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1.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 30(3): 365-373, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to explore the association between energy intake (EI), the proportion of enteral nutrition intake (EN%), and prognostic-related indicators. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study. Patients aged 18-80 years old, who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery, were enrolled between January 2017 and January 2018. The measured REE (mREE) was evaluated by indirect calorimetry (IC). The observational data on EI, EN% and EI/mREE% were collected following admission to ICU, ICU discharge, and prior to discharge. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients (60.6% male) were studied. The prealbumin and total protein were positively correlated with EN% at the time of ICU discharge; liver function index levels were negatively correlated with EI/mREE% at discharge (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression indicated that ALT levels as well as EI/mREE% were related to the duration of mechanical ventilation; ALT, AST, APACHE II were related to the ICU duration; EN% and EI/mREE% were related to the length of stay (LOS) following ICU discharge. EN% was related to the LOS in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The patients treated cardiothoracic surgery demonstrated associations of EN% with LOS in the hospital. Increased EN% and EI/mREE% were associated with higher serum protein levels and maintain normal liver function.

2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 607-620, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520904

RESUMO

A photocatalytic process was used to effectively remove glyphosate, an emerging pollutant and contaminant, through advanced oxidation. For this purpose, a feasible combination strategy of two-step anodisation and electrodeposition methods were proposed to fabricate graphene quantum dots (GQDs) supported titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TNAs). The resultant GQDs/TNAs heterojunction composite exhibited significant degradation reactivity and circulation stability for glyphosate due to its excellent photo-generated electron and hole separation ability. After the introduction of GQDs into TNAs, the photodegradation efficiency of glyphosate increased from 69.5% to 94.7% within 60 min under UV-Vis light irradiation (λ = 320-780 nm). By analysing the intermediate products and through the evolvement of heteroatoms during glyphosate photodegradation, alanine and serine were discovered for the first time, and a detailed degradation mechanism of glyphosate was proposed. This study indicates that GQDs/TNAs heterojunction composite can almost completely degrade the glyphosate into inorganics under the appropriate conditions.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(36): 14417-14421, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387475

RESUMO

Fractals are found in nature and play important roles in biological functions. However, it is challenging to controllably prepare biomolecule fractals. In this study, a series of Sierpinski triangles with global organizational chirality is successfully constructed by the coassembly of l-tryptophan and 1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)benzene molecules on Ag(111). The chirality is switched when replacing l-tryptophan by d-tryptophan. The fractal structures are characterized by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy at the single-molecule level. Density functional theory calculations reveal that intermolecular hydrogen bonds stabilize the Sierpinski triangles.

4.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383249

RESUMO

As a valuable medicine food homology plant, Codonopsis Radix has been widely used in China. This study aimed to analyze the content of nine potentially toxic elements in three Codonopsis Radix varieties and evaluate their health risks to the human body. In this study, a total of 147 samples were collected from five provinces in China. The content of nine potentially toxic elements (Al, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) were determined by ICP-MS. Results showed that the average contents of Al, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, As, Cd, and Hg were 486.81, 30.30, 5.59, 1.38, 1.24, 0.40, 0.20, 0.16, and 0.11 mg/kg, respectively. The Codonopsis tangshen Oliv. samples from Hubei showed the highest contents of eight elements (Al, Mn, Cr, Ni, Pb, As, Cd, and Hg) among three varieties, and the highest Cu level was found in Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. samples from Shanxi. The content of toxic elements in three Codonopsis Radix varieties showed significant differences (p < 0.05). LDA models facilitated the identification of three Codonopsis Radix varieties with a 91.2% classification score and 89.1% prediction score. Further, when Codonopsis Radix was used as food or medicine, both the hazard quotient values for single element and the hazard index values for nine elements (0.87 for food and 0.84 for medicine) were far below one. The carcinogenic risk values for Pb in Codonopsis Radix when used as food or medicine were 1.14 × 10-6 and 5.51 × 10-8; the values for As were 4.80 × 10-5 and 4.98 × 10-6, respectively. It indicated that under the current consumption of Codonopsis Radix, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from these potentially toxic elements were acceptable for consumers.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(27): e26417, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are a number of sodium glucose co-transport-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors that are under development or in clinical trials. Prior meta-analyses had established the safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but with low level of evidences and inconsistent conclusions. However, recently many new randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been published, we hence try to design a study protocol to assess the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular events via a comprehensive meta-analysis of data from much more RCTs, including sensitivity and subgroup analyses. METHODS: We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines to conduct this meta-analysis. Two investigators will perform a systematic search of scientific literature in the databases (from conception through June 12, 2021), including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. This meta-analysis will be conducted using RevMan statistical software. The risk of bias for each included study will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. RESULTS: Our protocol is conceived to test the hypothesis that SGLT2 inhibitors could lead to better outcomes in patients presenting with T1DM. REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/ZD8WX.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos
6.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X211028816, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229512

