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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186173

RESUMO

A novel Fenton-like catalyst was synthesized by immobilizing nano-Fe2O3 (nFe2O3) on MIL-53(Cu). The pseudo-first-order rate constant of bisphenol A degradation in the nFe2O3/MIL-53(Cu)/H2O2 system reached 0.0123 min-1, while the values in MIL-53(Cu)/H2O2 and nFe2O3/H2O2 systems were only 0.0026 and 0.0040 min-1, respectively. The characterization of nFe2O3/MIL-53(Cu) reveals that the supreme catalytic activity of this material could be ascribed to iron-copper synergy, smaller size, and better dispersion of nFe2O3 particles. Moreover, a method of trapping Cu(I) by neocuproine was developed, which could shield Cu(I) from interacting with iron and H2O2, and thus allow quantitative differentiation of the contribution to the enhanced catalytic activity by each of the factors. Using this method, 19% of the enhancement was determined to be contributed by synergistic effect, while 24% of the enhancement was due to the smaller size and better dispersion of the nFe2O3 particles on MIL-53(Cu) support. In addition, the performance of nFe2O3/MIL-53(Cu) only dropped 10.7% after five treatment cycles in real wastewater, showing good potential in practical application. We believe this study sheds light on the tailored design of Fenton-like catalysts and elucidates the catalytic mechanisms of supported bimetallic catalysts.

2.
Vaccine ; 38(16): 3210-3217, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173094

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endemic measles persists in China, despite >95% reported coverage of two measles-containing vaccine doses and nationwide campaign that vaccinated >100 million children in 2010. An increasing proportion of infections now occur among adults and there is concern that persistent susceptibility in adults is an obstacle to measles elimination in China. We performed a case-control study in six Chinese provinces between January 2012 to June 2013 to identify risk factors for measles virus infection and susceptibility among adults. METHODS: Persons ≥15 years old with laboratory-confirmed measles were age and neighborhood matched with three controls. Controls had blood specimens collected to determine their measles IgG serostatus. We interviewed case-patients and controls about potential risk factors for measles virus infection and susceptibility. Unadjusted and adjusted matched odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated via conditional logistic regression. We calculated attributable fractions for infection for risk factors that could be interpreted as causal. RESULTS: 899 cases and 2498 controls were enrolled. Among controls, 165 (6.6%) were seronegative for measles IgG indicating persistent susceptibility to infection. In multivariable analysis, hospital visit and travel outside the prefecture in the prior 1-3 weeks were significant risk factors for measles virus infection. Occupation and reluctance to accept measles vaccination were significant risk factors for measles susceptibility. The calculated attributable fraction of measles cases from hospital visitation was 28.6% (95% CI: 20.6-38.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a healthcare facility was the largest risk factor for measles virus infection in adults in China. Improved adherence to hospital infection control practices could reduce risk of ongoing measles virus transmission and increase the likelihood of achieving and sustaining measles elimination in China. The use of control groups stratified by serological status identified distinct risk factors for measles virus infection and susceptibility among adults.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 93: 163-167, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of one dose of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine in a developing country. METHODS: The reported cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection from 2005 to 2018 in Henan province, China, were analyzed. Data of vaccinated children were assessed on the childhood immunization information management system. Questionnaire survey and blood sample collection were randomly conducted in six counties and districts of Henan province to analyze the prevalence of HAV lgG among the population aged 0-70 years. RESULTS: In 2008, Henan province began to expand its program on immunization, and children aged 18 months were given one dose of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (HepA-L). From 2005 to 2007, the HAV incidence remained steady at above 5000 cases per year and increased to 7489 in 2007. Since 2008, the HAV incidence decreased cumulatively from 4576 to 237 in 2018, indicating a 94.8% decrease, which was particularly pronounced among adolescents (98.2%). The proportion of hepatitis A cases in patients younger than 10 years continually decreased from 41.6% in 2012 to 3.8% in 2018. The reduction of reported cases older than 40 years was slower than that of children. In 2012, the proportion of hepatitis A cases older than 40 years was 27.6%, and continually increased to 69.2% (164/237) in 2018. The results of serological investigation showed that the 0-1.5-year age group had the lowest anti-HAV IgG prevalence (38.6%), which increased to 75.0% in the 4-6-year age group, covered by this immunization program. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicated a large decrease in HAV infections in Henan province from 2008 onward in response to the introduction of a planned immunization program of HepA-L.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804806

