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1.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101504, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a challenging neurodegenerative disease. This systematic review aimed to summarize natural, physical, and social environmental factors that are associated with age-related cognitive impairment and dementia. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsychINFO till January 11, 2021 for observational studies. The hazard ratio (HR), relative risk (RR), and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were aggregated using random-effects methods. The quality of evidence for each association was evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 48,399 publications identified, there were 185 suitable for review across 44 environmental factors. Meta-analyses were performed for 22 factors. With high-to-moderate quality of evidence, risks were suggested in exposure to PM2.5 (HR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.17-1.31), NO2 (HR=1.07, 95%CI: 1.02-1.12), aluminum (OR=1.35, 95%CI: 1.14-1.59), solvents (OR=1.14, 95%CI: 1.07-1.22), road proximity (OR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.04-1.12) and other air pollutions, yet more frequent social contact (HR=0.82, 95%CI: 0.76-0.90) and more greenness (OR=0.97, 95%CI: 0.95-0.995) were protective. With low-to-very low quality, electromagnetic fields, pesticides, SO2, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and rural living were suggested risks, but more community cultural engagement might be protective. No significant associations were observed in exposure to PM10, NOx, noise, silicon, community group, and temperature. For the remaining 22 factors, only a descriptive analysis was undertaken as too few studies or lack of information. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights that air pollutions, especially PM2.5 and NO2 play important role in the risk for age-related cognitive impairment and dementia.

2.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the protective effect of calcium dobesilate against contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: A total of 130 patients with diabetes and CKD estimated glomerular filtration rate: 30-90 mL/min/1.73m2 were enrolled and included in the analysis. They were divided into experimental (n=65) and control groups (n=65). Patients in the experimental group were administered oral calcium dobesilate (500 mg) three times daily for 2 days before and 3 days after the procedure. The serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (Cys C), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were measured before and after the procedure. RESULTS: The mean SCr level at 24h after the procedure was found to be significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (79.1±19.6 µmol/L vs. 87.0±19.3 µmol/L, p=0.023). However, the Cys C and NGAL levels were not significantly different between the two groups at all measurement time points (all p>0.05). The incidence of CIN defined by the SCr level was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (3 [4.6%] vs. 13 [20.0%], p=0.017). However, the incidence of CIN defined by the Cys C level was not statistically different between the two groups (7 [10.8%] vs. 7 [10.8%], p=1.000). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that calcium dobesilate has no preventive effect against CIN in patients with diabetes and CKD.


Assuntos
Dobesilato de Cálcio , Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Biomarcadores , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária , Creatinina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 476, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526483

RESUMO

Progressive loss of neurons in a specific brain area is one of the manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Much effort has been devoted to investigating brain atrophy and AD. However, the causal relationship between cortical structure and AD is not clear. We conducted a bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between cortical structure (surface area and thickness of the whole cortex and 34 cortical regions) and AD risk. Genetic variants used as instruments came from a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of cortical structure (33,992 participants of European ancestry) and AD (AD and AD-by-proxy, 71,880 cases, 383,378 controls). We found suggestive associations of the decreased surface area of the temporal pole (OR (95% CI): 0.95 (0.9, 0.997), p = 0.04), and decreased thickness of cuneus (OR (95% CI): 0.93 (0.89, 0.98), p = 0.006) with higher AD risk. We also found a suggestive association of vulnerability to AD with the decreased surface area of precentral (ß (SE): -43.4 (21.3), p = 0.042) and isthmus cingulate (ß (SE): -18.5 (7.3), p = 0.011). However, none of the Bonferroni-corrected p values of the causal relationship between cortical structure and AD met the threshold. We show suggestive evidence of an association of the atrophy of the temporal pole and cuneus with higher AD risk. In the other direction, there was a suggestive causal relationship between vulnerability to AD and the decreased surface area of the precentral and isthmus cingulate. Our findings shed light on the associations of cortical structure with the occurrence of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Encéfalo , Causalidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
4.
Ageing Res Rev ; 70: 101409, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273589