RESUMO

The increasing use of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke management has opened the window to local intraarterial brain delivery of therapeutic agents. In this context, the use of nanomedicine could further improve the delivery of new treatments for specific brain targeting, tracking and guidance. In this study we take advantage of this new endovascular approach to deliver biocompatible poly(D-L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocapsules functionalized with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and Cy7.5 for magnetic targeting, magnetic resonance and fluorescent molecular imaging. A complete biodistribution study in naïve (n = 59) and ischemic (n = 51) mice receiving intravenous or intraarterial nanocapsules, with two different magnet devices and imaged from 30 min to 48 h, showed an extraordinary advantage of the intraarterial route for brain delivery with a specific improvement in cortical targeting when using a magnetic device in both control and ischemic conditions. Safety was evaluated in ischemic mice (n = 69) showing no signs of systemic toxicity nor increasing mortality, infarct lesions or hemorrhages. In conclusion, the challenging brain delivery of therapeutic nanomaterials could be efficiently and safely overcome with a controlled endovascular administration and magnetic targeting, which could be considered in the context of endovascular interventions for the delivery of multiple treatments for stroke.

7.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 284, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children. Unfortunately, there are limited multi-center data on common viral respiratory infections in south China. METHODS: A total of 4403 nasal swabs were collected from children in 10 cities in Guangdong, China in 2019. Seven respiratory viruses, influenza A virus (IFA), influenza B virus (IFB), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses (ADV) and parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (PIV1, PIV2 and PIV3), were detected by direct immunofluorescence antibody assay. The personal information and clinical characteristics were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The results showed that at least one virus was detected in 1099 (24.96 %) samples. The detection rates of RSV, IFA, ADV, PIV3, PIV1 and PIV2 were 7.13 % (314/4403), 5.31 % (234/4403), 4.02 % (177/4403), 3.04 % (134/4403), 1.70 % (75/4403) and 1.16 % (51/4403), respectively. The detection rate of RSV was highest in 0-6-month-old children at 18.18 % (106/583), while the detection rate of IFA was highest in 12-18-year-old children at 20.48 % (17/83). The total detection rates in winter and spring were 35.67 % (219/614) and 34.56 % (403/1166), higher than those in summer, 17.41 % (284/1631), and autumn, 19.46 % (193/992). CONCLUSIONS: RSV and IFA were the main respiratory viruses in children. With increasing age the detection rate of RSV decreased in children, but the trends for the detection rates of IFA and IFB were the opposite. This study provided the viral etiology and epidemiology of pediatric patients with ARI in Guangdong, China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
8.
J Neurochem ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077553

