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1.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909848

RESUMO

For zeolite catalysts, the regulation of active site and pore structure plays an important role in the enhancement of their catalytic performance. In this work, we proposed a one-pot and organic template-free co-regulation route to straightforwardly synthesize basic mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites with adjustable alkaline-earth metal species. The synthesis pathway combines two decisive strategies: 1) the seed-induced interface assembly growth method and 2) the acidic co-hydrolysis/condensation of aluminosilicate species and alkaline earth metal (e.g., Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba) sources. It is interesting that the mesoporous structure was self-evolved through particle-attached seed-interfacial crystallization without the assistance of any template. Meanwhile, the incorporation of alkaline-earth metals species is homogenous and highly dispersed in the solid products during the whole crystallization process, and finally generate the superior basicity. Catalysis tests of the as-synthesized samples displayed novel performance in the typical base reaction of Knoevenagel condensation, even for the bulky substrates due to the enhanced diffusion rising from meso/microporous network. This finding opens new possibilities for facile, cost-effective, and environment-friendly synthesis of mesoporous high-silica zeolites with tunable acid/base properties, and deepens our understanding of the particle-attached crystallization.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817197

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic architecture of adventitious root and related shoot traits will facilitate the cultivation of superior genotypes. In this study, we measured 12 adventitious root and related shoot traits of 434 F1 genotypes originating from Populus deltoides 'Danhong' × Populus simonii 'Tongliao1' and conducted an integrative analysis of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and RNA-Seq data to dissect their genetic architecture and regulatory genes. Extensive segregation, high repeatability, and significant correlation relationship were detected for the investigated traits. A total of 150 QTLs were associated with adventitious root traits, explaining 3.1-6.1% of phenotypic variation (PVE); while 83 QTLs were associated with shoot traits, explaining 3.1-19.8% of PVE. Twenty-five QTL clusters and 40 QTL hotspots were identified for the investigated traits. Ten QTL clusters were overlapped in both adventitious root traits and related shoot traits. Transcriptome analysis identified 10,172 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among two parents, three fine rooting and three poor-rooting genotypes, 143 of which were physically located within the QTL intervals. K-means cluster and weighted gene co-expression network analysis showed that PtAAAP19 (Potri.004G111400) encoding amino acid transport protein was tightly associated with adventitious roots and highly expressed in fine-rooting genotypes. Compare with 'Danhong', 153 bp deletion in the coding sequence of PtAAAP19 in 'Tongliao1' gave rise to lack one transmembrane domain, which might cause the variation of adventitious roots. Taken together, this study deciphered the genetic basis of adventitious root and related shoot traits and provided potential function genes for genetic improvement of poplar breeding.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2858-2868, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854680

