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1.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713381

RESUMO

Sirt6, a class III NAD+-dependent deacetylase of the sirtuin family, is a highly specific H3 deacetylase and plays important roles in regulating cellular growth and death. The induction of oxidative stress and death is the critical mechanism involved in cardiomyocyte injury and cardiac dysfunction in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, but the regulatory role of Sirt6 in the fate of DOX-impaired cardiomyocytes is poorly understood. In the present study, we exposed Sirt6 heterozygous (Sirt6+/-) mice and their littermates as well as cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to DOX, then investigated the role of Sirt6 in mitigating oxidative stress and cardiac injury in the DOX-treated myocardium. Sirt6 partial knockout or silencing worsened cardiac damage, remodeling, and oxidative stress injury in mice or cultured cardiomyocytes with DOX challenge. Cardiomyocytes infected with adenoviral constructs encoding Sirt6 showed reversal of this DOX-induced damage. Intriguingly, Sirt6 reduced oxidative stress injury by upregulating endogenous antioxidant levels, interacted with oxidative stress-stirred p53, and acted as a co-repressor of p53 in nuclei. Sirt6 was recruited by p53 to the promoter regions of the target genes Fas and FasL and further suppressed p53 transcription activity by reducing histone acetylation. Sirt6 inhibited Fas/FasL signaling and attenuated both Fas-FADD-caspase-8 apoptotic and Fas-RIP3 necrotic pathways. These results indicate that Sirt6 protects the heart against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by upregulating endogenous antioxidants, as well as suppressing oxidative stress and cell death signaling pathways dependent on ROS-stirred p53 transcriptional activation, thus reducing Fas-FasL-mediated apoptosis and necrosis. •Sirt6 is significantly decreased in DOX-insulted mouse hearts and cardiomyocytes. •Sirt6 attenuates DOX-induced cardiac atrophy, dysfunction and oxidative stress. • Sirt6 reduces oxidative stress injury by upregulating endogenous antioxidants. • Sirt6 interacts with p53 as a co-repressor to suppress p53 transcriptional regulation and inhibits Fas-FasL-mediated apoptosis and necrosis downstream of p53.

2.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(3): nwaa297, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676096

RESUMO

Receptor recognition and subsequent membrane fusion are essential for the establishment of successful infection by SARS-CoV-2. Halting these steps can cure COVID-19. Here we have identified and characterized a potent human monoclonal antibody, HB27, that blocks SARS-CoV-2 attachment to its cellular receptor at sub-nM concentrations. Remarkably, HB27 can also prevent SARS-CoV-2 membrane fusion. Consequently, a single dose of HB27 conferred effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 in two established mouse models. Rhesus macaques showed no obvious adverse events when administrated with 10 times the effective dose of HB27. Cryo-EM studies on complex of SARS-CoV-2 trimeric S with HB27 Fab reveal that three Fab fragments work synergistically to occlude SARS-CoV-2 from binding to the ACE2 receptor. Binding of the antibody also restrains any further conformational changes of the receptor binding domain, possibly interfering with progression from the prefusion to the postfusion stage. These results suggest that HB27 is a promising candidate for immuno-therapies against COVID-19.

4.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(4): 1082, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447475

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) stimulates the generation of reactive oxygen species, thereby impairing mitochondrial functions. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have been identified to exhibit protective effects on cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that an ACEI benazepril hydrochloride (HCl) may protect against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The DOX injury model was established using rat embryonic cardiac myoblast cells (H9c2 cell line) treated with DOX in vitro. H9c2 cells were treated with benazepril-HCl, DOX or a mixture of DOX and benazepril-HCl to measure the activities of myocardial enzymes including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, in addition to the concentration of malondialdehyde in the culture medium. Cells without any treatment were used as a control. DOX treatment increased the levels of activity of myocardial enzymes in H9c2 cells compared with those in the untreated control cells. Additionally, co-treatment with benazepril-HCl significantly reduced the levels of apoptosis occurring due to DOX-mediated cellular damage. The mechanistic experiment revealed that pretreatment with benazepril-HCl counteracted the DOX-induced oxidative stress and suppressed the activation of apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. By contrast, an Akt inhibitor (MK2206) inhibited the protective effects of benazepril-HCl against DOX-induced H9c2 cell injury, as revealed by increased LDH release in H9c2 cells. These results suggested that benazepril-HCl may potentially be administered as an adjuvant for DOX in long-term clinical use.