RESUMO

Eutrophication of water bodies is a serious and widespread environmental problem. Achieving low levels of phosphate concentration to prevent eutrophication is one of the important goals of the wastewater engineering and surface water management. Meeting the increasingly stringent standards is feasible in using a phosphate-selective sorption system. This critical review discusses the most fundamental aspects of selective phosphate removal processes and highlights gains from the latest developments of phosphate-selective sorbents. Selective sorption of phosphate over other competing anions can be achieved based on their differences in acid-base properties, geometric shapes, and metal complexing abilities. Correspondingly, interaction mechanisms between the phosphate and sorbent are categorized as hydrogen bonding, shape complementarity, and inner-sphere complexation, and their representative sorbents are organic-functionalized materials, molecularly imprinted polymers, and metal-based materials, respectively. Dominating factors affecting the phosphate sorption performance of these sorbents are critically examined, along with a discussion of some overlooked facts regarding the development of high-performance sorbents for selective phosphate removal from water and wastewater.

5.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 12: 1756284819862966, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489030

RESUMO

Background: In patients with a large, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the primary recommendation is for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) but used alone TACE is not typically curative. Combinations of TACE followed in a delayed fashion by single-applicator thermal ablation have also been suboptimal. As an alternative, we investigated the combination of TACE followed within 1-3 days by multi-antenna microwave ablation (MWA) in patients with a large HCC, to determine the feasibility, safety, local control, and short-term survival rates of this approach. Methods: We retrospectively studied 43 patients with a large HCC (mean diameter, 8.8 cm; SD, 2.8 cm) treated between July 2015 and July 2018, who underwent TACE followed within 3 days by multi-antenna simultaneous MWA. We measured the liver and renal function before and after treatment, recorded complications, used three-dimensional software and imaging to calculate tumor necrosis rates at 1 month after therapy, and calculated overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Mean follow up was 12.2 (range, 3.5-35.6) months. All patients completed the treatment protocol. At 1 month after combined therapy, tumor necrosis was complete in 16 (37.2%), nearly complete in 19 (44.2%), and partial in 8 (18.6%) patients. The 1- and 2-year OS rates were 64.0% and 46.8%, respectively, with a median OS of 23.0 months; and the 1- and 2-year PFS rates were 19.9% and 4.4%, respectively, with a median PFS of 4.2 months. A transient change in liver function occurred 3 days after MWA but resolved within 1 month. Only two patients had major complications, which were treatable and resolved. Conclusion: Multi-antenna MWA-oriented combined therapy is feasible and well tolerated, and it results in satisfactory initial local control and short-term survival in some but not all patients with a large HCC.

6.
Water Res ; 164: 114888, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377525

RESUMO

Stringent regulations and deteriorating source water quality could greatly influence the water production capacity of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Using models to predict the performance of DWTPs under stress provides valuable information for decision making and future planning. A hybrid statistic model named HANN was established by combining artificial neural network (ANN) with genetic algorithm (GA) aiming at forecasting the overall performance of DWTPs nationwide in China. Monthly data from 45 DWTPs across China was employed. Water quality parameters like temperature and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and operational parameters like electricity consumption and chemical consumption were selected as input variables, while drinking water production was employed as the output. Both preliminary data analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested a clear non-linear relationship between the input and output variables. The structure of the HANN model was optimized by employing the lowest mean squared error (MSE) as the indicator. The resultant HANN model performed well when simulating the training datasets. Its predictive accuracy for the independent test datasets was enhanced when feeding more training datasets and the performance was constantly higher than the independent multi-layered ANN models using the coefficient of determination (R2) as the indicator, indicating the HANN model was capable of capturing complex non-linear relationship and extrapolation. Results from Accuracy test, Garson sensitivity analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) suggested the quantity of water produced by DWTPs was closely linked to water quality and operational parameters. The scenario analysis showed that the HANN model was capable of predicting water production variation based on the parameter variations, indicating that the HANN model could be a general management tool for decision makers and DWTP managers to make plans in advance of regulatory changes, source water quality variations and market demand.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Algoritmos , China , Qualidade da Água
7.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 13(6): 1497-1509, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209834

