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1.
J Plant Physiol ; 266: 153510, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521019

RESUMO

Source sink balance is one of the major determinants of carbon partitioning in plants. However, its effects on photosynthesis in fruit trees are largely unknown. In this work, the effects of low sink demand on net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and chlorophyll fluorescence after fruit removal (-fruit) in peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. 'Zaojiubao') trees were investigated. The stepwise energy flow through photosystem II (PSII) at the reaction center (RC) was analyzed with quantitative analyses of fluorescence transient, also called JIP-test. We found that Pn was significantly lower and closely correlated to the leaf stomatal conductance (Gs) of -fruit trees than that of fruit retained (+fruit) trees. Leaf temperature (Tleaf) of -fruit trees was remarkably higher than that of +fruit trees. Day-time-period assays of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence revealed that, in the leaves of -fruit trees, the fluorescence parameters, such as NPQ (non-photochemical quenching coefficient) and ΦD0 (maximum quantum yield of non-photochemical de-excitation), decreased in the morning and recovered to the normal level in the afternoon, whereas other parameters, such as ΦE0 (quantum yield for electron transport at t = 0), Ψ0 (probability that a trapped exciton moves an electron to QA pool), F0 (minimum fluorescence, when all PSII RCs are open) and Wk (relative variable fluorescence at 300 µs of the chlorophyll fluorescence transient), did not. These results suggest that OEC complex and QA pool were irreversibly affected by low sink demand, whereas light harvest antenna and PSII potential efficiency retained a strong ability to recover.

2.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(18): 4043-4050, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common disease in women. The emergence of the needle-free sling has led to a new clinical treatment for SUI in women. AIM: To explore the clinical value of the needleless sling without acupuncture in the treatment of SUI in women. METHODS: From February 2017 to November 2018, according to the order of admission, 44 patients (mid-suspension group) were treated by tension-free transobturator urethral suspension, and 44 patients (non-acupuncture group) were treated with a needleless non-acupuncture band. The clinical effects of the two treatments were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups in the total clinical effectiveness rate (P = 0.374), but intraoperative blood loss and visual analogue scale score at postoperative day 1 were significantly lower in the non-acupuncture suspension group than in the middle urethral suspension group (P = 0.396). The incidence of complications in the needle-free sling group was significantly lower than that in the middle urethral suspension group (P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: The clinical effectiveness of acupuncture-free suspension in treating SUI in female patients is better than that of traditional tension-free transobturator mid-urethral suspension.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21100, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664130

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) refers to the involuntary leakage of urine when abdominal pressure increases. Midurethral slings (MUS) have become the main surgical method for treating SUI, but no quantitative standard for the degree of sling tightness during operation exists. We achieved this quantitative measurement using ambulatory urodynamic equipment. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 49-year-old woman presented to our hospital with intermittent urine leakage. Five pads were used daily to keep the vulva dry. The preoperative urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) showed that maximum urethral pressure (MUP) was 54 cmH2O and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) was 53 cmH2O. DIAGNOSIS: According to the medical history and examination findings, the patient was diagnosed as SUI. INTERVENTIONS: The MUS and UPP were performed. OUTCOMES: The intraoperative UPP showed that MUP was 29 cmH2O and MUCP was 17 cmH2O. Three months after the operation, the patient was followed up by telephone. The amount of urine pad usage decreased from 5 pads/d to 0 pads/d, reaching the social control standard (0-1 pads/d). The patient's international consultation on incontinence questionnaire short form score decreased from 18 to 5, and their incontinence quality of life score increased from 12.5 to 78.4. The effect of urine control was satisfactory, and no complications occurred.Five months after operation, the patient was reexamined in the outpatient department. The UPP showed that the MUP was 98 cmH2O and the MUCP was 72 cmH2O. The patient still uses 1 pad/day. The international consultation on incontinence questionnaire short form score is 6 and incontinence quality of life score is 79.5. The curative effect is stable. LESSONS: MUS has become an effective surgical method for SUI, and the tightness of the sling directly affects the surgical outcome. We have achieved the measurement of urethral pressure during MUS. However, although we found that there is no obvious clinical significance of urethral pressure measurement in MUS operation, future research will benefit from our findings by improving upon our study design to help standardize the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MUS.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Slings Suburetrais , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urodinâmica
4.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(12): 2494-2501, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of non-neurogenic, non-obstructive dysuria represents one of the most challenging dilemmas in urological practice. The main clinical symptom is the increase in residual urine. Voiding dysfunction is the main cause of dysuria or urinary retention, mainly due to the decrease in bladder contraction (the decrease in contraction amplitude or duration) or the increase in outflow tract resistance. Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) has been used for > 10 years to treat many kinds of lower urinary tract dysfunction. It has become increasingly popular in China in recent years. Consequently, studies focusing on non-neurogenic, non-obstructive dysuria patients treated by SNM are highly desirable. AIM: To assess the outcome of two-stage SNM in non-neurogenic, non-obstructive dysuria. METHODS: Clinical data of 54 patients (26 men, 28 women) with non-neurogenic, non-obstructive dysuria treated by SNM from January 2012 to December 2016 in ten medical centers in China were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received two or more conservative treatments. The voiding diary, urgency score, and quality of life score before operation, after implantation of tined lead in stage I (test period), and during short-term follow-up (latest follow-up) after implantation of the implanted pulse generator in stage II were compared to observe symptom improvements. RESULTS: Among the 54 study patients, eight refused to implant an implanted pulse generator because of the unsatisfactory effect, and 46 chose to embed the implanted pulse generator at the end of stage I. The conversion rate of stage I to stage II was 85.2%. The average follow-up time was 18.6 mo. There were significant differences between baseline (before stage I) and the test period (after stage I) in residual urine, voiding frequency, average voiding amount, maximum voiding amount, nocturia, urgency score, and quality of life score. The residual urine and urgency score between the test period and the latest follow-up time (after stage II) were also significantly different. No significant differences were observed for other parameters. No wound infection, electrode breakage, or other irreversible adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: SNM is effective for patients with non-neurogenic, non-obstructive dysuria showing a poor response to traditional treatment. The duration of continuous stimulation may be positively correlated with the improvement of residual urine.