5.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 651583, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987178

RESUMO

Decellularized tendon hydrogel from human or porcine tendon has been manufactured and found to be capable of augmenting tendon repair in vivo. However, no studies have clarified the effect of decellularized tendon hydrogel upon stem cell behavior. In the present study, we developed a new decellularized tendon hydrogel (T-gel) from Macaca mulatta, and investigated the effect of T-gel on the proliferation, migration and tenogenic differentiation of Macaca mulatta tendon-derived stem cells (mTDSCs). The mTDSCs were first identified to have universal stem cell characteristics, including clonogenicity, expression of mesenchymal stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers, and multilineage differentiation potential. Decellularization of Macaca mulatta Achilles tendons was confirmed to be effective by histological staining and DNA quantification. The resultant T-gel exhibited highly porous structure or similar nanofibrous structure and approximately swelling ratio compared to the collagen gel (C-gel). Interestingly, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and fibromodulin (Fmod) inherent in the native tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment were retained and the values of SDF-1 and Fmod in the T-gel were significantly higher than those found in the C-gel. Compared with the C-gel, the T-gel was found to be cytocompatible with NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and displayed good histocompatibility when implanted into rat subcutaneous tissue. More importantly, it was demonstrated that the T-gel supported the proliferation of mTDSCs and significantly promoted the migration and tenogenic differentiation of mTDSCs compared to the C-gel. These findings indicated that the T-gel, with its retained nanofibrous structure and some bioactive factors of native tendon ECM microenvironment, represents a promising hydrogel for tendon regeneration.

6.
Acta Virol ; 65(1): 97-100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827227

RESUMO

Arisaema heterophyllum Blume is a valuable medicinal plant in the Araceae family. The dried tuber of A. heterophyllum is used in the traditional Chinese medicine, Rhizoma Arisaematis, which is used to treat convulsions, inflammation and cancer. In 2017, typical mosaic virus-like symptoms were observed in A. heterophyllum in Jilin province, China. To further identify the pathogens, we conducted RT-PCR using virus- and genus-specific primers to amplify partial genome sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobamovirus and Potyvirus, respectively. The CMV primers showed specific amplification, but the Tobamovirus and Potyvirus primers did not. We further cloned and sequenced the 2b, MP and CP genes of the CMV-Ah isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed the CMV-Ah isolate belonged to subgroup IB. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CMV infecting A. heterophyllum in China. Keywords: Cucumber mosaic virus; Arisaema heterophyllum Blume; subgroup IB; phylogenetic analysis.


Assuntos
Arisaema , Cucumovirus , Potyvirus , China , Cucumovirus/genética , Filogenia , Potyvirus/genética
7.
Skeletal Radiol ; 50(1): 87-95, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the MRI manifestations of and factors related to ankle injuries in asymptomatic amateur marathon runners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 113 amateur marathon runners without any ankle joint symptoms were recruited. Each participant was asked to complete a questionnaire at the beginning of the study and underwent MRI of the ankle. The MRI manifestations of ankle injuries were summarized, and binary logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the factors related to ankle injuries. RESULTS: The main MRI features were bone marrow edema-like signal intensity, peritendinous effusion, and partial lateral collateral ligament injury. Others included Achilles tendinopathy, cyst-like lesions, osteochondral lesions, and subcutaneous soft tissue edema. The risk factor for bone marrow edema-like signal intensity in amateur marathon runners was a rearfoot strike pattern (p = 0.028, OR = 1.172); the risk factors for peritendinous effusion were a higher weekly running distance (p = 0.013, OR = 1.685) and increased running years (p = 0.039, OR = 1.113), whereas a rearfoot strike pattern (p = 0.005, OR = 0.831) was a protective factor for peritendinous effusion; the risk factor for Achilles tendinopathy was increased age (p = 0.008, OR = 1.412); the risk factors for anterior talofibular ligament injury were a rearfoot strike pattern (p = 0.017, OR = 1.346) and higher weekly running distance (p = 0.022, OR = 1.171); and the factors for calcaneofibular ligament injury were a higher weekly running distance (p = 0.029, OR = 1.570) and rearfoot strike pattern (p = 0.035, OR = 1.463). CONCLUSION: The main MRI features of asymptomatic amateur marathon runners are bone marrow edema-like signal intensity, peritendinous effusion, and partial lateral collateral ligament injury. In addition, increased age, increased running years, higher weekly running distance, and different foot strike patterns are risk factors for ankle injuries.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Tendinopatia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Corrida de Maratona
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983912