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder where the accumulation of amyloid plaques and the formation of tau tangles are the prominent pathological hallmarks. Increasing preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that different components of the immune system may act as important contributors to AD etiology and pathogenesis. The recognition of misfolded Aß and tau by immune cells can trigger a series of complex immune responses in AD, and then lead to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In parallel, genome-wide association studies have also identified several immune related loci associated with increased - risk of AD by interfering with the function of immune cells. Other immune related factors, such as impaired immunometabolism, defective meningeal lymphatic vessels and autoimmunity might also be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we review the data showing the alterations of immune cells in the AD trajectory and seek to demonstrate the crosstalk between the immune cell dysfunction and AD pathology. We then discuss the most relevant research findings in regards to the influences of gene susceptibility of immune cells for AD. We also consider impaired meningeal lymphatics, immunometabolism and autoimmune mechanisms in AD. In addition, immune related biomarkers and immunotherapies for AD are also mentioned in order to offer novel insights for future research.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Biomarcadores , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Proteínas tau
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929115, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Hydration remains the mainstay of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) prevention, and new biomarkers of cystatin C (Cys C) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) have been suggested. This study aimed to explore whether hydration is essential in patients with very low-risk profiles of CIN who are undergoing coronary angiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 150 patients were enrolled and randomly distributed to 3 groups: the Preventive Group (n=50, saline hydration was given 6 h before the procedure until 12 h after the procedure), the Remedial Group (n=50, saline hydration was given after procedure for 12 h), and the No Hydration (NH) group (n=50, saline was only given during the procedure). Serum creatinine (Cr), Cys C, and urinary NGAL were tested 3 times at different times. RESULTS Six patients were excluded because of Mehran risk score >2. There was no CIN among 144 individuals. At 24 h and at 72 h after the procedure, we found no significant differences in the levels of Cr and Cys C (0.72±0.11 mg/L for the Preventive Group, 0.67±0.14 mg/L for the Remedial Group, and 0.70±0.1 6 mg/L for the NH Group) among the 3 groups. Urinary NGAL also did not differ significantly among the 3 groups at 6 h or at 48 h (6.31±6.60 ng/ml for the Preventive Group, 5.00±5.86 ng/ml for the Remedial Group, and 6.97±6.37 ng/ml for the NH Group) after the procedure. Subgroup analysis in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) showed that there was no significant difference in serum Cr, Cys C, or urinary NGAL at different time points among the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Saline hydration during the perioperative period might be unnecessary in patients with very low-risk profiles of CIN.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Cancer Educ ; 36(3): 603-610, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848938

RESUMO

To describe the knowledge and attitude of Chinese patients with advanced cancer towards advanced care planning (ACP), a convenience sample of 275 patients with advanced cancer was recruited from a tertiary cancer hospital in Beijing, China, between February and December 2017. The multi-item questionnaire focused on patients' demographics, disease characteristics and knowledge about and attitude towards ACP and was administered to eligible patients. Descriptive statistics were performed. Most patients had never heard about ACP (82.2%) and had never talked about ACP (83.0%), but only a few (18.3%) were not willing to talk about ACP. A total of 67.8% patients chose to refuse resuscitation attempts or life-sustaining medical interventions, and 70.8% of patients hoped to have surrogate decision makers when they became unconscious. By binary logistic regression analysis, patients who were of greater age, female and living in urban areas preferred to refuse resuscitation attempts or life-sustaining medical interventions (OR = 1.023, P = 0.042; OR = 2.011, P = 0.020; OR = 0.254, P < 0.01); patients who had very rich or rich family economic status preferred to involve surrogate decision makers compared with patients of very poor family economic status (OR = 0.250, P = 0.011). There is a large gap between the knowledge about ACP and the expectation of implementing ACP in Chinese patients with advanced cancer. To develop culturally appropriate and individualized programmes to promote knowledge and implementation in practice of ACP among Chinese patients with advanced cancer and their relatives is still a significant challenge.