RESUMO

Akt signaling has been associated with adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We reported cognitive dysfunction in Akt3 knockout (Akt3-KO) mice with the down-regulation of mTOR activation. However, little is known about the effects of Akt3 signaling on hippocampal neurogenesis. Herein, we show that progenitor cells, neuroblasts, and mature newborn neurons in hippocampal DG expressed Akt3 protein. The Akt3 phosphorylation in hippocampal DG was increased after voluntary wheel running for 7 days in wild-type mice (running WT mice), but not in Akt3-KO mice (running Akt3-KO mice). Subsequently, we observed that the proliferation of progenitor cells was suppressed in Akt3-KO mice and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin-treated mice, whereas enhanced in running WT mice rather than running Akt3-KO mice. Neurite growth of neuroblasts was impaired in Akt3-KO mice and rapamycin-treated mice. In contrast, neither differentiation of progenitor cells nor migrating of newly generated neurons was altered in Akt3-KO mice or running WT mice. The levels of p70S6K and 4EBP1 phosphorylation were declined in Akt3-KO mice and elevated in running WT mice depending on mTOR activation. Furthermore, telomerase activity, telomere length, and expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) were decreased in Akt3-KO mice but increased in running WT mice rather than running Akt3-KO mice, which required the mTOR activation. The study provides in vivo evidence that Akt3-mTOR signaling plays an important role in the proliferation of progenitor cells and neurite growth through positive regulated TERT expression and activation of p70S6K and 4EBP1.

9.
Int J Pharm ; 605: 120831, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175380

RESUMO

Gene therapy and more recently, gene editing is attractive via pulmonary delivery for enhanced regional targeting. However, processing of sensitive therapeutics into dry powders for inhalation can be problematic due to relatively stressful spraying or milling steps. Thin-film freeze-drying (TFFD) has attracted attention with its promising application in the production of DPI formulations possessing respirable particle size range (1-5 µm) particularly for thermally or shear sensitive therapeutics. In this study, gene editing dry powder formulations containing PEGylated chitosan/CRISPR-Cas9 nanocomplexes were prepared by TFFD. To evaluate stability during processing, nanocomplex size, zeta potential and transfection efficiency of reconstituted formulations were evaluated, and six potential DPI formulations were identified and characterized in terms of geometric particle size, powder surface morphology, and crystallinity. It was found that two formulations containing 3% mannitol with or without leucine were identified as suitable for inhalation with a desired aerodynamic performance. The flow rate dependency and inhaler dependency of these two formulations were also evaluated at different flow rates (60 L/min and 45 L/min) and different inhaler devices (RS01 DPI and HandiHaler) using NGI testing. This study demonstrated that TFFD processing of CRISPR-Cas9 polymer nanocomplexes resulted in a suitable dry powder for inhalation.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Inaladores de Pó Seco , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis , Pós
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10373, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990672

RESUMO

The development of inorganic antibacterial agents that impart antibacterial properties to biomaterials has attracted wide attention. The paper introduced a kind of hybrid nanosphere antibacterial agent composed of wheat gliadin (WG) and zinc oxide (ZnO), with antibacterial efficacy and low toxicity. The ZnO/WG hybrid nanospheres were environment-friendly integrated by molecular self-assembly co-precipitating and freeze-drying transformation, and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), specific surface and pore size analysis, bacteriostasis test, reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination and safety evaluation. It was found that the prepared hybrid nanospheres were composed of two components, WG and ZnO, with a diameter scope of 100-200 nm; the content of ZnO in the hybrid nanospheres can reach 46.9-70.2% (w/w); the bacteriostasis tests proved that the prepared ZnO/WG nanospheres generating ROS, have a significant inhibitory effect on E. coli and S. aureus; furthermore, the ZnO/WG nanospheres are relatively safe and highly biocompatible in cells and mice. Therefore, the prepared novel ZnO/WG hybrid nanospheres were supposed to apply in the preparation of anti-infective wound dressings, tissue engineering skin scaffold materials, food, and cosmetics preservatives, and so on.

