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1.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110609, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507753

RESUMO

Tree peony seed, traditionally used for edible oil production, is rich in α-linolenic acid. However, little attention is given to the fruit by-products during seed oil production. The present work aimed to comprehensively investigate the phytochemical constituents and multiple biological activities of different parts of tree peony fruits harvested from Paeonia ostii and Paeonia rockii. 130 metabolites were rapidly identified through UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS on the basis of MS/MS molecular networking. Metabolite quantification was performed through the targeted approach of HPLC-ESI-QQQ-MS. Eight chemical markers were screened via principal component analysis (PCA) for distinguishing species and tissues. Interestingly, two dominant compounds, paeoniflorin and trans-resveratrol, are specially localized in seed kernel and seed coat, respectively. Unexpectedly, the extracts of fruit pod and seed coat showed significantly stronger antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-neuroinflammatory activities than seed kernel from both P. ostii and P. rockii. Our work demonstrated that tree peony fruit is promising natural source of bioactive components and provided its potential utilization in food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Paeonia , Frutas , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Árvores
2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 38979-38989, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433249

RESUMO

Chronic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa pose severe threats to human health. Traditional antibiotic therapy has lost its total supremacy in this battle. Here, nanoplatforms activated by the clinical microenvironment are developed to treat P. aeruginosa infection on the basis of dynamic borate ester bonds. In this design, the nanoplatforms expose targeted groups for bacterial capture after activation by an acidic infection microenvironment, resulting in directional transport delivery of the payload to bacteria. Subsequently, the production of hyperpyrexia and reactive oxygen species enhances antibacterial efficacy without systemic toxicity. Such a formulation with a diameter less than 200 nm can eliminate biofilm up to 75%, downregulate the level of cytokines, and finally promote lung repair. Collectively, the biomimetic design with phototherapy killing capability has the potential to be an alternative strategy against chronic infections caused by P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Verde de Indocianina/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Polímeros/química , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/radioterapia , Células A549 , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino , Metacrilatos/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369776

RESUMO

Electrochemical CO2 reduction provides a promising strategy to product value-added fuels and chemical feedstocks. However, it remains a grand challenge to further reduce the overpotentials and increase current density for large-scale applications. Here, spontaneously Sn doped Bi/BiOx nanowires (denoted as Bi/Bi(Sn)Ox NWs) with a core-shell structure were synthesized by an electrochemical dealloying strategy. The Bi/Bi(Sn)Ox NWs exhibit impressive formate selectivity over 92% from -0.5 to -0.9 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and achieve a current density of 301.4 mA cm-2 at -1.0 V vs RHE. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and theoretical calculations reveal that the introduction of Sn atoms into BiOx species can promote the stabilization of the *OCHO intermediate on the Bi(Sn)Ox surface and suppress the competitive H2/CO production. This work provides effective in situ construction of the metal/metal oxide hybrid composites with heteroatom doping and new insights in promoting electrochemical CO2 conversion into formate for practical applications.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5597135, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337031

RESUMO

Lectins are widely distributed in the natural world and are usually involved in antitumor activities. Auricularia auricula (A. auricula) is a medicinal and edible homologous fungus. A. auricula contains many active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, melanin, flavonoids, adenosine, sterols, alkaloids, and terpenes. In this study, we expected to isolate and purify lectin from A. auricula, determine the glycoside bond type and sugar-specific protein of A. auricula lectin (AAL), and finally, determine its antitumor activities. We used ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography to separate and purify lectin from A. auricula. The result was a 25 kDa AAL with a relative molecular mass of 18913.22. Protein identification results suggested that this lectin contained four peptide chains by comparing with the UniProt database. The FT-IR and ß-elimination reaction demonstrated that the connection between the oligosaccharide and polypeptide of AAL was an N-glucoside bond. Analyses of its physical and chemical properties showed that AAL was a temperature-sensitive and acidic/alkaline-dependent glycoprotein. Additionally, the anticancer experiment manifested that AAL inhibited the proliferation of A549, and the IC50 value was 28.19 ± 1.92 µg/mL. RNA sequencing dataset analyses detected that AAL may regulate the expression of JUN, TLR4, and MYD88 to suppress tumor proliferation. Through the pulmonary flora analysis, the bacterial structure of each phylum in the lectin treatment group was more reasonable, and the colonization ability of the normal microflora was improved, indicating that lectin treatment could significantly improve the bacterial diversity characteristics.