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil respiration rates and soil biochemical properties is of great importance for providing a theoretical basis for accurate assessments of the soil respiration intensity and carbon recycling in grassland ecosystems. A field experiment was performed from April 2017 to March 2018, in which four different levels of nitrogen applications were investigated, including 0 kg·hm-2 (N0), 60 kg·hm-2 (N1), 120 kg·hm-2 (N2), and 180 kg·hm-2 (N3). The seasonal changes in the soil respiration rate, soil temperature, and soil moisture in the alfalfa grassland under different levels of nitrogen applications were observed, and soil biochemical characteristics were observed after each harvest in the growing season. The results showed that soil respiration rate of the alfalfa grassland displayed significant seasonal variation under different nitrogen levels. In particular, the soil respiration rate reached a peak during the last 10-day period of July and then decreased to the minimum in mid-December. During the growing season of alfalfa, the soil respiration rate of the alfalfa grassland increased with the increases in the nitrogen application rate. The mean soil respiration rates of the N1, N2, and N3 treatments were 0.97, 1.04, and 1.07 g·(m2·h)-1, respectively, and these values were 10.2%, 18.2%, and 21.6% greater than that of N0[0.88 g·(m2·h)-1], respectively. The results from ANOVA testing indicated that nitrogen applications had no significant effect on the soil respiration rate during the non-growing season of alfalfa (P>0.05). According to the statistical analysis, the soil respiration rate had a significant exponential positive relationship with soil temperature during the growing season, non-growing season, and entire year of alfalfa grassland observations under different nitrogen application rates (P<0.01); the coefficients of determination were ranked as follows:growing season (0.46-0.62) < non-growing season (0.66-0.76) < whole year (0.80-0.86). Soil temperature (T) and soil moisture (W) interacted with each other and ultimately affected the soil respiration (RS), and by using a two-factor linear model of soil temperature and soil moisture, a better fit was obtained for the change in the soil respiration rate. Both of the two factors explained 68%-80% of the variation in the seasonal soil respiratory rate during the growing season of alfalfa. Nitrogen fertilization decreased the soil pH and available phosphorus content (AP) to varying degrees, but it increased the available potassium (AK), soil organic matter (SOM), and soil urease (URE) and invertase activity (INV). Total nitrogen (TN) and available nitrogen (AN) showed different trends under different nitrogen levels. The TN and AN contents increased considerably in soils; however, when the nitrogen rate was higher than N2 (120 kg·hm-2), TN and AN decreased with the increases in the nitrogen application rate. According to the correlation matrix analysis between soil respiration and soil biochemical properties during the growth period of alfalfa, data showed that the soil respiration rate (RS) was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH (P<0.01), and it was significantly and positively correlated with soil TN and URE (P<0.01). Simultaneously, there was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate (RS) and SOM (P<0.05), and there was a significant negative correlation with INV (P<0.05). The soil nutrient and enzyme activities of the alfalfa grassland explained the variations in the soil respiration rate under different nitrogen application levels to varying degrees.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Pradaria , Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/química , China
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 356, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is a major environmental constraint to plant growth, development and productivity. Compared with most willows that are generally susceptible to drought, the desert willow Salix psammophila has extraordinary adaptation to drought stress. However, its molecular basis of drought tolerance is still largely unknown. RESULTS: During polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000)-simulated drought stress, we found that the osmotic adjustment substances were accumulated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were enhanced in S. psammophila roots. A total of 8172 differentially expressed genes were identified in roots of S. psammophila through RNA-Sequencing. Based on K-means clustering, their expression patterns were classified into nine clusters, which were enriched in several stress-related processes including transcriptional regulation, response to various stresses, cell death, etc. Moreover, 672 transcription factors from 45 gene families were differentially expressed under drought stress. Furthermore, a weighted gene co-expression network was constructed, and eight genes were identified as hub genes. We demonstrated the function of two hub genes, magnesium-dependent phosphatase 1 (SpMDP1) and SpWRKY33, through overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of the two hub genes enhanced the drought tolerance in transgenic plants, suggesting that the identification of candidate drought tolerance genes in this study was highly efficient and credible. CONCLUSIONS: Our study analyzed the physiological and molecular responses to drought stress in S. psammophila, and these results contribute to dissect the mechanism of drought tolerance of S. psammophila and facilitate identification of critical genes involved in drought tolerance for willow breeding.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Genoma de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salix/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Genes Reguladores/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Salix/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156366

RESUMO

To study the impact of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine on cognitive, functional, behavioral, global changes and adverse effects in patients with mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), we screened the literature published before September 2017 in the Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library and Web of Science Electronic databases according to the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six studies were finally determined from 1560 preliminary screened articles. The AD Assessment Scale-cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change Plus Caregiver Input scale (CIBIC+) were used as valid endpoints. Of the 36 trials included, meta-analyses of these placebo-control trials showed that there were significant differences between the donepezil, rivastigmine and placebo groups using ADAS-cog, ADCS-ADL, and CIBIC+. Meta-analyses of these placebo-controlled trials showed that there were significant differences between the galantamine and placebo groups using ADAS-cog, ADCS-ADL, NPI, and CIBIC+. These observations suggest that memantine is beneficial for stabilizing or slowing the decline in ADAS-cog and ADCS-ADL19 changes in AD patients. However, there was no significant effect according to the ADCS-ADL23, NPI, and CIBIC+ tests, which indicated that memantine treatment has no significant effect on these cognitive aspects of AD patients. Different effects of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, or memantine on AD were found in this study. According to the results, we conclude that galantamine is effective in treating all aspects of AD and is the first choice for the treatment of AD. However, due to limited data, we should consider additional data to obtain more stable results.