11.
Plant Cell ; 33(3): 475-491, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955490

RESUMO

Photoperiod plays a key role in controlling the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in flowering plants. Leaves are the major organs perceiving day-length signals, but how specific leaf cell types respond to photoperiod remains unknown. We integrated photoperiod-responsive chromatin accessibility and transcriptome data in leaf epidermis and vascular companion cells of Arabidopsis thaliana by combining isolation of nuclei tagged in specific cell/tissue types with assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing and RNA-sequencing. Despite a large overlap, vasculature and epidermis cells responded differently. Long-day predominantly induced accessible chromatin regions (ACRs); in the vasculature, more ACRs were induced and these were located at more distal gene regions, compared with the epidermis. Vascular ACRs induced by long days were highly enriched in binding sites for flowering-related transcription factors. Among the highly ranked genes (based on chromatin and expression signatures in the vasculature), we identified TREHALOSE-PHOSPHATASE/SYNTHASE 9 (TPS9) as a flowering activator, as shown by the late flowering phenotypes of T-DNA insertion mutants and transgenic lines with phloem-specific knockdown of TPS9. Our cell-type-specific analysis sheds light on how the long-day photoperiod stimulus impacts chromatin accessibility in a tissue-specific manner to regulate plant development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Dis Esophagus ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969395

RESUMO

This study aimed to demonstrate the learning curve of robot-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE). A retrospective analysis of the first 124 consecutive patients who underwent RAMIE with intrathoracic anastomosis (Ivor Lewis) by a single surgeon between May 2015 and August 2020 was performed. An risk-adjusted cumulative sum (RA-CUSUM) analysis was applied to generate a learning curve of RAMIE considering the major complication rate, which reflected the technical proficiency. The overall 30-day morbidity rate was 38.7%, while the major complication rate was 25.8%. The learning curve was divided into two phases based on the RA-CUSUM analysis: phase I, the initial learning phase (cases 1-51) and phase II, the proficiency phase (cases 52-124). As we compared the proficiency phase with the initial learning phase, significantly decreased trends were observed in relation to the major complication rate (37.3% vs. 18.7%, P = 0.017), total operation time (330.9 ± 55.6 vs. 267.3 ± 39.1 minutes, P < 0.001), and length of hospitalization (10 [IQR, 9-14] days vs. 9 [IQR, 8-11] days, P = 0.034). In conclusion, the learning curve of RAMIE consisted of two phases, and at least 51 cases were required to gain technical proficiency.

13.
Dis Esophagus ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969399

RESUMO

Postoperative enteral nutrition has been widely implemented in esophageal cancer, but the efficacy and safety of preoperative nutrition, particularly immune-enhancing nutrition (IEN), remain controversial. This meta-analysis aims to provide a quantitative synthesis of whether preoperative nutrition improves postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients with resectable esophageal cancer. A systematic search was conducted in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and databases of clinical trials dated up to December 2019. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing postoperative outcomes between esophageal cancer patients with and without preoperative nutritional support were included. Random-effects model was applied in the meta-analysis of primary outcomes (overall complication rate, in-hospital mortality) and secondary outcomes (infectious complication rate, anastomotic leak rate, length of postoperative hospital stay). Complications of feeding tube access and perioperative weight loss were evaluated by qualitative synthesis. Subgroup analyses were performed by stratifying immunonutrition and standard nutrition before surgery. Subgroup analysis of randomized controlled trials alone was also done. A total of 15 studies enrolling 1864 participants were included. The overall meta-analysis found that preoperative nutrition could reduce infectious complications (odds ratio [OR] = 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.26, 0.98]; I2 = 48%) and length of hospital stay (mean difference = -2.10 day, 95% CI [-3.72, -0.47]; I2 = 78%) after esophagectomy, whereas no significant difference was revealed in the incidence of overall complications (OR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.52, 1.11]; I2 = 32%), in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.03, 95% CI [0.41, 2.61]; I2 = 12%), and anastomotic leak (OR = 1.05, 95% CI [0.69, 1.58]; I2 = 0%). Subgroup of preoperative immunonutrition showed more prominent benefits. The complication rate of feeding tube access was low (1.6-16%). In conclusion, preoperative nutrition is safe in esophageal cancer, but benefits are observed in infectious complication rate and length of stay on a limited scale. IEN holds more advantages over standard nutrition. Randomized trials in the context of nutritional support during neoadjuvant therapy are in demand.

