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2.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e029201, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the secular trends in mean value and distribution of weight, height and weight for height in children under 7 years in developed regions in China. DESIGN: Five repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted using the same methods at the same sites during 1975-2015. SETTING: Nine cities in northern, central and southern regions of China. POPULATION: Healthy children under 7 years; the sample sizes were 94 496 in 1975, 79 177 in 1985, 79 152 in 1995, 69 760 in 2005 and 83 583 in 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight and height were measured by the same methods in the five surveys. RESULTS: The increasing trends in the mean value of weight, height and weight for height were observed and their distribution was found to have shifted upwards. There were unbalanced increments in various centiles and the relative increments in the 3rd centile of height for children under 7 years were larger than those in the 50th and 97th centiles. Although the relative increments in the 3rd centile of weight for children under 2 years were larger than those in the 50th and 97th centiles, the increments in the 97th centile for children older than 2 years became the largest compared with other centiles. The changes in each centile of weight for height were similar with those of weight. The annual increments of height and weight increased over time and were more significant between birth and 2 years of age for height and between ages 4 years and 6 years for weight. The per-decade increments in 1975-1985, 1985-1995 and 1995-2005 became larger, while those in 2005-2015 slowed down. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increasing trends of weight, height and weight for height had slowed down since 2005 in developed regions of China. The relative increments in the low centile of height were more significant, while the high centile of weight and weight for height increased more significantly in older children.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671411

RESUMO

Recently, a novel two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor, InSe, has attracted great attention due to its potential applications in optoelectronic devices and field effect transistors. In this study, phonon-limited mobility is investigated by the first-principles calculation. At 300 K, the intrinsic electron mobilities calculated from the electron-phonon coupling (EPC) matrix element are as high as µx=9.85×102(Zigzag direction) and µy=1.06×103cm2V-1s-1(Armchair direction), respectively. The deformation potential theory (DPT) based on longitudinal acoustic phonon and optical phonon scattering is also employed to investigate electron mobility. The mobility from optical phonon scattering is much higher than that from longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering. If the polarization characteristics of InSe are not considered, the electron mobility calculated from EPC matrix element is closed to that from the longitudinal acoustic phonon DPT. In this study, we have also investigated the effect of polarization properties in 2D InSe on electron mobility. At 300 K, the electron mobility for considering Fröhlich interaction is reduced to µx=2.96×102cm2V-1s-1 and µy=3.34×102cm2V-1s-1. Therefore, the electron mobility for InSe is controlled by the scattering from polar phonons. The mobility can be increased to µx=3.46×102and µy=3.78×102cm2V-1s-1under 4 % biaxial strain. This result is compared with the experiment, and some disagreements are explained.

4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671876

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of wheat. Salicylic acid (SA) is involved in the resistance of wheat to F. graminearum. Cell wall mannoprotein (CWM) is known to trigger defense responses in plants, but its role in the pathogenicity of F. graminearum remains unclear. Here, we characterized FgCWM1 (FG05_11315), encoding a CWM in F. graminearum. FgCWM1 was highly expressed in wheat spikes by 24 h after initial inoculation and was upregulated by SA. Disruption of FgCWM1 (ΔFgCWM1) reduced mannose and protein accumulation in the fungal cell wall, especially under SA treatment, and resulted in defective fungal cell walls, leading to increased fungal sensitivity to SA. The positive role of FgCWM1 in mannose and protein accumulation was confirmed by its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared with wild type (WT), ΔFgCWM1 exhibited reduced pathogenicity toward wheat, but it produced the same amount of deoxynivalenol both in culture and in spikes. Complementation of ΔFgCWM1 with FgCWM1 restored the WT phenotype. Localization analyses revealed that FgCWM1 was distributed on the cell wall, consistent with its structural role. Thus, FgCWM1 encodes a CWM protein that plays an important role in the cell wall integrity and pathogenicity of F. graminearum.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654308

RESUMO

Organophosphorus pesticides are effective, cheap, and used extensively but can harm aquatic organism and human health. Here, water quality criteria (WQCs) for dichlorvos (DDVP) and malathion (MAL) were derived. Nine aquatic organisms native to China were used in toxicity tests. Published toxicity data for aquatic organisms native and non-native to China were also analyzed. DDVP and MAL WQCs were derived using (log-normal model) species sensitivity distributions. Species sensitivity distribution curves indicated native and non-native species have different sensitivities to DDVP. The sensitivities of native and non-native species to MAL were not different because non-native species data for fewer than eight genera were available, so further research is required. The results indicated that native species need to be considered when deriving WQCs. The criteria maximum concentration (CMC) and criteria continuous concentration (CCC) were 1.33 and 0.132 µg/L, respectively, for DDVP, and 0.100 and 0.008 µg/L, respectively, for MAL. The CMCs for DDVP and MAL derived using ETX 2.0 software and species sensitivity ranks were different from the CMCs obtained using the SSD method because of parameter uncertainties. The DDVP and MAL WQCs were significantly lower than Chinese surface water quality standard thresholds. The results provide basic data for revising these thresholds.