6.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 93(4): 617-627, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635972

RESUMO

A series of novel quinoxaline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in three human cancer cell lines. Compound 12 exhibited the most potent antiproliferative activity with IC50 in the range of 0.19-0.51 µM. The compound inhibited tubulin polymerization and disrupted the microtubule network, leading to G2/M phase arrest. Furthermore, compound 12 induced ROS production and malfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Compound 12 led to cancer cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that compound 12 induced up-regulation of p21 and affected the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. The binding mode was also probed by molecular docking.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Quinoxalinas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Quinoxalinas/metabolismo , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 206: 245-253, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553319

RESUMO

The flammability of cotton fabric was improved by treated with the composite containing attapulgite(ATP). To achieve this aim, the poly(acrylic acid)/attapulgite nanocomposite (PAA/ATP) was successfully synthesized by the free radical polymerization of acrylic acid and the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) modified attapulgite. The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The result showed that PAA/ATP nanocomposite was successfully prepared and the ATP could be dispersed uniformly in the nanocomposite. Nanocomposite was loaded onto the cotton fabric by the dip-pad-dry method. The result of thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), vertical flame test (VFT) and limiting oxygen index (LOI) showed that the thermal and flammability properties of the cotton fabric were improved after treated with the nanocomposite, the LOI value of cotton fabric had reached to 22.7%. Tensile test showed that the mechanical property of the treated cotton fabric was improved, but the whiteness decreased slightly.

8.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1214, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233604

RESUMO

Model-based quantitative reconstruction of past plant cover in Europe has shown great potential for: (i) testing hypotheses related to Holocene vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and their relationships with climate and land use; (ii) studying long term interactions between climate and land use. Similar model-based quantitative reconstruction of plant cover in China has been restricted due to the lack of standardized datasets of existing estimates of relative pollen productivity (RPP). This study presents the first synthesis of all RPP values available to date for 39 major plant taxa from temperate China and proposes standardized RPP datasets that can be used for model-based quantitative reconstructions of past plant cover using fossil pollen records for the region. We review 11 RPP studies in temperate China based on modern pollen and related vegetation data around the pollen samples. The study areas include meadow, steppe and desert vegetation, various woodland types, and cultural landscapes. We evaluate the strategies of each study in terms of selection of study areas and distribution of study sites; pollen- and vegetation-data collection in field; vegetation-data collection from satellite images and vegetation maps; and data analysis. We compare all available RPP estimates, select values based on precise rules and calculate mean RPP estimates. We propose two standardized RPP datasets for 31 (Alt1) and 29 (Alt2) plant taxa. The ranking of mean RPPs (Alt-2) relative to Poaceae (= 1) for eight major taxa is: Artemisia (21) > Pinus (18.4) > Betula (12.5) > Castanea (11.5) > Elaeagnaceae (8.8) > Juglans (7.5) > Compositae (4.5) > Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (4). We conclude that although RPPs are comparable between Europe and China for some genera and families, they can differ very significantly, e.g., Artemisia, Compositae, and Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae. For some taxa, we present the first RPP estimates e.g. Castanea, Elaeagnaceae, and Juglans. The proposed standardized RPP datasets are essential for model-based reconstructions of past plant cover using fossil pollen records from temperate China.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159255

RESUMO

Recent epidemiological data indicate that outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which can be categorized according to its clinical symptoms as typical or atypical, have markedly increased worldwide. A primary causative agent for typical HFMD outbreaks, enterovirus 71 (EV71), has been shown to manipulate the cell cycle in S phase for own replication; however, it is not clear whether coxsackievirus (CVA6), the main agent for atypical HFMD, also regulates the host cell cycle. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that CVA6 infection arrests the host cell cycle in G0/G1-phase. Furthermore, synchronization in G0/G1 phase, but not S phase or G2/M phase, promotes viral production. To investigate the mechanism of cell cycle arrest induced by CVA6 infection, we analyzed cell cycle progression after cell cycle synchronization at G0/G1 or G2/M. Our results demonstrate that CVA6 infection promotes G0/G1 phase entry from G2/M phase, and inhibits G0/G1 exit into S phase. In line with its role to arrest cells in G0/G1 phase, the expression of cyclinD1, CDK4, cyclinE1, CDK2, cyclinB1, CDK1, P53, P21, and P16 is regulated by CVA6. Finally, the non-structural proteins of CVA6, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3D and protease 3C , are demonstrated to be responsible for the G0/G1-phase arrest. These findings suggest that CVA6 infection arrested cell cycle in G0/G1-phase via non-structural proteins 3D and 3C, which may provide favorable environments for virus production.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Enterovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fase G1 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Replicação Viral , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
10.
J Pineal Res ; 65(3): e12502, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710396