14.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether robotic-assisted lobectomy (RAL) affects perioperative outcomes and long-term efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, compared with traditional video-assisted lobectomy (VAL). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: RAL is a promising treatment for NSCLC. However, its efficacy has not been fully evaluated. METHODS: A single-center, open-labeled prospective randomized clinical trial was launched in May 2017 to compare the efficacy of RAL and VAL. By May 2020, 320 patients were enrolled. The perioperative results of RAL and VAL were compared. RESULTS: The 320 enrolled patients were randomly assigned to the RAL group (n = 157) and the VAL group (n = 163). Perioperative outcomes were comparable between the two groups, including the length of hospital stay (P = 0.76) and the rate of postoperative complications (P = 0.45). No perioperative mortality occurred in either group. The total amount of chest tube drainage (830 ml [IQR, 550-1130 ml] vs. 685 ml [IQR, 367.5-1160 ml], P = 0.007) and hospitalization costs ($12821 [IQR, $12145-$13924] vs. $8009 [IQR, $7014-$9003], P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the RAL group. RAL group had a significantly higher number of lymph nodes (LNs) harvested (11 [IQR, 8-15] vs. 10 [IQR, 8-13], P = 0.02), higher number of N1 LNs (6 [IQR, 4-8] vs. 5 [IQR, 3-7], P = 0.005), and more LN stations examined (6 [IQR, 5-7] vs. 5 [IQR, 4-6], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both RAL and VAL are safe and feasible for the treatment of NSCLC. RAL achieved similar perioperative outcomes, together with higher LN yield. Further follow-up investigations are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of RAL. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03134534).

15.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 172: 183-210, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705873

RESUMO

Recent advances in formulation sciences have expanded the previously limited design space for biological modalities, including peptide, protein, and vaccine products. At the same time, the discovery and application of new modalities, such as cellular therapies and gene therapies, have presented formidable challenges to formulation scientists. We explore these challenges and highlight the opportunities to overcome them through the development of novel formulations and drug delivery systems as biological solids. We review the current progress in both industry and academic laboratories, and we provide expert perspectives in those settings. Formulation scientists have made a tremendous effort to accommodate the needs of these novel delivery routes. These include stability-preserving formulations and dehydration processes as well as dosing regimes and dosage forms that improve patient compliance.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144748, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736394

RESUMO

N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is one of the emerging nitrogenous disinfection by-products (DBPs) with probable cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. Its potential toxicological effects have drawn considerable attention but remain inadequately known. Here two methods, including developmental toxicity evaluation and neurobehavioral toxicity evaluation, were used and compared to investigate the safety of low-dose (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 µg/L) NDMA exposure to embryo-larval stage of zebrafish. Results showed that the survival and malformation rate of larvae at 6-day post fertilization (dpf) and the hatching rates at 48-h post fertilization (hpf) and 72 hpf in treatment groups had no significant difference with the control group, indicating that the tested NDMA doses were not developmentally toxic. Differently, the changes of neurobehavioral indicators performed more sensitivity. For example, 100 µg/L NDMA exposure induced locomotor hyperactivity at 7 dpf and induced an increasing effect on the relative path angle value. Further, relative value of path angle had more consistency with locomotion results compared with absolute value, indicating that relative value of path angle may be more suitable for the safety evaluation of low-dose NDMA exposure. This work supported that zebrafish neurobehavioral test is a powerful tool in the safety assessment of low-dose NDMA exposure and also has the potential to evaluate the safety of other DBPs.