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies have shown that chronic pain is maladaptive and influences brain function and behavior by altering the flexible cerebral information flow. We utilized power spectral analysis to investigate the impact of classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) on the oscillation dynamics of intrinsic brain activity in humans. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) were measured in 29 TN patients and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) via resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI). Two different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz) were analyzed. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations and related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the TN patients and HCs were identified. The TN patients had reduced ALFF/fALFF in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), left insula, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left putamen and bilateral temporal lobe, exclusively in the frequency of the slow-5 band. Whole brain rsFC analyses with these six different regions as seeds revealed two weaker circuits including the PCC-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and DLPFC-hippocampus circuits, indicating abnormal interactions with the default mode network (DMN) in TN patients. The functional connectivity between the default-mode regions (mPFC and PCC) in the slow-5 band tracked pain intensity. Together, our results provide novel insights into how TN disturbs the cortical rhythms and functional interactions of the brain. These insights may have implications for the understanding and treatment of brain dysfunction in chronic pain patients, including TN patients.

8.
Neuroradiology ; 61(8): 911-920, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101946

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the anatomical distance-dependent functional connectivity patterns in patients with active phase of Cushing's disease (CD) and to evaluate the associations between hypercortisol exposure and regional normalized functional connectivity strengths (nFCSs). METHODS: Based on the fMRI data in 32 CD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs), we computed the nFCSs for each voxel in the brain and further divided them into long-range and short-range nFCSs. General linear models was used to investigate between-group differences in these nFCS metrics and the correlations between the nFCSs and clinical variables. RESULTS: Compared with HC, CD patients showed dysregulation of the nFCSs mainly in the default mode network. They showed an overall higher nFCS in bilateral parahippocampal cortex mainly owing to the disruption of long-range nFCS and a relatively lower nFCS in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral lateral parietal cortex (LP), and right prefrontal cortex (PFC). In addition, their long-range nFCS was lower in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, PCC, and LP; short-range nFCS was lower in the bilateral PFC. Notably, the positive correlation between the nFCSs in their right parahippocampal cortex and serum cortisol levels at 08:00 remained significant after taking the anatomical distance into consideration. CONCLUSION: The discrepant functional connectivity patterns found in our study indicated a hypercortisol-associated, distance-dependent disruption of resting-state functional connectivity in patients with active CD. We provide novel insights into the impacts of hypercortisol exposure and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CD, which may facilitate advances in CD intervention ultimately.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/fisiopatologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/psicologia , Descanso/psicologia
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 609-616, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146065

RESUMO

Excess fluoride in water can be efficiently removed by lanthanum based material, however, different lanthanum species exhibited distinct fluoride removal capability. In this study, three typical lanthanum based nanoparticles denoted as L1, L2 and L3 in the form of La(OH)3, La2O3·nH2O and LaCO3OH respectively were synthesized and well characterized for fluoride removal. They differ in terms of morphology, surface charge, water content, specific surface area and crystallinity. L2 (La2O3·nH2O) exhibited the highest adsorption capacity (~28.9 mg/g) and selectivity towards fluoride, followed by L3 (LaCO3OH) (~25.1 mg/g) and L1 (La(OH)3) (~6.03 mg/g). Despite the relatively low capacity for L1, it could be efficiently regenerated by alkaline solution for repeated use. However, both L2 and L3 suffered significant from capacity loss after regeneration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis and molecular configuration modelling suggested the distinct mechanism of fluoride adsorption onto the three materials. Fluoride was captured by L1 and L3 via electrostatic attraction and ligand exchange of different bond strength. However, a stronger LaF interaction via chemical adsorption by L2 was observed. This study provided new insights into the role of commonly used La species for fluoride removal.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6023, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988314