RESUMO

Copper is essential for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are induced by amyloid-ß (Aß) aggregation; thus, the homeostasis of copper is believed to be a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although clinical trials of copper chelators show promise when applied in AD, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we reported that copper chelators promoted nonamyloidogenic processing of AßPP through MT1/2 /CREB-dependent signaling pathways. First, we found that the formation of Aß plaques in the cortex was significantly reduced, and learning deficits were significantly improved in AßPP/PS1 transgenic mice by copper chelator tetrathiomolybdate (TM) administration. Second, TM and another copper chelator, bathocuproine sulfonate (BCS), promoted nonamyloidogenic processing of AßPP via inducing the expression of ADAM10 and the secretion of sAßPPα. Third, the inducible ADAM10 production caused by copper chelators can be blocked by a melatonin receptor (MT1/2 ) antagonist (luzindole) and a MT2 inhibitor (4-P-PDOT), suggesting that the expression of ADAM10 depends on the activation of MT1/2 signaling pathways. Fourth, three of the MT1/2 -downstream signaling pathways, Gq/PLC/MEK/ERK/CREB, Gs/cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB and Gs/cAMP/PKA/CREB, were responsible for copper chelator-induced ADAM10 production. Based on these results, we conclude that copper chelators regulate the balance between amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic processing of AßPP via promoting ADAM10 expression through MT1/2 /CREB-dependent signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Quelantes/farmacologia , Cobre , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Receptores de Melatonina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína ADAM10/biossíntese , Proteína ADAM10/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/biossíntese , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Melatonina/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
11.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 817, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755438

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrate that human enterovirus 71 (EV71), a primary causative agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease, activates caspase-3 through the non-structural viral 3C protein to induce host cell apoptosis; however, until now it was unclear how 3C activates caspase-3 and how caspase-3 activation affects viral production. Our results demonstrate that 3C binds caspase-8 and caspase-9 but does not directly bind caspase-3 to activate them, and that the proteolytic activity of 3C is required by the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity attenuates apoptosis in 3C-transfected cells. Furthermore, caspase-3 inhibitor protects host cells from the cytopathic effect of EV71 infection and prevents cell cycle arrest, which is known to be favored for EV71 viral replication. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity decreases EV71 viral protein expression and viral production, but has no effect on viral entry, replication, even polyprotein translation. Therefore, caspase-3 is exploited functionally by EV71 to facilitate its production, which suggests a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment and prevention of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

12.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 10: 9, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535623

RESUMO

Although the positive relationship between copper and Alzheimer's disease (AD) was reported by a lot of epidemiological data, the mechanism is not completely known. Copper is a redox metal and serves as a mediator of inflammation. Because the homeostasis of copper is altered in Aß precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice, the using of copper chelators is a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. Here we report that a copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate (TM), is a potential therapeutic drug of AD. We investigated whether TM treatment led to a decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro, and found that TM treatment reduced the expression of iNOS and TNF-α in APP/PS1 Tg mice through up-regulating superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) activity. In vitro, once stimulated, microglia secretes a variety of proinflammatory cytokines, so we utilized LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells as the inflammatory cell model to detect the anti-inflammatory effects of TM. Our results indicated that TM-pretreatment suppressed the ubiquitination of TRAF6 and the activation of NFκB without affecting the expression of TLR4 and Myd88 in vitro. By detecting the activity of SOD1 and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we found that the anti-inflammatory effects of TM could be attributed to its ability to reduce the amount of intracellular bioavailable copper, and the production of ROS which is an activator of the TRAF6 auto-ubiquitination. Hence, our results revealed that TM-treatment could reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines by the suppression of ROS/TRAF6/AKT/NFκB signaling pathway.