6.
Int J Surg ; 71: 140-148, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing evidence demonstrated robot-assisted distal gastrectomy (RADG) is safe and feasible for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC), robot-assisted total gastrectomy (RATG) remains a challenging procedure due to its technical difficulties and possible postoperative complications (POCs). This study aimed to systematically evaluate POCs following RATG. METHODS: Between January 2017 and January 2019, 319 AGC patients with pathological stage T2-4aN0-3M0 who underwent RADG or RATG were enrolled. POCs were stratified using the Clavien-Dindo classification. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed to reduce confounding differences. RESULTS: After matching, 266 patients met the criteria for further analysis. Ultimately, 64 patients (24.1%) who developed POCs had 126 clinical manifestation events. Overall the POCs rate was significantly greater after RATG in comparison with RADG (29.3% vs. 18.8%; P = 0.045), and more major POCs (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ IIIa) were observed in the RATG group (14.3% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.013). The POCs were then classified into local and systemic POCs. The rates of local POCs (35.3% vs. 19.5%; P = 0.004) and systemic POCs (24.8% vs. 15.0%; P = 0.046) were significantly higher in the RATG group than the RADG group. Subgroup analysis showed that the anastomotic leakage rate was higher after RATG (5.3% vs. 0.8%; P = 0.031), whereas the remaining POCs were similar between the two groups. Patients with higher POCs significantly had longer postoperative length of stay (R = 0.895, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis confirmed age, extent of resection, and TNM stage were risk factors for all POCs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that RATG is technically feasible and safe for treatment of AGC with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates. The POCs rate of RATG was higher than RADG, especially for anastomotic leakage. More effective anastomotic techniques are needed in RATG to prevent leakage.

7.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 5734723, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612149

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the lack of adequate and scientifically rigorous evidence has limited its application in this disorder. Sanbai melon seed oil (SMSO) is used in folk medicine to treat DM; however, only few literature reports exist regarding its mechanism. Herein, we aimed to confirm the antidiabetic activity of SMSO in a T2DM model and further elucidate its possible mechanisms. The T2DM rat model was induced by high-fat and sugar diet and streptozocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg). SMSO was administered at doses of 0.7 g/kg, 1.4 g/kg, and 2.8 g/kg. Several biochemical parameters and antioxidant protein levels were measured to evaluate the hyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of SMSO. Western blotting was performed to determine its potential mechanism. Based on the results, SMSO treatment significantly reduced blood glucose levels, increased plasma insulin, and repaired islet tissue injury in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). To add, it markedly reduced MDA levels and increased that of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Western blot results showed that SMSO induced n-Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and Akt and GSK-3ß phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies showed that LY294002, aPI3K inhibitor, abolished the effects of SMSO on GSK-3ß phosphorylation and Nrf2 nuclear translocation as well as the protective effects on pancreatic ß cells. Together, these results suggest that SMSO regulates the Akt/GSK-3ß/Nrf2 pathway and induces the expression of antioxidant proteins to impede oxidative stress in rats with T2DM.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620373

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor type 1-associated DEATH domain protein (TRADD) is a TNFR1-associated signal transducer and an essential component of the TNFR1 complex that is involved in activating both apoptotic and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways as an adaptor. It also is required for TNFR-1-initiated neuronal apoptosis following in vitro infection with virus as an essential component of the antiviral response. To date, few studies have investigated the function of TRADD in lower vertebrates and its antiviral response to DNA virus infection. In the present study, a TRADD gene (named as EcTRADD) from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of EcTRADD consists of 1,370 base pairs (bp) and contains a 44 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 450 bp 3'-UTR including a poly (A) tail, and an 876 bp open reading frame encoding a putative 291 amino acid protein. EcTRADD has two conserved domains of N-terminal domain (TRADD-N) and a death domain (DD). EcTRADD was detected in all examined tissues. EcTRADD was up-regulated in the spleen after infection with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Subcellular localization analysis revealed that EcTRADD and EcTRADD-DD exhibited a clear pattern of discrete and interconnecting cytoplasmic filaments resembling the death-effector filaments, while EcTRADD-N was observed in the cytoplasm. After infection with SGIV, EcTRADD, and EcTRADD-DD were transferred to the nucleus. Overexpression of EcTRADD and its domains inhibited replication of SGIV in vitro. Both EcTRADD and EcTRADD-DD induced the caspase-dependent apoptosis in control and infected cells, while EcTRADD-N inhibited the apoptosis. Additionally, EcTRADD and EcTRADD-DD significantly promoted activation of NF-κB and reporter gene p53, whereas EcTRADD-N had no significant effect on p53. The results may provide new insights into the role of fish TRADD in fish virus infection.