RESUMO

We describe the development, optimisation, and validation of an automated, cell-based and high-throughput screening assay using existing luminescence-based ATPlite reagents for identifying antiviral compounds that inhibit enterovirus replication. Antiviral efficacy was determined by measuring the ATP levels in cells that were protected from the viral cytopathic effect (CPE) by the antiviral compounds pleconaril and rupintrivir. CPE-based assay conditions were optimised at a cell density of 5000 cells/well and a viral infection dose of 100 CCID50 in 384-well plates. The assay exhibited excellent robustness, with Z'-factor values between 0.75 and 0.82, coefficients of variation between 0.33% and 1.45%, and signal-to-background ratios ranging from 6.92 to 22.6 when testing three enterovirus A71 isolates circulating in China. The assay was also suitable for screening other picornaviruses, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, and parechovirus.

11.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 853: 49-55, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880177

RESUMO

Chiral ruthenium(II) complexes have long been considered as potential anticancer agents. Herein, in vivo inhibitory activity of a chiral ruthenium(II) complex coordinated by ligand 2-(2'-trifluoromethyphenyl) imidazo [4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, Δ-[Ru(bpy)2(o-FMPIP)] (D0402) on Kunming(KM) mice bearing tumor (H22 hepatic cancer) has been evaluated, and the results showed that the tumor weight of mice treated with 0.22 mg/(kg·day) D0402 via i.v. administration for 7 days decreased about 31.79% compared to the control group, while the body weight, as well as the thymus, spleen, liver, lung, and kidney indices of mice treated with D0402 observed almost no loss compared to the control group. Furthermore, the mechanism studies on anti-angiogenic showed that D0402 could inhibit the formation of angiogenesis in the transgenic Tg(fli1a: EGFP) zebrafish. After treated with D0402, the sub-intestinal vessels(SIVs) of the zebrafish became disordered and chaotic, and was dosage dependent. Moreover, the TUNEL analysis and comet assays revealed that D0402 can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cell through DNA damage, and this was further demonstrated by immunofluorescence analysis with the number of γ-H2AX increased following the increasing amount of D0402. Besides, in vivo toxicity of D0402 has also been investigated on the development of zebrafish embryo, and the results showed that there were no death or development delay occurred for zebrafish embryo treated with D0402 up to concentration of 60 µM. All in together, this study suggested that D0402 can be developed as a potential inhibitor against liver cancer through co-junction of anti-angiogenesis and apoptosis-inducing via DNA damage in the near future.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Fenantrolinas/química , Piridinas/química , Rutênio/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo , Peixe-Zebra
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(1): 365-372, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481471

RESUMO

Polystyrene-based nanoferric oxide composite is a representative nanomaterial successfully applied in scale-up water decontamination for arsenic and phosphorus. However, little is available on the effect of solution chemistry (for instance, the coexisting Ca2+) on the long-term performance of the nanocomposite. In this study, we carried out 20 cyclic runs of phosphate adsorption-desorption on a polymer-supported ferric nanocomposite HFO@201. Unexpectedly, an enhanced phosphate removal was observed in the presence of Ca2+, which is quite different from its adverse effect on phosphate capture by granular ferric oxide. Further mechanistic studies revealed that enhanced phosphate removal was mainly realized via the Ca-P coprecipitation inside the networking pores of HFO@201 as well as the possible formation of the multiple Fe-P-Ca-P complex. The complex formation led to a distinct increase in P adsorption, and the coprecipitation, driven by the accumulated OH- in confined pores during phosphate adsorption and alkaline regeneration, favored P removal via the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and hydroxyapatite inside. TEM-EDS spectra indicated that coprecipitation did not occur on the surface of loaded nano-HFO, greatly mitigating its adverse effect on P adsorption on the surface of nano-HFO. Fixed-bed column study showed that the presence of Ca2+ increased the effective treatable volume of HFO@201 toward P-containing influents by ∼70%. This study is believed to shed new insights into the effect of solution chemistry on similar nanocomposites for advanced water treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Compostos Férricos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fosfatos , Poliestirenos , Porosidade
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(34): e11746, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142761