13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 143: 8-20, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172084

RESUMO

A series of novel N-substituted 3-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-quinoxaline-6-carboxy- lic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities. Among all synthesized target compounds, 13d exhibited the most potent antiproliferative activity against HeLa, SMMC-7721, K562 cell line (IC50 = 0.126 µM, 0.071 µM, 0.164 µM, respectively). Furthermore, compound 13d inhibited tubulin polymerization (IC50 = 3.97 µM), arrested cell cycle at the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis. The binding mode at the colchicine binding site was also probed. These studies provided a new molecular scaffold for the further development of antitumor agents that target tubulin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Carboxílicos/síntese química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Polimerização/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinoxalinas/síntese química , Quinoxalinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1292, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249805

RESUMO

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may have the potential to prevent depressive relapse. This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rTMS as a mono- and combination therapy in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence. A total of 281 depressed patients who had achieved stable full or partial remission on a 6-month antidepressant (ADP) run-in treatment were randomly assigned to an rTMS (n = 91), ADP (n = 108), or combined (rTMS + ADP, n = 82) treatment group for 12 months. Monthly clustered rTMS was conducted in 5-10 sessions over a 3-5-day period. Maintenance outcomes were assessed using time to relapse/recurrence and relapse/recurrence rate. Overall, 71.2% (200/281) of the participants completed the treatment per the protocol. rTMS + ADP and rTMS significantly reduced the risk of relapse/recurrence compared with ADP (P = 0.000), with hazard ratios of 0.297 and 0.466, respectively. Both rTMS-containing regimens produced significantly lower relapse/recurrence rates than ADP (15.9% and 24.2% vs. 44.4%, P < 0.001). In the relapsed/recurrent subgroup, first-episode depressed, rTMS-treated patients had a markedly lower relapse/recurrence rate than ADP-treated patients. Five patients on the ADP-containing regimens, but none on rTMS alone, developed acute mania. The rTMS-containing regimens had considerably more certain side effects than did the ADP group. We concluded that TMS, whether as a mono- or additional therapy, is superior to antidepressants in preventing depressive relapse/recurrence, particularly in first-episode depressed patients. The treatment does not increase the risk of manic switch, but may increase the risk of certain side effects.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/prevenção & controle , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mol Med Rep ; 16(5): 7305-7314, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944872

RESUMO

Neonatal isoflurane exposure in rodents disrupts hippocampal cognitive functions, including learning and memory, and astrocytes may have an important role in this process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disruption are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of TWIK­related K+ channel (TREK­1) in isoflurane­induced cognitive impairment. Lentiviruses were used to overexpress or knockdown TREK­1 in astrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of isoflurane or O2 for 2 h. Subsequently, the mRNA and protein expression of brain­derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), caspase­3, Bcl­2­associated X (Bax) and TREK­1 was measured by reverse transcription­ quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. In addition, cell viability was assessed by a 2­(4­Iodophenyl)­3­(4­nitrophenyl)­5­(2,4­disulfophenyl)­ 2H­tetrazolium monosodium salt assay. The results demonstrated that, prior to manipulating TREK­1, isoflurane significantly decreased the cell viability and BDNF expression, and increased Bax, caspase­3 and TREK­1 expression was observed. However, TREK­1 overexpression in astrocytes significantly downregulated BDNF expression, and upregulated Bax and caspase­3 expression. Furthermore, lentiviral­mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown of TREK­1 effectively inhibited the isoflurane­induced changes in BDNF, Bax and caspase­3 expression. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that isoflurane­induced cell damage in astrocytes may be associated with TREK­1­mediated inhibition of BDNF and provide a reference for the safe use of isoflurane anesthesia in infants and children.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
16.
J Chem Phys ; 147(11): 114905, 2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938815

RESUMO

The intramolecular charge transfer properties of a phenyl-end-capped aniline tetramer (ANIH) and a chloro-substituted derivative (ANICl) as organic semiconductors were theoretically studied through the first-principles calculation based on the Marcus-Hush theory. The reorganization energies, intermolecular electronic couplings, angular resolution anisotropic mobilities, and density of states of the two crystals were evaluated. The calculated results demonstrate that both ANIH and ANICl crystals show the higher electron transfer mobilities than the hole-transfer mobilities, which means that the two crystals should prefer to function as n-type organic semiconductors. Furthermore, the angle dependence mobilities of the two crystals show remarkable anisotropic character. The maximum mobility µmax of ANIH and ANICl crystals is 1.3893 and 0.0272 cm2 V-1 s-1, which appear at the orientation angles near 176°/356° and 119°/299° of a conducting channel on the a-b reference plane. It is synthetically evaluated that the ANIH crystal possesses relatively lower reorganization energy, higher electronic coupling, and electron transfer mobility, which means that the ANIH crystal may be the more ideal candidate as a high performance n-type organic semiconductor material. The systematic theoretical studies on organic crystals should be conducive to evaluating the charge-transport properties and designing higher performance organic semiconductor materials.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(39): 11764-11768, 2017 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727219