9.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and optimization of glycemic control during pregnancy can help mitigate risks associated with diabetes. However, studies seldom focus precisely on maternal blood glucose level prior to pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate the associations between preconception blood fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level and subsequent pregnancy outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study among 6,447,339 women aged 20-49 years old who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project and completed pregnancy outcomes follow-up between 2010 and 2016 in China. During the preconception health examination, serum FPG concentration was measured, and self-reported history of DM was collected. Women were classified into three groups (normal FPG group: FPG < 5.6 mmol/L and no self-reported history of DM; impaired fasting glucose [IFG]: FPG 5.6-6.9 mmol/L and no self-reported history of DM; and DM: FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or self-reported history of DM). The primary outcomes were adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (PTB), macrosomia, small for gestational age infant (SGA), birth defect, and perinatal infant death. Logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for confounding variables. The mean age of women was 25.24 years, 91.47% were of Han nationality, and 92.85% were from rural areas. The incidence of DM and IFG was 1.18% (76,297) and 13.15% (847,737), respectively. Only 917 (1.20%) women reported a history of DM (awareness of their DM status), of whom 37.28% (337) had an elevated preconception FPG level (≥ 5.6 mmol/L), regarded as noncontrolled DM. A total of 1,005,568 (15.60%) women had adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with women with normal FPG, women with IFG had higher risks of spontaneous abortion (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.06-1.09; P < 0.001), PTB (1.02; 1.01-1.03; P < 0.001), macrosomia (1.07; 1.06-1.08; P < 0.001), SGA (1.06; 1.02-1.10; P = 0.007), and perinatal infant death (1.08; 1.03-1.12; P < 0.001); the corresponding ORs for women with DM were 1.11 (95% CI 1.07-1.15; P < 0.001), 1.17 (1.14-1.20; P < 0.001), 1.13 (1.09-1.16; P < 0.001), 1.17 (1.04-1.32; P = 0.008), and 1.59 (1.44-1.76; P < 0.001). Women with DM also had a higher risk of birth defect (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.15-1.91; P = 0.002). Among women without self-reported history of DM, there was a positive linear association between FPG levels and spontaneous abortion, PTB, macrosomia, SGA, and perinatal infant death (P for trend <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, 0.001, <0.001). Information about hypoglycemic medication before or during pregnancy was not collected, and we cannot adjust it in the analysis, which could result in underestimation of risks. Data on 2-hour plasma glucose level and HbA1c concentration were not available, and the glycemic control status was evaluated according to FPG value in women with DM. CONCLUSIONS: Women with preconception IFG or DM had higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, PTB, macrosomia, SGA, and perinatal infant death. Preconception glycemic control through appropriate methods is one of the most important aspects of preconception care and should not be ignored by policy makers.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(42): 16584-16589, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588745

RESUMO

A nickel-catalyzed asymmetric allylation of secondary phosphine oxides (SPO) for the synthesis of tertiary phosphine oxides (TPO) was realized with high enantioselectivity. The dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation of SPO was accomplished in the presence of nickel complex. By elucidating the absolute configurations of the reacted SPO starting material and the TPO product, we confirmed that the allylation reaction proceeded through a P-stereo retention process. The protocol represents the first example of synthesizing P-stereogenic phosphine oxides by allylation reaction.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14997, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628365

RESUMO

The tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is an important pest of crop and vegetable plants worldwide, and its resistance to insecticides have quickly developed. However, the resistance mechanisms of this pest are still unclear. In this study, the change in mRNA and miRNA profiles in the susceptible, indoxacarb-resistant and field indoxacarb-resistant strains of S. litura were characterized. Nine hundred and ten co-up-regulated and 737 co-down-regulated genes were identified in the resistant strains. Further analysis showed that 126 co-differentially expressed genes (co-DEGs) (cytochrome P450, carboxy/cholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, ATP-binding cassette transporter, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, aminopeptidase N, sialin, serine protease and cuticle protein) may play important roles in indoxacarb resistance in S. litura. In addition, a total of 91 known and 52 novel miRNAs were identified, and 10 miRNAs were co-differentially expressed in the resistant strains of S. litura. Furthermore, 10 co-differentially expressed miRNAs (co-DEmiRNAs) had predicted co-DEGs according to the expected miRNA-mRNA negative regulation pattern and 37 indoxacarb resistance-related co-DEGs were predicted to be the target genes. These results not only broadened our understanding of molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance by revealing complicated profiles, but also provide important clues for further study on the mechanisms of miRNAs involved in indoxacarb resistance in S. litura.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651049