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: As a highly efficient anticancer agent, Doxorubicin (DOX) is used for various cancers' treatment, but DOX-induced oxidative damages contribute to a degenerative irreversible cardiac toxicity. Saikosaponin D (SSD), which is a triterpenoid saponin with many biological activities including anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant properties, provides protection against pathologic cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. In present study, we investigated the work of SSD for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and the involved mechanisms. We observed that DOX injection induced cardiac injury, malfunction and decreased survival rate. Besides, DOX treatment increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, myocardium fibrosis and decrease of cardiomyocytes' sizes. Meanwhile, all the effects were notably attenuated by SSD treatment. In vitro, we found that 1µM SSD could enhance the proliferation of H9c2 cells, and inhibit DOX-induced apoptosis. It was found that the levels of MDA and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly reduced by improving the activities of the endogenous antioxidative enzymes including catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Furthermore, SSD treatment could downregulate the DOX-induced p38 phosphorylation. Our results suggested that SSD efficiently protected the cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting the excessive oxidative stress via p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 794399, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35004319

RESUMO

Background: Preoperative prediction of lymph node metastases has a major impact on prognosis and recurrence for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Thyroid ultrasonography is the preferred inspection to guide the appropriate diagnostic procedure. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between PTC and cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM, including central and lateral LNM) using both conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Material and Methods: Our study retrospectively analyzed 379 patients diagnosed with PTC confirmed by surgical pathology at our hospital who underwent US and CEUS examinations from October 2016 to March 2021. Individuals were divided into two groups: the lymph node metastasis group and the nonmetastasis group. The relationship between US and CEUS characteristics of PTC and CLNM was analyzed. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to identify the high-risk factors and established a nomogram to predict CLNM in PTC. Furthermore, we explore the frequency of CLNM at each nodal level in PTC patients. Results: Univariate analysis indicated that there were significant differences in gender, age, tumor size, microcalcification, contact with the adjacent capsule, multifocality, capsule integrity and enhancement patterns in CEUS between the lymph node metastasis group and the nonmetastasis group (all P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that tumor size ≥1 cm, age ≤45 years, multifocality, and contact range of the adjacent capsule >50% were independent risk factors for CLNM in PTC, which determined the nomogram. The diagnostic model had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.756 (95% confidence interval, 0.707-0.805). And calibration plot analysis shown that clinical utility of the nomogram. In 162 PTC patients, the metastatic rates of cervical lymph nodes at levels I-VI were 1.9%, 15.4%, 35.2%, 34.6%, 15.4%, 82.1%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our study indicated that the characteristics of PTC on ultrasonography and CEUS can be used to predict CLNM as a useful tool. Preoperative analysis of ultrasonographical features has important value for predicting CLNM in PTCs. The risk of CLNM is greater when tumor size ≥1 cm, age ≤45 years, multifocality, contact range of the adjacent capsule >50% are present.