Assuntos
Auricularia/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Precipitação Química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Molecular , Lectinas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Açúcares/metabolismo , Temperatura
5.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(9): 3704-3717, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380309

RESUMO

Bacterial keratitis is a serious bacterial infection of the cornea that can cause sight loss in severe cases because of the sharp decline of efficacious antibiotics. Herein, a targeted photosensitizer based on BODIPY severing as a photobactericidal agent was developed for treating bacterial keratitis. The water solubility of the material was as high as 10 mg/mL, which was attributable to the introduction of pathogen-targeting galactose and fucose. The photosensitizer was able to preferentially bind Pseudomonas aeruginosa instead of mammalian cells and trigger the aggregation of bacteria, which ultimately facilitated effective pathogen ablation upon the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via laser irradiation. Photoexcited targeted photosensitizers can promote wound healing by eradicating P. aeruginosa in rat eyes and reducing the inflammatory response, thus exhibiting the significant therapeutic effect on bacterial keratitis. We also performed molecular level mechanistic studies using the unique field-induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry methodology and confirmed that the generated ROS were mainly singlet oxygen that caused lipid peroxidation (Type II mechanism). We anticipate that the targeted photosensitizer will have great potential in the application of clinical photodynamic therapy to ocular infection.


Assuntos
Ceratite , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Luz , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
6.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113324, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298348

RESUMO

This article investigates the current status of the livestock industry (cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry) in China and assesses the potential for biogas production from anaerobically digested livestock manure. According to calculation results based on the latest data of livestock released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China in 2018, China produced 2 × 1012 kg of manure pollution in 2017, with pig waste representing the largest single manure source. Biogas that can be converted from high organic containing manure is a kind of clean bioenergy with low carbon footprint. In 2017, the energy potential from manure-produced biogas was about 5.74 × 1012-6.73 × 1012 MJ, which corresponds to 4-5% of China's total energy demand. Correlation analysis between biogas production and the livestock industry showed that crop production had significant effects on manure-generated biogas production. However, it is necessary to address the challenges when applying AD technology. Bioenergy potential from manure will be lost during material collection and transportation. Although large-scale livestock farming remains controversial, this type of farming can improve the energy recovery rate of livestock manure. How to gain benefits and maintain sustainable development is also a bottleneck for AD promotion. Reducing energy input in AD projects as well as enhancing the efficiency of methanogenesis of livestock manure are key factors for achieving a high net output of biogas projects. More inclusive strategies and a broader vision should be adopted to allow stakeholders to benefit from manure-generated biogas projects.


Assuntos
Gado , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Bovinos , China , Esterco/análise , Aves Domésticas , Ovinos , Suínos
7.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1091-1099, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181148

RESUMO

This randomized, controlled study compared the efficacy and safety between oxycodone-paracetamol tablet and celecoxib for postoperative analgesia in patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery (AKS). Totally, 232 patients scheduled to undergo AKS were enrolled and were randomly assigned to either the oxycodone-paracetamol (OPT group) or the celecoxib group (CEL group). Pain at rest/motion (based on pain visual analog scale (VAS) score), rescue analgesia consumption, satisfaction level and adverse events were assessed after AKS. Pain VAS score at rest was decreased at 6 h, 12 h post-AKS in the OPT group compared with the CEL group. Similarly, pain VAS score at motion was reduced at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h post-AKS in the OPT group compared to the CEL group. Furthermore, both rescue analgesia rate (14.7% vs. 33.6%) and accumulated pethidine consumption (3.7 ± 8.9 mg vs. 14.0 ± 21.2 mg) were lower in OPT group compared with the CEL group. Patients satisfaction score was either at 24 h, 48 h in OPT group compared with the CEL group. Further subgroup analyses indicated that the effect of oxycodone-paracetamol versus (vs. celecoxib) on post-AKS management was more apparent in the elderly patients and male patients. In addition, the adverse events were well tolerable (including nausea, constipation, vomiting, drowsiness and dizziness) and were of no different between the two groups. In conclusion, oxycodone-paracetamol tablet presents increased analgesic efficacy for acute postoperative pain, with higher patient satisfaction and comparable safety profiles compared with celecoxib in patients underwent AKS.