RESUMO

This study aimed to summarize the clinical experiences and postoperative effects of microsurgical approaches for craniopharyngioma.A total of 183 craniopharyngioma patients who underwent microsurgical treatment since March 2009 to March 2015 in our hospital were included in current research. Surgical approaches were selected based on preoperative evaluations, including tumor locations, sizes, and growth patterns. Active measurements to manage water-electrolyte disorder and insipidus were taken for postoperative treatments. During the follow-up, patients were monitored for residual or recurrent tumor by postoperative contrast MRI scans done 1 to 3 months after surgery.The used surgical approaches were as follows: frontopterional approach (76 cases), anterior interhemispheric approach (58 cases), transcallosal approach (10 cases), transsphenoidal approach (15 cases), unilateral subfrontal approach (15 cases), and combined approaches (9 cases). Around 124 cases (72.7%) received total tumor resection, 37 patients (20.2%) underwent subtotal resection, and 13 patients (7.1%) underwent partial removal. No significant difference was found on the postoperative complications among the different microsurgical approaches (all, P > .05). A total of 111 cases had an intact pituitary stalk preservation and 26 cases had partially preserved stalks during surgery. Visual improvement was achieved in 54 patients and visual deterioration occurred in 22 cases. Postoperative insipidus appeared in 114 cases and water-electrolyte disorder occurred in 99 cases. The postsurgical follow-up ranged from 3 to 69 months with a mean duration of 27.3 months and 23 patients suffered recurrence.Based on careful preoperative evaluation, microsurgical treatments may be safe and effective approach to improve postoperative outcomes of craniopharyngioma patients.


Assuntos
Craniofaringioma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Craniofaringioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/classificação , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/classificação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11741, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082708

RESUMO

A novel nanocomposite bead LaLiAl-LDH@201 was fabricated by doping a small amount of La into nanocrystalline Li/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) pre-confined inside polystyrene anion exchanger D201 (LiAl-LDH@201). A systematic characterisation of the resultant LaLiAl-LDH@201 (XRD, SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS, and XPS) evidenced the successful incorporation of La into the Li/Al LDHs, with their interlayer distance expanded to allow more exchangeable sites for fluoride uptake. The resultant LaLiAl-LDH@201 showed high and stable defluoridation performance over a wide range of pH from 4 to 9. The superior uptake capacity and affinity for fluoride of LaLiAl-LDH@201 over LiAl-LDH@201 were driven by both the increased anion exchange capacity of the embedded LDHs and the specific La-F interaction evidenced via XPS and TEM-EDS characterisation. Fixed-bed column test confirmed that the working capacity of LaLiAl-LDH@201 for defluoridation of authentic fluoride-rich groundwater was nearly twice that of LiAl-LDH@201. The fluoride-loaded LaLiAl-LDH@201 could be conveniently regenerated in situ by using NaOH + NaCl binary solution, achieving desorption efficiency above 98%. Moreover, negligible capacity loss, La leaching, or structure alteration was observed after five adsorption-regeneration cycles, indicating the high stability of LaLiAl-LDH@201. Therefore, the novel millisphere nanocomposite LaLiAl-LDH@201 was promising for efficient defluoridation from water and wastewater.

15.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 35(1): 37-43, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807444