7.
Perfusion ; 36(2): 122-129, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periprocedural myocardial infarction is a common complication following percutaneous coronary intervention. The present study was conducted with an aim to compare the safety and efficacy of loading doses of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in preventing periprocedural myocardial infarction in Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: A total of 114 patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention were assigned to clopidogrel group (n = 57, the loading and maintenance doses were 300 and 75 mg qd for clopidogrel, and 300 and 100 mg qd for aspirin), or ticagrelor group (n = 57, the loading and maintenance doses were 180 and 90 mg bid for ticagrelor, and 300 and 100 mg qd for aspirin). Cardiac biomarkers were measured before, 8 hours, and 24 hours after percutaneous coronary intervention. The percutaneous coronary intervention-related periprocedural myocardial infarction was defined according to the fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction (2018). RESULTS: The overall incidence of percutaneous coronary intervention-related periprocedural myocardial infarction was 21.1%. The ticagrelor group showed a significantly lower incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction (12.3% vs 29.8%, p = 0.022) and numerically lower bleeding events (3.5% vs 8.8%, p = 0.242) as compared with clopidogrel group. No patient had major adverse cardiovascular events during the 1-month follow-up. The levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not differ significantly between the two groups (p > 0.05), indicating that the benefits of ticagrelor were not from its anti-inflammatory effects. Multivariable analysis showed that the use of ticagrelor (odds ratio: 0.50; 95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.87; p = 0.014) and number of stents (odds ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.25-6.06; p = 0.012) were independent predictors of periprocedural myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with a loading dose of ticagrelor seems to be superior in reducing the incidence of percutaneous coronary intervention-related periprocedural myocardial infarction in Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome as compared with clopidogrel.

8.
Small ; 16(46): e2004240, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107142

RESUMO

Activation of the phagocytosis of macrophages to tumor cells is an attractive strategy for cancer immunotherapy, but the effectiveness is limited by the fact that many tumor cells express an increased level of anti-phagocytic signals (e.g., CD47 molecules) on their surface. To promote phagocytosis of macrophages, a pro-phagocytic nanoparticle (SNPACALR&aCD47 ) that concurrently carries CD47 antibody (aCD47) and a pro-phagocytic molecule calreticulin (CALR) is constructed to simultaneously modulate the phagocytic signals of macrophages. SNPACALR&aCD47 can achieve targeted delivery to tumor cells by specifically binding to the cell-surface CD47 and block the CD47-SIRPα pathway to inhibit the "don't eat me" signal. Tumor cell-targeted delivery increases the exposure of recombinant CALR on the cell surface and stimulates an "eat me" signal. Simultaneous modulation of the two signals enhances the phagocytosis of 4T1 tumor cells by macrophages, which leads to significantly improved anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. The findings demonstrate that the concurrent blockade of anti-phagocytic signals and activation of pro-phagocytic signals can be effective in macrophage-mediated cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Antígenos de Diferenciação , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Macrófagos , Neoplasias/terapia , Fagocitose , Receptores Imunológicos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234661, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544201

RESUMO

Xanthoxylin was the main compound (content 44.92% of total volatiles) in the leaves of Luodian B. balsamifera, which might be the key cause of failure in collecting essential oil (EO) of the leaves using general hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus. A modified hydrodistillation equipped with Clevenger apparatus was designed for isolating EO from the leaves. Six EOs of Luodian B. balsamifera harvested once a month from September to next February were collected successfully. The main components of EOs were δ-elemene, α-cubenene, caryophyllene, caryophyllene epoxide, γ-eudesmol, xanthoxylin, and α-eudesmol. The EOs of Luodian B. balsamifera collected from October to December had higher antioxidant activities (ACs). Combining the principal component analysis of chemical components with the results of ACs and the yields of six EOs, the leaves of Luodian B. balsamifera were suitable to be harvested in November and December to obtain EO with high quality.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Asteraceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , China , Destilação/instrumentação , Destilação/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Chem Sci ; 11(20): 5323-5327, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122990

RESUMO

Herein, a versatile strategy for the construction of biofunctional Janus particles (JPs) through the combination of Pickering emulsion and copper-free click chemistry is developed for the study of particle-mediated cell-cell interactions. A variety of biomolecules including bovine serum albumin (BSA), ferritin, transferrin (Tf), and anti-signal regulatory protein alpha antibodies (aSIRPα), etc., can be incorporated into the Janus platform in a spatially defined manner. JPs consisting of Tf and aSIRPα (Tf-SPA1-aSIRPα JPs) demonstrate a significantly improved binding affinity to either macrophages or tumor cells compared to their uniformly modified counterparts. More importantly, Tf-SPA1-aSIRPα JPs mediate more efficient phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages as revealed by real-time high-content confocal microscopy. This study demonstrates the potential advantages of JPs in mediating cell-cell interactions and may contribute to the emerging cancer immunotherapy.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659166

RESUMO

Nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an effective means to deliver therapeutic drugs for cancer treatment, as they can preferentially accumulate at tumor site through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Various forms of NPs including liposomes, polymeric micelles, and inorganic particles have been used for therapeutic applications. However, the therapeutic benefits of nanomedicines are suboptimal. Although many possible reasons may account for the compromised therapeutic efficacy, the inefficient tumor penetration can be a vital obstacle. Tumor develops characteristic pathological environment, such as abnormal vasculature, elevated interstitial fluid pressure, and dense extracellular matrix, which intrinsically hinder the transport of nanomedicines in the tumor parenchyma. The physicochemical properties of the NPs such as size, shape, and surface charge have profound effect on tumor penetration. In this review, we will highlight the factors that affect the transport of NPs in solid tumor, and then elaborate on designing strategies to improve NPs' penetration and uniform distribution inside the tumor interstitium. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease.