8.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(20): 4190-4200, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997882

RESUMO

Eye-drop formulations as conventional regimens to tackle ocular diseases are far from efficient due to the rapid clearance by eye tears and the blockage of the corneal epithelium barrier. Here, we describe a bioadhesive glycosylated nanoplatform with boric acid pendants as a drug carrier for noninvasive trans-corneal delivery of drugs to treat corneal neovascularization (CNV), a serious corneal disease resulting in significant vision impairment. This biocompatible nanoplatform is formulated from a synthetic amphiphilic boric acid-based copolymer self-assembling to form highly stable micelles with a high loading capacity for dexamethasone (DEX). The nanoplatform is demonstrated to be in contact with the corneal epithelium for a long period under the bioadhesive function of boric acid modules and releases the drug over 96 h in a controlled manner. Our results also suggest that the nanoplatform can be efficiently internalized by corneal epithelial cells in vitro and realize transcytosis in vivo to greatly enhance the transcorneal penetration of the loaded drugs into the pathological corneal stroma. On topical application against rat corneal alkali burn, the nanoformulation presents more robust efficacy on neovascularization suppression and inflammation elimination than free DEX with a negligible effect on normal tissues. This bioadhesive strategy which focuses on extending ocular drug retention and improving trans-corneal drug delivery not only highlights an approach for alternative noninvasive therapy of CNV but also provides a versatile paradigm for other biomedical applications by overcoming protective barriers.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Neovascularização da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Ácidos Borônicos/síntese química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexametasona/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Glicosilação , Humanos , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(5): 2020-2032, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880923

RESUMO

A standardized regimen for addressing the adverse effects of bacterial keratitis on vision remains an intractable challenge due to poor epithelial penetration and a short corneal retention time. In this study, a new strategy is proposed to implement the direct transport of antibiotics to bacteria-infected corneas via topical administration of an epithelium-penetrable biodriven nanoplatform, thereby enabling the efficacious treatment of bacterial keratitis. The nanoplatforms were composed of amphiphilic glycopolymers containing boron dipyrromethene and boronic acid moieties with stable fluorescence characteristics and the ability to potentiate epithelial penetration deep into the cornea. The boronic acid-derived nanoplatforms enabled efficient cellular internalization through the high affinity of boric acid groups for the diol-containing bacterial cell wall, resulting in enhanced drug penetration and retention inside the pathogenic bacteria. The bacterial cells formed agglomerations after incorporating the nanoplatforms along with a special mechanism to release the encapsulated cargo in response to in situ bacteria. Compared with the drug alone, this smart system achieved enhanced bacterial mortality and attenuated inflammation associated with Staphylococcus aureus-induced keratitis in rats, demonstrating a paradigm for targeted ocular drug delivery and an alternative strategy for managing bacterial keratitis or other bacterial infections by heightening corneal permeability and transcorneal bioavailability.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares Bacterianas , Ceratite , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Córnea , Epitélio , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Technol Health Care ; 29(S1): 441-453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We aimed to further study the role of Myelin Transcription Factor 1(MyT1) in tumor and other diseases and epigenetic regulation, and better understand the regulatory mechanism of MyT1. METHODS: Using bioinformatics analysis, the structure and function of MyT1sequence were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatics analysis, and providing a theoretical basis for further experimental verification and understanding the regulatory mechanism of MyT1. The first, second and third-level structures of MyT1 were predicted and analyzed by bioinformatics analysis tools. RESULTS: MyT1 is found to be an unstable hydrophilic protein, rather than a secretory protein, with no signal peptide or trans-membrane domain; total amino acids located on the surface of the cell membrane. It contains seven zinc finger domains structurally. At sub-cellular level, MyT1 is localized in the nucleus. The phosphorylation site mainly exists in serine, and its secondary structure is mainly composed of random coils and alpha helices; the three-dimensional structure is analyzed by modeling. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the structure and function of MyT1 protein were predicted, thereby providing a basis for subsequent expression analysis and functional research; it laid the foundation for further investigation of the molecular mechanism involved in the development of diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Fatores de Transcrição , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Water Environ Res ; 93(9): 1651-1659, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657245