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We used an impedance-controlled generator with an internally cooled electrode to perform radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in ex vivo bovine livers, with a single injection of either 38.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) or 10% hydrochloric acid (HCl), to determine the relative effects of these two solutions on tissue impedance, temperature and ablation volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 10 ablations each with injections of NaCl (NaCl-RFA), HCl (HCl-RFA) or nothing (RFA-alone), with a power setting of 200 W for 15 minutes. We recorded tissue impedance before and after injection. We logged temperatures obtained from thermocouple probes positioned 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm from the internally cooled RF electrode. After ablation, we measured ablation zone longitudinal and transverse diameters, and we calculated a spherical ratio (SR) for each ablation. RESULTS: Mean post-injection impedance of 30.3 (standard deviation [SD] 2.5) ohms for HCl was significantly lower than that of 55.4 (SD 3.5) ohms for NaCl (p < .001). Mean maximum temperatures recorded at each respective distance from the RFA electrode were all highest for HCl-RFA and lowest for RFA-alone (p < .001). Mean longitudinal and transverse diameters after HCl-RFA (5.50 [SD 0.25] cm and 5.28 [SD 0.22] cm, respectively) were significantly larger than those after NaCl-RFA (4.24 [SD 0.35] cm and 3.55 [SD 0.43] cm, respectively) and after RFA-alone (3.60 [SD 0.10] cm and 2.70 [SD 0.13] cm, respectively) (p < .001). Mean SR after HCl-RFA (0.93, SD 0.02) was significantly higher than mean SR after NaCl-RFA (0.76, SD 0.06) and RFA-alone (0.72, SD 0.04) (p < .001). CONCLUSION: Monopolar, impedance-controlled RFA, with an internally cooled electrode and a single 10% HCl injection may allow larger tumors to be treated, potentially resulting in improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorídrico/uso terapêutico , Fígado/cirurgia , Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Temperatura Baixa , Eletrodos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Modelos Animais
16.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 107, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662445

RESUMO

Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe neuropathic facial pain disorder associated with increased risks of anxiety and depression. Converging evidence suggests that chronic pain pathophysiology involves dysfunctional pain-related and emotion-related networks. However, whether these systems are also among the culprit networks for TN remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assess TN-related anatomical and functional brain anomalies in pain-related and emotion-related networks. We investigated differences in gray matter (GM) volume and the related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between 29 classical TN patients and 34 matched healthy controls. Relationships between brain measurement alterations, clinical pain and emotional states were identified. A longitudinal observation was further conducted to determine whether alterations in the brain could renormalize following pain relief. Reduced GM volumes in the bilateral amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG) and right insula were found in TN patients compared with healthy control subjects. Whole-brain rsFC analyses with the four above-mentioned anatomical regions as seeds identified three significantly altered functional circuits, including amygdala-DLPFC, amygdala-mPFC and amygdala-thalamus/putamen circuitry. The amygdala-DLPFC and amygdala-mPFC circuits were associated with clinical pain duration and emotional state ratings, respectively. Further longitudinal analysis found that rsFC strength abnormalities in two fronto-limbic circuits (left amygdala/left DLPFC and right amygdala/right PFC) were resolved after pain relief. Together, structural and functional deficits in pain-related and emotion-related networks were associated with TN patients, as demonstrated by our multimodal results. Pain relief had protective effects on brain functional connectivity within fronto-limbic circuits. Our study provides novel insights into the pathophysiology of TN, which may ultimately facilitate advances in TN intervention.

17.
Chemosphere ; 203: 68-75, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605750

RESUMO

Effluent organic matter (EfOM) in bio-treated wastewater generally has negative impacts on advanced wastewater treatment processes. Thus, a comprehensive characterization of EfOM would help determine feasibility of wastewater treatment. The aim of this work was to characterize EfOM originating from four coking wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) in China, using specific UV absorbance (SUVA), EfOM fractionation, size exclusion chromatography, and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the predominant species in all the EfOM samples were hydrophobic compounds with high SUVA values. The molecular weight (MW) distribution of the sampled EfOM was in the range of 300-1500 Da, and stronger UV absorbance was observed in the high MW (> 500 Da) region. The EEM fluorescence spectra showed that aromatic compounds accounted for a large proportion of the sampled EfOM based on the fluorescence regional integration technique. The abovementioned analysis highlights the similarities in the characteristics of the EfOM originating from different coking WTPs, regardless of treatment plant design. Meanwhile, significant differences between the characteristics of the EfOM in coking wastewater and municipal wastewater were observed.