10.
Biomed Mater ; 16(1): 015029, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065568

RESUMO

The biomechanical characteristics of tendon grafts is essential for tendon reconstructive surgery due to its great role in providing a good mechanical environment for tendon healing and regeneration. In our previous studies, the decellularized tendon slices (DTSs) and decellularized bovine tendon sheets (DBTSs) scaffolds were successfully developed. However, the influence of the integrity of tendinous membrane (endotenon and epitenon) and fascicle on biomechanical characteristics of these two scaffolds was not investigated. In this study, we assessed the integrity of tendinous membrane and fascicle of the tendon derived scaffolds and its effect on the biomechanical characteristics. The results of histological staining indicated that the DBTSs had complete endotenon and epitenon, while DTSs had no epitenon at all, only part of endotenon was remained. Furthermore, the DBTSs, and DTSs with thickness of 900 µm had complete fascicles, while DTSs with thickness less than 600 µm had almost no complete fascicles. The fibrous configuration of epitenon was well-preserved in the surface of the DBTSs but the surface ultrastructure of the DTSs was aligned collagen fibers based on scanning electron microscopy examination. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that there was no significant difference between the DBTSs and DTSs. Mechanically, the DBTSs and DTSs with thickness of 900 µm showed similar ultimate tensile strength and stiffness to native tendon segments (NTSs). The strain at break and suture retention strength of the DBTSs showed much higher than that of the DTSs (p < 0.05). Additionally, the DBTSs showed higher ultimate load than the DTSs when these scaffolds were sutured with NTSs (p < 0.05) through the modified Kessler technique based on a uniaxial tensile test. This study demonstrated that DTSs may be used as a patch for reinforcing tendon repair, while DBTSs may be used as a bridge for reconstructing tendon defects.


Assuntos
Tendões/fisiologia , Tendões/transplante , Tecidos Suporte , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bovinos , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Suturas , Tendões/cirurgia , Resistência à Tração/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
11.
Curr Biol ; 30(24): 4826-4836.e7, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035482

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported that aphids facilitate their colonization of host plants by secreting salivary proteins into host tissues during their initial probing and feeding. Some of these salivary proteins elicit plant defenses, but the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that underlie the activation of phloem-localized resistance remain poorly understood. The aphid Myzus persicae, which is a generalized phloem-sucking pest, encompasses a number of lineages that are associated with and adapted to specific host plant species. The current study found that a cysteine protease Cathepsin B3 (CathB3), and the associated gene CathB3, was upregulated in the salivary glands and saliva of aphids from a non-tobacco-adapted (NTA) aphid lineage, when compared to those of a tobacco-adapted lineage. Furthermore, the knockdown of CathB3 improved the performance of NTA lineages on tobacco, and the propeptide domain of CathB3 was found to bind to tobacco cytoplasmic kinase ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE 1-like (EDR1-like), which triggers the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in tobacco phloem, thereby suppressing both phloem feeding and colonization by NTA lineages. These findings reveal a novel function for a cathepsin-type protease in aphid saliva that elicits effective host plant defenses and warranted the theory of host specialization for generalist aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Tabaco/parasitologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Resistência à Doença , Comportamento Alimentar , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Floema/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saliva/enzimologia , Glândulas Salivares/enzimologia , Regulação para Cima
12.
J Mol Neurosci ; 70(11): 1926, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875539

RESUMO

The authors have retracted this article [1] because in further experiments, they found that some experimental data cannot be verified repeatedly.

13.
Sci Adv ; 6(20): eaba3418, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426509

RESUMO

Many animal viral proteins, e.g., Vpr of HIV-1, disrupt host mitosis by directly interrupting the mitotic entry switch Wee1-Cdc25-Cdk1. However, it is unknown whether plant viruses may use this mechanism in their pathogenesis. Here, we report that the 17K protein, encoded by barley yellow dwarf viruses and related poleroviruses, delays G2/M transition and disrupts mitosis in both host (barley) and nonhost (fission yeast, Arabidopsis thaliana, and tobacco) cells through interrupting the function of Wee1-Cdc25-CDKA/Cdc2 via direct protein-protein interactions and alteration of CDKA/Cdc2 phosphorylation. When ectopically expressed, 17K disrupts the mitosis of cultured human cells, and HIV-1 Vpr inhibits plant cell growth. Furthermore, 17K and Vpr share similar secondary structural feature and common amino acid residues required for interacting with plant CDKA. Thus, our work reveals a distinct class of mitosis regulators that are conserved between plant and animal viruses and play active roles in viral pathogenesis.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(11): 6562-6574, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339453