RESUMO

Screw dislocation structures in crystals are an origin of symmetry breaking in a wide range of dense-phase crystals. Preparation of such analogous structures in framework-phase crystals is of great importance in zeolites but is still a challenge. On the basis of crystal-structure solving and model building, it was found that the two specific intergrowths in MTW zeolite produce this complex fractal and spiral structure. With the structurally determined parameters (spiral pitch h, screw angle θ, and spatial angle ψ) of Burgers circuit, the screw dislocation structure can be constructed by two different dimensional intergrowth sections. Thus the reported complexity of various dimensions in diverse crystals can be unified.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 98: 723-729, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188801

RESUMO

Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a bioactive extract of Astragalus membranaceus (AM), which possess a wide range of medicinal benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor and anti-diabetic effects. The present work evaluated the therapeutic effect of APS and its potential mechanisms in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. The APS treatment led to significant improvements in colitis disease activity index (DAI) and histological scores, as well as significantly increased weight and colon length in mice as compared to the control group. Mechanically, reduced NF-κВ DNA phosphorylation activity and downregulated TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17 expressions and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were associated with improvement in colitis observed in APS-treated mice. These findings suggest that APS may represent a natural therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , NF-kappa B/genética , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Interleucina-17/biossíntese , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Camundongos , Peroxidase/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
19.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 171: 305-310, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27566915

RESUMO

A theoretical study was carried out to study the excited-state of hydrogen-bonding characteristics of polyaniline (PANI) in aqueous environment. The hydrogen-bonded PANI-H2O complexes were studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The electronic excitation energies and the corresponding oscillator strengths of the low-lying electronically excited states for hydrogen-bonded complexes were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The ground-state geometric structures were optimized, and it is observed that the intermolecular hydrogen bonds CN⋯HO and NH⋯OH were formed in PANI-H2O complexes. The formed hydrogen bonds influenced the bond lengths, the charge distribution, as well as the spectral characters of the groups involved. It was concluded that all the hydrogen-bonded PANI-H2O complexes were primarily excited to the S1 states with the largest oscillator strength. In addition, the orbital transition from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) involved intramolecular charge redistribution resulting to increase the electron density of the quinonoid rings.

20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 85: 59-65, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27837658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ziprasidone (ZIP) is often used with olanzapine (OLZ) in 'switch' and combination therapy but empirical evidence to support these strategies is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study was therefore designed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of switching from OLZ to ZIP, the combination of both medications, and OLZ and ZIP monotherapy, in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). METHODS: In this 12 week open-label, assessor-blinded randomized trial, 148 patients with SSD who had not used antipsychotics for at least 3 months were assigned to ZIP (n = 49) or OLZ monotherapy (n = 31); OLZ for 4 weeks then a switch to ZIP (OLZ/ZIP, n = 35); or combination therapy (OLZ + ZIP, n = 33). The severity of psychosis and abnormal involuntary movements was evaluated at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks using standard instruments. Baseline-to-endpoint changes in weight gain and metabolic measures were compared. RESULTS: The efficacy of both OLZ/ZIP and OLZ + ZIP was comparable OLZ monotherapy and better than ZIP monotherapy in reducing overall psychotic and negative symptoms at most 8 and 12 week measurement points. Changes in weight gain, glucose, and lipid measures did not differ between OLZ/ZIP and OLZ + ZIP, but were markedly higher following OLZ monotherapy. The OLZ + ZIP group had the lowest overall incidence of adverse events and extrapyramidal symptoms of all the treatment regimens. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that combining ZIP and OLZ at the outset of treatment is superior to switching from OLZ to ZIP in terms of improving psychotic symptoms and limiting movement side effects without increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Substituição de Medicamentos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Olanzapina , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
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