RESUMO

To establish cholyglycine (CG) detection via enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was used as a reporter enzyme to prepare hapten-enzyme conjugate. Gel electrophoresis and UV scanning demonstrated that G6PD was successfully labeled with cholyglycine and CG-G6PD conjugate was obtained. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters on the preparation of CG-G6PD conjugates were investigated. Consequently, CG amount, NADH, D-glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), phosphate buffer and the pH, and ionic strength of solution had important effects on the residual activity of CG-G6PD. Moreover, CG amount, the pH, and G6P played important roles in changing CG labeling location on G6PD. Using the CG-G6PD conjugate as test kit, the cholyglycine-EMIT calibration curve was established, which could be employed in clinical detection of cholyglycine. This study provides some valuable information for preparing hapten-G6PD conjugates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109781, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622879

RESUMO

Nanomaterials of Al2O3 and TiO2 have been proved to promote the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by horizontal gene transfer. In this work, we found that Fe2O3@MoS2 nanocomposite inhibited the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) by inhibiting the conjugative transfer mediated by RP4-7 plasmid. To discover the mechanism of Fe2O3@MoS2 inhibiting HGT, the bacterial cells were collected under the optimal mating conditions. The collected bacterial cells were used for analyzing the expression levels of genes unique to the plasmid and the bacterial chromosome in the conjugation system by qPCR. The results of genes expression demonstrated that the mechanism of Fe2O3@MoS2 inhibited conjugation by promoting the expression of global regulatory gene (trbA) and inhibiting the expression of conjugative transfer genes involved in mating pair formation (traF, trbB) and DNA replication (trfA). The risk assessment of Fe2O3@MoS2 showed that it had very low toxicity to organisms. The findings of this paper showed that Fe2O3@MoS2, as an inhibitor of horizontal gene transfer, is an environment-friendly material.

14.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595539

RESUMO

Pit membranes between xylem vessels play a major role in angiosperm water transport. Yet, their three-dimensional (3D) structure as fibrous porous media remains unknown, largely due to technical challenges and sample preparation artefacts. Here, we applied a modelling approach based on thickness measurements of fresh and fully shrunken pit membranes of seven species. Pore constrictions were also investigated visually by perfusing fresh material with colloidal gold particles of known sizes. Based on a shrinkage model, fresh pit membranes showed tiny pore constrictions of ca. 20 nm, but a very high porosity (i.e., pore volume fraction) of on average 0.81. Perfusion experiments showed similar pore constrictions in fresh samples, well below 50 nm based on transmission electron microscopy. Drying caused a 50% shrinkage of pit membranes, resulting in much smaller pore constrictions. These findings suggest that pit membranes represent a mesoporous medium, with the pore space characterised by multiple constrictions. Constrictions are much smaller than previously assumed, but the pore volume is large and highly interconnected. Pores do not form highly tortuous, bent, or zigzagging pathways. These insights provide a novel view on pit membranes, which is essential to develop a mechanistic, 3D understanding of air-seeding through this porous medium.

15.
Food Funct ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595923

RESUMO

Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is a natural flavonoid compound derived from Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim and has been found to possess numerous biological activities. However, there have been few reports regarding its anti-food allergic activity. In this study, we demonstrated that DMY could upregulate the rectal temperature, suppress the development of diarrhea, decrease the levels of serum specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, histamine, and mouse mast cell protease-1, and promote the production of interleukin-10 in ovalbumin-allergic mice. Moreover, DMY downregulated the population of B cells and mast cells and upregulated the population of regulatory T cells in the spleens of ovalbumin-allergic mice. Furthermore, DMY blocked the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-IgE interaction, inhibited the release of ß-hexosaminidase and histamine in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells, and alleviated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions. These findings indicated that L. pauciflorus derived DMY might have the potential to alleviate food hypersensitivity or allergic diseases.