RESUMO

In this work, we deployed a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong from February 04 to April 17, 2013 to study individual oxalate particles and a monitor for aerosols and gases in ambient air (MARGA) to track the bulk oxalate concentrations in particle matter smaller than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5). A shallow dip in the bulk oxalate concentration was consistently observed before 10:00 am in the morning throughout the observation campaign, corresponding to a 20% decrease in the oxalate concentration on average during the decay process. Such a decrease in PM oxalate was found to be coincident with a decrease in Fe-containing oxalate particles, providing persuasive evidence of Fe-mediated photochemical degradation of oxalate. Oxalate mixed with Fe and Fe_NaK particles, from industry sources, were identified as the dominant factors for oxalate decay in the early morning. We further found an increase of sulfate intensity by a factor of 1.6 on these individual Fe-containing particles during the oxalate decomposition process, suggesting a facilitation of sulfur oxidation. This is the first report on the oxalate-Fe decomposition process with individual particle level information and provides unique evidence to advance our current understanding of oxalate and Fe cycling. The present work also indicates the importance of anthropogenic sourced iron in oxalate-Fe photochemical processing. In addition, V-containing oxalate particles, from ship emissions, also showed evidence of morning photodegradation and need further attention since current models rarely consider photochemical processing of oxalate_V particles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hong Kong , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxalatos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Sulfatos/análise
15.
J Mol Neurosci ; 70(1): 9-18, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368062

RESUMO

Altered expression of circular RNA (circRNA) is recognized as a contributor to malignant pain where microRNA (miRNA) exerts an essential effect. We generated a murine model for bone malignancy pain in which 2472 osteolytic sarcoma cells were injected into the femurs of mice. CircRNA microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) and revealed that circ9119 expression was repressed in the spinal cord of bone malignancy pain model mice, which is the first relay site involved in the transmission of nociceptive information to the cerebrum of mice that receive spinal analgesics for malignancy pain. Overexpression of circ9119 by plasmid injection in the model mice reduced progressive thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia. Bioinformatics prediction and dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that circ9119 functions as a sponge of miR-26a, which targets the TLR3 3'-untranslated region. Furthermore, expression of miR-26a was elevated and TLR3 level was repressed in bone malignancy pain model mice, which were counteracted by circ9119 in the spinal cord of tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, excessive expression of miR-26a was involved in the recovery of mice from progressive thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia triggered via circ9119. TLR3 knockdown in bone malignancy pain model mice thoroughly impaired pain in the initial stages and reduced the effects of circ9119 on hyperalgesia. Our research findings indicate that targeting the circ9119-miR-26a-TLR3 axis may be a promising analgesic strategy to manage malignancy pain.

16.
J Mol Neurosci ; 70(1): 19-20, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713153

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Fig. 2.

17.
N Biotechnol ; 55: 65-76, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600579

RESUMO

We describe the 'Crescendo Mouse', a human VH transgenic platform combining an engineered heavy chain locus with diverse human heavy chain V, D and J genes, a modified mouse Cγ1 gene and complete 3' regulatory region, in a triple knock-out (TKO) mouse background devoid of endogenous immunoglobulin expression. The addition of the engineered heavy chain locus to the TKO mouse restored B cell development, giving rise to functional B cells that responded to immunization with a diverse response that comprised entirely 'heavy chain only' antibodies. Heavy chain variable (VH) domain libraries were rapidly mined using phage display technology, yielding diverse high-affinity human VH that had undergone somatic hypermutation, lacked aggregation and showed enhanced expression in E. coli. The Crescendo Mouse produces human VH fragments, or Humabody® VH, with excellent bio-therapeutic potential, as exemplified here by the generation of antagonistic Humabody® VH specific for human IL17A and IL17RA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout
18.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(1)2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383811