Assuntos
Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
Anim Sci J ; 89(6): 925-930, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682864

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate the effects of stocking density on performance, meat quality and tibia development in Pekin ducks reared on a plastic wire floor. A total of 372 healthy, 21-day-old, male ducks with similar body weight (BW) were randomly allotted to stocking densities of five (low), eight (medium) and 11 (high) birds/m2 . Each group had six replicates. Results showed that compared with the low density group, medium and high stocking density caused a decrease in final BW at 42 days old, and in average daily gain, European performance index (p < .01) and meat pH at 45 min postmortem (p < .001), and an increase of meat drip loss (p < .01). High stocking density resulted in an increase of feed/gain ratio (p < .001), but a decrease of tibia calcium (p < .01) and phosphorus content (p < .05). Meat color, shear force values, tibia size (weight, length, and width) and breaking strength were not significantly influenced by stocking density. In conclusion, stocking density over eight birds/m2 negatively affects growth performance, but meat quality and tibia development are not dramatically influenced. Based on this study, the stocking density of male Pekin ducks should be adjusted between five and eight birds/m2 .


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Abrigo para Animais , Carne , Tíbia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cor , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Fósforo/metabolismo , Densidade Demográfica , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Tíbia/metabolismo
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(1): 19-23, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24765837

RESUMO

Geostatistical techniques were used to quantify the spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen of one monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest area in Dinghushan, Guangdong, China. The results demonstrated that a significant spatial autocorrelation existed between soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in the Dinghushan monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest, such that 93.6% and 53.7% of their total spatial heterogeneity originated from their spatial autocorrelation. This observation agreed with a traditional statistics analysis showing a significant linear correlation between soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and also their spatial autocorrelation existed at a landscape level. The best fit from an exponential model showed that soil organic carbon had high degree of spatial heterogeneity at a scale of 17.4 m.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Florestas , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/química , China , Análise Espacial
14.
Org Biomol Chem ; 10(32): 6554-61, 2012 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22760526

RESUMO

A series of functionalized 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzoxazines were obtained in moderate to excellent yields via domino [5 + 1] annulations of 2-halo-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds 2 with imines 1 under mild conditions and the application of this method in the synthesis of bioactive analogues, such as functionalized tetracyclic-1,4-benzoxazines which contain two new heterocyclic rings and one quaternary carbon center has also been developed.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/síntese química , Halogênios/química , Iminas/química , Benzoxazinas/química , Química Farmacêutica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Estrutura Molecular
15.
Exp Ther Med ; 1(2): 277-283, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22993540

RESUMO

To investigate the in vivo and in vitro inhibitory effects of deuterium-depleted water (DDW) on human lung cancer and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects, we cultured and treated human lung carcinoma cell line A549 and human embryonic lung fibroblasts HLF-1 with various concentrations of DDW from 2 to 72 h. Cellular growth inhibition rates were determined using the 3-(4, 5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide) (MTT) proliferation assay. A549 cells were treated with 50±5 ppm DDW, and the morphology and structure of cells were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We observed alterations in the cellular skeleton by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and changes in cell cycle by flow cytometry. Our data showed that DDW significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells at a specific time point, and cells demonstrated the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis under SEM and TEM. The length of the S phase increased significantly in cells treated with 50 ppm DDW, whereas the G0 to G1 phase and G2 to M phase were decreased. We observed DDW-induced cellular apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA fragment analyses. In addition, we established a tumor transplantion model by injecting H460 tumor cells into subcutaneous tissue of BALB/c mice treated with DDW for 60 days. We determined the tumor inhibition rate of treated and control groups and found that the tumor weight was significantly decreased and the tumor inhibition rate was approximately 30% in the DDW group. We conclude that DDW is a promising new anticancer agent with potential for future clinical application.

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