RESUMO

Fe(II) is one of the commonly used additives in wastewater treatment and proved to be beneficial for promoting microbial activity. In this study, the effects of Fe(II) on the specific anammox activity (SAA) and reactor performance were proved to be concentration-dependent. In the short-term experiment, low concentration of Fe(II) (5-80 mg/L) significantly enhanced the SAA, while high concentration of Fe(II) (120-300 mg/L) inhibited the SAA. It was confirmed that anammox can be domesticated after long-term exposure to low Fe(II) concentration, and the SAA could be further enhanced by higher Fe(II) concentration in the following phases. In addition, as an important factor for anammox granulation and maintaining the SAA, the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was also affected by Fe(II) addition. In spite of the effects on SAA and EPS, Fe(II) was proved to be the key factor that enhances the N2 O emission via abiotic pathway in the anammox reactor. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Low Fe(II) concentrations enhanced SAA, while high concentrations inhibited SAA. Long-term acclimatization by Fe(II) improved the tolerance of anammox to Fe(II). Fe(II) affects the amount and constituent of EPS and the performance of anammox granules. Accumulation of Fe(II) in the AAFEB reactor promoted the N2 O emission.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Compostos Ferrosos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos
12.
Food Res Int ; 140: 109902, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648204

RESUMO

Peony as an important medicinal material is widely cultivated in China, which is one of the natural distribution centers of wild peony species. So far, however, there has not been a systematic study of the roots from China's wild peonies. In this study, the total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC), other secondary metabolites, and microelement content, as well as the antioxidant, antibacterial, anticholinesterase, and antitumor activities of peony roots from 15 species and 2 subspecies were measured. Thirteen secondary metabolites were detected, with Paeoniflorin and Paeonol being the highest content bio-activities compounds. Additionally, the peony roots had a significant antioxidant activities and bacteriostatic effect against Gram-positive bacteria, with MIC varying from 0.063 to 1 mg/mL. P. anomala subsp. veitchii and P. lactiflora showed outstanding anticholinesterase capacities and cytotoxic activities. Taken together, the data presented here provide new insights into both the medicinal and edible potential of roots from wild peony species.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Paeonia , China , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124794, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550210

RESUMO

For solving the challenge in nitrate removal from low C/N wastewater at low temperature, Pseudomonas sp. Y39-6 was isolated and used in nitrate removal. It showed aerobic-heterotrophic denitrification with rate of 1.77 ± 0.31 mg/L·h and unusual aerobic-autotrophic nitrate removal (rate of 0.324 mg/L·h). The aerobic-autotrophic nitrate removal mechanisms were deep investigated by analyzing the nitrate removal process and genomic information. At aerobic-autotrophic condition, the strain Y39-6 could assimilate nitrate to amino acid (NO3- + PHA + CO2 â†’ C5H7O2N) with the carbon source from Polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) degradation and CO2 fixation. Flagella motivation, swarming activity and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production regulated Pseudomonas sp. Y39-6 forming biofilm. Carriers immobilized with Pseudomonas sp. Y39-6 were used in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and achieved 24.83% nitrate removal at C/N < 1 and 4 °C. Results of this study provided a practical way for nitrogen removal from low C/N wastewater in cold region.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Águas Residuárias , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Pseudomonas , Temperatura
14.
Int Orthop ; 45(5): 1137-1145, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the clinical effect of modified Judet quadricepsplasty (MJ) combined with patella traction designed by ourselves in the treatment of knee joint rigidity after a femoral fracture. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 21 patients with stiff knee joint after a femoral fracture treated by modified Judet quadricepsplasty combined with patella traction designed by the author from May 2014 to January 2017. The age at revision surgery was 20-57 (36 ± 12) years. The time between fracture fixation to quadricepsplasty was five to 23 (15 ± 5) months, and the follow-up was 11-32 (18 ± 6) months. Pre-operative, intra-operative, post-operative and final follow-up range of motion (ROM), the total traction time, and complications were assessed. The knee joint function was evaluated according to Judet's classification scheme. RESULTS: Knee ROM was 5-60 (36 ± 13) ° pre-operatively, and 30-80 (53 ± 13) ° after MJ (an increase of 0-30 (17 ± 10)) (p < 0.05). The duration of patellar traction was ten to 14 (11 ± 2) days. Knee ROM after traction device removal was 90-100 (92 ± 3) °, an increase of 10-65 (39-14) ° compared with the ROM after arthrolysis (p < 0.05). The follow-up duration was 11-32 (18 ± 6) months. Knee ROM at final follow-up was 80-130 (104 ± 12) °, an increase of 40-100 (68 ± 16) 8° compared with pre-operatively (p < 0.05), and of - 10-40 (12 ± 13) ° compared with the ROM after traction removal (p < 0.05). Knee function was excellent in 14 cases (67%), good in 6 (28%), and fair in one (5%). CONCLUSIONS: The MJ plus patellar traction lengthens the contracted quadriceps femoris, thus restoring knee function within a short period of time.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur , Patela , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Patela/cirurgia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tração , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Food Chem ; 343: 128444, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131958