RESUMO

Plant viruses cause a range of plant diseases symptoms that are often responsible for significant crop production losses and the severity and spread of the symptoms may be affected by climate change. While the increase in anthropogenic activities has caused a critical problem of increased CO2 levels in the atmosphere, these elevated CO2 levels have been reported to reduce virus disease severity in some plant species. In such instances, it is not clear if the plant defense mechanisms are being enhanced or virus-mediated mechanisms to overcome plant resistance are being defeated. Additionally, a few studies have been attempted in this area to determine if reduced disease is the norm or the exception under enhanced CO2 levels. In the present study, the effects of elevated CO2 levels (750 ppm vs. 390 ppm) on RNAi-mediated resistance of Nicotiana tabacum against the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and the activity of viral suppressor of RNAi (VSR) 2b protein of CMV were evaluated. On the one hand, our results showed that elevated CO2 decreased the transcription of dicer-like protein 2 (DCL2), DCL4, and argonaut 1 (AGO1) genes with functions related to RNAi-mediated resistance when infected by CMV, which is contradictory with the decreased CMV copy numbers under elevated CO2. On the other hand, we found that elevated CO2 increased the calcium concentration and expression of the calcium-binding protein rgs-CaM in tobacco plants when infected by CMV, which directly weakened the function of 2b protein, the VSR of CMV, and therefore decreased the infection efficiency of the virus and suppressed the severity of CMV in tobacco plants under elevated CO2. This study provides molecular insights into the ecological implications underlying the development of prevention strategies against plant virus infection in the context of climate change.

19.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714152

RESUMO

Biglycan (BGN) has been identified as one of the critical components of the tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) niche and may be related to tendon formation. However, so far, no study has demonstrated whether the soluble BGN could induce the tenogenic differentiation of TDSCs in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BGN on the tenogenic differentiation of TDSCs. The proliferation and tenogenic differentiation of TDSCs exposed to different concentrations of BGN (0, 50, 100, and 500 ng/ml) were determined by the live/dead cell staining assay, CCK-8 assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and western blot analysis. The BGN signaling pathway of TDSCs (with and without 50 ng/ml of BGN) was determined by western blot analysis and qRT-PCR analysis. At a concentration of 50 ng/ml, BGN increased the expression of the tenogenic markers THBS-4 and TNMD at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Meanwhile, 50 ng/ml of BGN inhibited the expression of the chondrogenic and osteogenic markers SOX9, ACN, and RUNX2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, BGN (50 ng/ml) affected the expression of the components of the extracellular matrix of TDSCs. Additionally, BGN activated the Smad1/5/8 pathway as indicated by an increase in phosphorylation and demonstrated by inhibition experiments. Upregulation in the gene expression of BMP-associated receptors (BMPRII, ActR-IIa, and BMPR-Ib) and Smad pathway components (Smad4 and 8) was observed. Taken together, BGN regulates tenogenic differentiation of TDSCs via BMP7/Smad1/5/8 pathway and this regulation may provide a basic insight into treating tendon injury.

20.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 107(7): 1476-1490, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786151

RESUMO

Due to the similar collagen composition and closely physiological relationship with soft connective tissues, demineralized bone matrices (DBMs) were used to repair the injured tendon or ligament. However, the osteoinductivity of DBMs would be a huge barrier of these applications. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) has been proved to reduce the osteoinductivity of DBMs. Nevertheless, the biological properties of H2 O2 -treated DBMs have not been evaluated completely, while the potential mechanism of H2 O2 compromising osteoinductivity is also unclear. Hence, the purpose of this study was to characterize the biological properties of H2 O2 -treated DBMs and search for the proof that H2 O2 could compromise osteoinductivity of DBMs. Decellularized and demineralized bone matrices (DCDBMs) were washed by 3% H2 O2 for 12 h to fabricate the H2 O2 -treated DCDBMs (HPTBMs). Similar biological properties including collagen, biomechanics, and biocompatibility were observed between DCDBMs and HPTBMs. The immunohistochemistry staining of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was negative in HPTBMs. Furthermore, HPTBMs exhibited significantly reduced osteoinductivity both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these findings suggest that the BMP-2 in DCDBMs could be the target of H2 O2 . HPTBMs could be expected to be used as a promising scaffold for tissue engineering. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2019.


Assuntos
Matriz Óssea/fisiologia , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Matriz Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Óssea/ultraestrutura , Bovinos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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