used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders.

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