Assuntos
Dimetilnitrosamina , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Bioensaio , Desinfecção , Embrião não Mamífero , Larva
17.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729963

RESUMO

Both objective optimization and constraint satisfaction are crucial for solving constrained multiobjective optimization problems, but the existing evolutionary algorithms encounter difficulties in striking a good balance between them when tackling complex feasible regions. To address this issue, this article proposes a two-stage evolutionary algorithm, which adjusts the fitness evaluation strategies during the evolutionary process to adaptively balance objective optimization and constraint satisfaction. The proposed algorithm can switch between the two stages according to the status of the current population, enabling the population to cross the infeasible region and reach the feasible regions in one stage, and to spread along the feasible boundaries in the other stage. Experimental studies on four benchmark suites and three real-world applications demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over the state-of-the-art algorithms, especially on problems with complex feasible regions.

18.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(1): 59-64, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effect between electroacupuncture (EA) at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block for preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients with elective radical esophagectomy were randomly divided into a group A, a group B and a control group, 20 cases in each group. The patients in the group A were treated with injection of 20 mL 0.375% ropivacaine at epidural space 30 min before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the group B were treated with 30 min EA at bilateral Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the control group were treated with general anesthesia alone. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia was applied for all the patients. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at the following time points: before acupuncture/epidural puncture (T0), skin incision (T1), extubation (T2) and 2 h after operation (T3); the dosage of anesthetics and extubation time were recorded; the plasma levels of ß-endorphin (ß-EP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured at the following time points: T0, T3, 12 h after operation (T4), 24 h after operation (T5) and 48 h after operation (T6). Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the analgesic effect. RESULTS: The MAP at T1 and T2 in the group A was lower than that in group B and control group (P<0.05), and HR at T1 and T2 was lower than that in control group (P<0.05). The MAP and HR at T1 and T2 in the group B were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The dosage of remifentanil in the group A and group B was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), and extubation time was earlier than that in the control group (P<0.05). The content of ß-EP at T4, T5 and T6 in the group B was higher than that in the group A and control group (P<0.05); the contents of 5-HT and PGE2 at T3, T4 and T5 in the group A and group B were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The VAS scores at T3, T4 and T5 in the group A and group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The preemptive analgesia of EA at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block could both provide effective perioperative analgesia for thoracic surgery. The EA could better maintain intraoperative hemodynamics and has less physiological disturbance.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Bloqueio Nervoso , Cirurgia Torácica , Anestesia Geral , Espaço Epidural , Humanos
19.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(9): 6376-6390, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634492

RESUMO

For reconstructive surgeons, critically skeletal damage represents a major challenge. Growing evidence indicate that bone repair is dynamically regulated by the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-macrophage interaction. Mechanical strain plays a fundamental role in bone repair and regeneration by influencing MSCs differentiation. Recently, a few findings indicate that macrophages may be mechanically sensitive and their phenotype can be regulated, in part, by mechanical cues. However, how macrophages subjected mechanical stretch influence the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs remain unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore the effect of macrophages stimulated with mechanical stretch on MSCs osteogenesis. By using a coculture system, we discover that macrophages efficiently induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs under specific stretch conditions. A synergy mechanism between M2 polarization and YAP/BMP2 axis are identified through molecular and genetic analyses. Macrophages are activated by cyclic stretch and polarized to M2 phenotype that produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-ß to regulate the local inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, mechanical stretch induces YAP activation and nuclear translocation, subsequently regulates downstream BMP2 expression to facilitate MSCs osteogenesis. These findings not only advance our understanding of the complex influence among the mechanical strain, macrophage inflammatory response as well as the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, but also reveal a control system from mechanical signals to chemical response then to cell behaviors during bone repair and regeneration.

20.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522541

RESUMO

Correction for 'PLGA protein nanocarriers with tailor-made fluorescence/MRI/PET imaging modalities' by Yajie Zhang et al., Nanoscale, 2020, 12, 4988-5002, DOI: 10.1039/c9nr10620k.

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