Assuntos
Coque/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água
18.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(18): 185402, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565264

RESUMO

We theoretically investigate the barrier tunneling in the 3D model of the hyperhoneycomb lattice, which is a nodal-line semimetal with a Dirac loop at zero energy. In the presence of a rectangular potential, the scattering amplitudes for different injecting states around the nodal loop are calculated, by using analytical treatments of the effective model, as well as numerical simulations of the tight binding model. In the low energy regime, states with remarkable transmissions are only concentrated in a small range around the loop plane. When the momentum of the injecting electron is coplanar with the nodal loop, nearly perfect transmissions can occur for a large range of injecting azimuthal angles if the potential is not high. For higher potential energies, the transmission shows a resonant oscillation with the potential, but still with peaks being perfect transmissions that do not decay with the potential width. These strikingly robust transports of the loop-nodal semimetal can be approximately explained by a momentum dependent Dirac Hamiltonian.

19.
Brain Behav ; 8(2): e00912, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484269

RESUMO

Introduction: In neuroimaging studies, long-term unilateral hearing loss (UHL) is associated with functional changes in specific brain regions and connections; however, little is known regarding alterations in the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks and whether these alterations are related to hearing behavior in UHL patients. Methods: We acquired resting-state fMRI data from 21 patients with UHL caused by acoustic neuromas and 21 matched healthy controls. Whole-brain functional networks were constructed by measuring interregional temporal correlations of 278 brain regions. Alterations in interregional functional connectivity and topological properties (e.g., small-world, efficiency, and nodal centrality) were identified using graph-theory analysis. The subjects also completed a battery of hearing behavior measures. Results: Both UHL patients and controls exhibited efficient small-world properties in their functional networks. Compared with controls, UHL patients showed increased and decreased nodal centrality in distributed brain regions. Furthermore, the brain regions with significantly increased and decreased functional connections associated with UHL were components of the following important networks: (1) visual network; (2) higher-order functional networks, including the default-mode and attention networks; and (3) subcortical network and cerebellum. Intriguingly, the changes in intranetwork connections in UHL were significantly correlated with disease duration and hearing level. Conclusions: This study revealed connectome-level alterations involved in multiple large-scale networks related to sensory and higher-level cognitive functions in long-term UHL patients. These reorganizations of the brain in UHL patients may depend on the stage of deafness and hearing level. Together, our findings provided empirical evidence for understanding the neuroplastic mechanisms underlying hearing impairment, establishing potential biomarkers for monitoring the progression and further treatment effects for UHL patients.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral , Rede Nervosa , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Adulto , Conectoma/métodos , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/psicologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Tempo
20.
World Neurosurg ; 112: e597-e607, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is commonly associated with pathologic factors of axonopathy and demyelination resulting from neurovascular compression at the trigeminal root entry zone (REZ). Decompression surgery can relieve TN pain, likely by resolving such structural abnormalities. To test this hypothesis, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to capture the full extent of trigeminal microarchitecture changes in vivo in patients with TN. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with TN were compared with 28 controls. DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, parallel, and perpendicular diffusivities (MD, λ||, and λ⊥, respectively) were calculated in isolation at each trigeminal REZ. In 6 patients with pain relief following decompression surgery, repeated studies were performed 2 times (1 week and 4-6 months) after surgery to detect dynamic changes in FA, MD, λ||, and λ⊥. RESULTS: We observed significant FA reductions and increased diffusivity at the affected trigeminal REZ, corresponding to known underlying pathologic changes, including axonal edema and demyelination. Specifically, our results showed that these DTI-derived metrics are discriminating features for patients with TN according to the support vector machine approach. After effective treatment, diffusion recovery at 1 week was mainly due to the decrease in λ|| (consistent with axonal membrane stabilization), whereas at 4-6 months it was due to the predominant reduction in λ⊥ (consistent with remyelination). CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results support that DTI permits the noninvasive detection of the trigeminal microstructural abnormalities underlying TN in vivo, and DTI-derived metrics could be considered surrogate markers of the axonal and myelin states for monitoring patients.


Assuntos
Axônios , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Bainha de Mielina , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Nervo Trigêmeo/cirurgia , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/cirurgia
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