16.
Infect Immun ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570558

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic helminth disease that can cause severe inflammatory pathology leading to organ damage in humans. During a schistosome infection, the eggs are trapped in the host liver, and products derived from eggs induce a polarized T helper 2 cell response, resulting in granuloma formation and eventually fibrosis. Previous studies have indicated that NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in schistosomiasis-associated liver fibrosis and that taurine could ameliorate hepatic granuloma and fibrosis caused by Schistosoma japonicum infection. Nevertheless, the precise role and molecular mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome and the protective effects of taurine on S. japonicum infection have not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome and hepatoprotective mechanism of taurine in schistosoma-induced liver injury in mice. NLRP3 deficiency ameliorated S. japonicum infection-induced hepatosplenomegaly, liver dysfunction and hepatic granuloma and fibrosis; it also reduced NLRP3-dependent liver pyroptosis. Furthermore, taurine suppressed the activation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)/NLRP3 inflammasome in mice with S. japonicum infection, thereby inhibiting the activation of downstream inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1ß and subsequent pyroptosis. Our results suggest that the TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and mediating pyroptosis are involved in S. japonicum-induced liver injury and may be a potential therapeutic target for schistosomiasis treatment. In addition, taurine may be useful to alleviate or prevent the occurrence of schistosomiasis-associated liver fibrosis.

17.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564133

RESUMO

A new epimer of azaphilone derivative pinophilin B, epi-pinophilin B (1), and three known analogues (2-4) were obtained from the culture of the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus 14-27. The structures of 1-4, including their relative configurations were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparing with literature data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and optical rotatory (OR) calculations methods. Compounds 1-4 were isolated from A. fumigatus for the first time. Their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities were also evaluated.

18.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6767-6778, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576893

RESUMO

Coumarin is an important organic heterocyclic compound with a wide range of sources in nature. It plays an important role in the drug discovery process due to its existence in diverse biologically active compounds and its broad bioactivity. In this study, the anti-allergic activity of coumarin was evaluated using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse food allergy model and an immunoglobulin (Ig)E mediated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC) model. Coumarin could alleviate the OVA-induced allergic symptoms, decrease the diarrhea rates, and promote the rectal temperature rise in allergic mice. Moreover, coumarin had the ability to reduce the levels of histamine and mouse mast cell proteinases, inhibit OVA-specific IgE, and significantly decrease the population of mast cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Coumarin could also significantly suppress mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Additionally, the number of mature BMMCs was decreased as coumarin caused the suppression of c-KIT receptors. Furthermore, coumarin up-regulated the apoptosis of OVA-activated BMMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, coumarin displayed effective anti-food allergy activity via the regulation of mast cell function and numbers. Coumarin and its derivatives provide a new direction for the development of anti-food allergic drug components.

19.
Curr Med Chem ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580244

RESUMO

Based on three domains of colchicine-site which is conducive to the combination with small molecular compounds, colchicine-site on the tubulin has become a popular target for antitumor, that resulted in a great number of tubulin inhibitors binding to colchicine-site were reported and evaluated over the past years. Here, tubulin inhibitors targeting colchicine-site and their application to antitumor were reviewed from 2015 to 2019. Tubulin inhibitors were classified to ten categories according to structural features, as colchicine derivates, CA-4 analogues, chalcone analogues, coumarin analogs, indole hybrids, quinoline and quinazoline analogs, lignan and podophyllotoxin derivatives, phenothiazine analogs, N-heterocycle hybrids and others. Most of them possessing strong antitumor activity including antiproliferative potential against multi-drug-resistant (MDR) cell lines and anti-vascular properties both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in-depth analysis, lots of compounds were listed in tables as multi-target inhibitors, anti-MDR compounds, and inhibitors bearing antitumor activity in vivo. The latest research progress of tubulin inhibitors was demonstrated in this review, providing valuable reference and convenience for the research on tubulin inhibitors in future.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e028317, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601583

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) refers to individuals' perceived decline in memory and/or other cognitive abilities relative to their previous level of performance, while objective neuropsychological deficits are not observed. SCD may represent a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. At this very early stage of decline, intervention could slow the rate of incipient decline to prolong and preserve cognitive and functional abilities. However, there is no effective treatment recommended for individuals with SCD. Acupuncture, as a non-pharmacological intervention, has been widely employed for patients with cognitive disorders. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The proposed study is a randomised, assessor-blinded and placebo-controlled study that investigates the efficacy and mechanism of acupuncture in SCD. Sixty patients with SCD will be randomly allocated either into an acupuncture group or a sham acupuncture group. They will receive 24 sessions of real acupuncture treatment or identical treatment sessions using a placebo needle. Global cognitive changes based on a multidomain neuropsychological test battery will be evaluated to detect the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment at baseline and end of treatment. MRI scans will be used to explore acupuncture-related neuroplasticity changes. Correlation analyses will be performed to investigate the relationships between the changes in brain function and symptom improvement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was approved by the research ethics committee. The results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed academic journal and will also be disseminated electronically through conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03444896.

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