RESUMO

In last ten years, much attention focused on tree peony fruit (TPF) for edible oil production despite other potential utilization. The present study identified and quantified 29 bioactive components by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QqQ-MS) targeted approach during the development of TPF. Trans-resveratrol, benzoic acid, luteolin, and methyl gallate were selected as predominant chemical markers between seeds and pods through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Extremely high levels of paeoniflorin (1893 mg/100 g) and trans-resveratrol (1793 mg/100 g) were observed at stage 2 (S2) and S6 in seeds, respectively. Antioxidant activities determined by ABTS+•, DPPH•, and FRAP assays showed significant correlations with total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The strongest antibacterial effects of pod and seed against Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris occurred at initial stages and maturation stages. TPF could be a potential source of bioactive compounds with functional properties.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paeonia/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/análise , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação , Frutas/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paeonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteus vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/estatística & dados numéricos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Environ Entomol ; 50(1): 36-45, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301027

RESUMO

An invasive population of spotted lanternfly (SLF), Lycorma delicatula White, was first noted in North America in Pennsylvania in 2014, and by September 2020 populations had spread to six additional states. To develop a biocontrol program to aid in the management of the pest, exploratory surveys for SLF natural enemies in its native range were carried out in 27 provinces and other administrative regions of China from 2015 to 2019. Naturally laid egg masses were collected and sentinel SLF egg masses were deployed to attract egg parasitoids, and yellow sticky traps were used to collect SLF nymphs to discover and determine the parasitism rates of nymphal parasitoids. Results show that SLF is widely distributed in China (22 provinces and regions) and that the population densities in northeast China are higher than in southern and western China. An egg parasitoid, Anastatus orientalis Yang (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), and a nymphal parasitoid, Dryinus sinicus Olmi (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), were collected. Anastatus orientalis was reared from SLF eggs in seven provinces in China with parasitoid emergence rates ranging from 4.0 to 15.5% (or 17.6 to 37.3% if including only egg masses that had at least some parasitism). There were significant differences in parasitoid emergence rates between sites associated with factors including habitat and host plants. Dryinus sinicus was discovered in eight cities across six provinces. The percentage of SLF nymphs parasitized by D. sinicus were 31.1, 23.3, and 0% in Tai'an, Shandong Province, Beijing City, and Yan'an, Shaanxi Province, respectively. These two parasitoids are promising natural enemies that are being considered as potential biocontrol agents of invasive populations of SLF.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , China , Cidades , América do Norte , Óvulo , Pennsylvania
17.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(12): e2000813, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155408

RESUMO

Paeonia veitchii has been widely distributed in China under different ecological types. Its roots contain diverse phytochemical constituents, which possess very high bioactivities. However, the influence of ecological factors on activities and ingredients of P. veitchii roots still remains unknown. The purpose of this research was to analyze the variation in bioactivities and phytochemical composition of P. veitchii roots upon exposure to various ecological factors. Seven P. veitchii populations collected from different regions in China were evaluated. The results of correlation analysis suggested that four major ecological factors, including average annual temperature, elevation, total potassium, and organic matter, had a strong correlation with the bioactivities of P. veitchii roots. Further, the major ecological factors were also highly correlated with the contents of naringin, gallic acid, benzoylpaeoniflorin, and paeoniflorin. The principal component analysis results supported four major metabolites as the main contributing ingredients. All populations were classified into three groups, G1, G2, and G3, through hierarchical cluster analysis. G1 showed more significant advantages in the above-mentioned four ecological factors, four active ingredients, and bioactivities compared to the other two groups. P. veitchii roots growing at lower average annual temperature, high elevation, rich total potassium and organic matter in the soils were presumed to have relatively higher bioactivities. These data expand the study on the bioactivities and phytochemical composition of P. veitchii roots and have a guiding significance for the ecological factor selection during the cultivation process of this herbaceous peony species.


Assuntos
Paeonia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 495-505, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991903

RESUMO

Glucuronoxylomannan (AAPS) from the edible wood ear mushroom Auricularia auricula-judae has been demonstrated to exhibit immunostimulatory properties through its binding to TLR4. However, the mechanisms of immune modulation by AAPS in mammalian cells remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that AAPS induced immunostimulatory effects were regulated by reactive oxygen species, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase C-α and NF-κB. AAPS remarkably increased the phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of macrophages. In lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, AAPS induced endotoxin tolerance like effect characterized by the downregulation of nitric oxide, interleukin-6 and TNF-α via the downregulation of NF-κB activation. Our findings provide firm scientific evidences for the immunoenhancing properties of wood ear mushroom, and the potential of AAPS to be strong candidates for the development of new carbohydrate-based nutraceutical supplements in the management of immunity related disorders in the future.


Assuntos
Auricularia/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/química , Células RAW 264.7
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14178, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843681

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex multi-system autoimmune disease. Detection of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) is fundamental for the diagnosis of SLE. In the present study, we found that the level of core fucosylation catalyzed by α1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8) is markedly up-regulated on immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the sera of SLE patients detected by Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL) blot. In sandwich Dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA), the core fucosylation level was also found significantly increased in the sera from SLE patients with a higher ANA titer. To establish a rapid and sensitive laboratory test for the diagnosis of SLE, we prokaryotically expressed AOL and C3-D1-C3-D2-C3 of protein G (SpG3), and generate AOL-conjugated colloid gold immunochromatographic strips (ICS). The detection limit of core fucosylated IgG was 10 µg/mL for AOL-conjugated colloid gold ICS. As well as indirect immunofluorescence, the AOL-conjugated colloid gold ICS showed reliable results in the serum of 39 SLE patients. Our results indicated that the AOL-conjugated colloid gold ICS could serve as a rapid test for the detection of ANA and suspected cases of SLE.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade , Imunoglobulina G/química , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Fitas Reagentes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Aspergillus oryzae , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Fucose/metabolismo , Fucosiltransferases/deficiência , Fucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Coloide de Ouro , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lectinas de Plantas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824291

RESUMO

Paeonia qiui is a wild tree peony native to China. Its leaves show a clear purple-red color from the germination to the flowering stage, and it has high leaf-viewing value. A MYB transcription factor gene, designated as PqMYB4, was isolated from leaves of P. qiui based on transcriptome datas. The full-length cDNA of PqMYB4 was 693 bp, encoding 230 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PqMYB4 was a R2R3-MYB transcription factor clustered with AtMYB4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, it contained a C1 motif, an EAR repression motif and a TLLLFR motif in the C-terminal domains, which were unique in transcription repression MYB. Subcellular location analysis showed that PqMYB4 was located in the cell nucleus. PqMYB4 was highly expressed in the late stage of leaf development, and was negatively correlated with the anthocyanin content. The petiole of wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings was deeper in color than the transgenic lines of PqMYB4 and showed a little purple-red color. The seed coat color of Arabidopsis seeds that overexpressed PqMYB4 gene was significantly lighter than that of wild-type seeds. In transgenic Arabidopsis, the expression level of AtCHS, AtCHI, AtDFR and AtANS were down-regulated significantly. These results showed that PqMYB4 was involved in the negative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tree peony leaves, which can control the anthocyanin pathway genes. Together, these findings provide a valuable resource with which to further study the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the leaf of P. qiui. They also benefit the molecular breeding of tree peony cultivars with colored leaf.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Paeonia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Paeonia/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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