5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(10): 1203-1210, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysuria is one of the main symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause, which causes serious disruption to the normal life of peri-menopausal women. Studies have shown that it is related to decrease of detrusor contractile function, but the exact mechanism is still poorly understood. Previous results have suggested that the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway can regulate detrusor contraction, and this pathway is affected by estrogen in various tissues. However, how estrogen affects this pathway in the detrusor has not been investigated. In this study, we detected changes of the S1P/RhoA/Rho associated kinases (ROCK)/myosin light chain (MLC) pathway in the detrusor of ovariectomized rats in order to explore the underlying mechanism of dysuria during peri-menopause. METHODS: Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into SHAM (sham operation), OVX (ovariectomy), and E groups (ovariectomy + estrogen), with 12 rats in each group. We obtained bladder detrusor tissues from each group and examined the mRNA and protein levels of the major components of the S1P/RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. We also quantified the content of S1P in the detrusor using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Finally, we compared results between the groups with one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The components of the S1P pathway and the RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway of the OVX group were significantly decreased, as compared with SHAM group. The percent decreases of the components in the S1P pathway were as follows: sphingosine kinase 1 (mRNA: 39%, protein: 45%) (both P < 0.05), S1P (21.73 ±â€Š1.09 nmol/g vs. 18.86 ±â€Š0.69 nmol/g) (P < 0.05), and S1P receptor 2/3 (S1PR2/3) (mRNA: 25%, 27%, respectively) (P < 0.05). However, the protein expression levels of S1PR2/3 and the protein and mRNA levels of SphK2 and S1PR1 did not show significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). The percent decreases of the components in the RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway were as follows: ROCK2 (protein: 41%, mRNA: 36%) (both P < 0.05), p-MYPT1 (protein: 54%) (P < 0.05), and p-MLC20 (protein: 47%) (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in the mRNA and protein levels of RhoA, ROCK1, MYPT1, and MLC20 (all P > 0.05). In addition, all of the above-mentioned decreases could be reversed after estrogen supplementation (E group vs. SHAM group) (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this study, we confirmed that ovariectomy is closely associated with the down-regulation of the S1P/RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway in the rat detrusor, which may be one mechanism of dysuria caused by decreased contractile function of the female detrusor during peri-menopause.


Assuntos
Cadeias Leves de Miosina , Quinases Associadas a rho , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lisofosfolipídeos , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
6.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(23): 4084-4090, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial urethral sphincter (AUS) implantation is currently the gold standard for treating moderate and severe urinary incontinence. Currently, cuffs are chosen based on the surgeon's experience, and adjusting cuff tightness is crucial. The T-DOC air-charged catheter has not been proven to be inferior to traditional catheters. We report how intraoperative urethral pressure profilometry is performed using a T-DOC air-charged catheter with ambulatory urodynamic equipment, to guide cuff selection and adjustment. CASE SUMMARY: A 67-year-old man presented to our hospital with complete urinary incontinence following transurethral prostatectomy, using five pads/d to maintain local dryness. Preoperatively, the maximum urethral pressure (MUP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) were 52 cmH2O and 17 cmH2O, respectively. An AUS was implanted. Intraoperatively, in the inactivated state, the MUP and MUCP were 53 cmH2O and 50 cmH2O, respectively; in the activated state, they were 112 cmH2O and 109 cmH2O, respectively. The pump was activated 6 wk postoperatively. Re-measurement of the urethral pressure on the same day showed that in the inactivated state, MUP and MUCP were 89 cmH2O and 51 cmH2O, respectively, and in the activated state, 120 cmH2O and 92 cmH2O, respectively. One month after device activation, telephonic follow-up revealed that pad use had decreased from five pads/d to one pad/d, which met the standard for social continence (0-1 pad per day). There were no complications. CONCLUSION: The relationship between intraoperative urethral pressure and urinary continence post-surgery can provide data for standardizing AUS implantation and evaluating efficacy.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(44): 22347-22352, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611410

RESUMO

Observing the structure and regeneration of the myelin sheath in peripheral nerves following injury and during repair would help in understanding the pathogenesis and treatment of neurological diseases caused by an abnormal myelin sheath. In the present study, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and transcriptome analyses were used to investigate the structure and regeneration of the myelin sheath after end-to-end anastomosis, autologous nerve transplantation, and nerve tube transplantation in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury, with normal optic nerve, oculomotor nerve, sciatic nerve, and Schwann cells used as controls. The results suggested that the double-bilayer was the structural unit that constituted the myelin sheath. The major feature during regeneration was the compaction of the myelin sheath, wherein the distance between the 2 layers of cell membrane in the double-bilayer became shorter and the adjacent double-bilayers tightly closed together and formed the major dense line. The expression level of myelin basic protein was positively correlated with the formation of the major dense line, and the compacted myelin sheath could not be formed without the anchoring of the lipophilin particles to the myelin sheath.


Assuntos
Bainha de Mielina/ultraestrutura , Regeneração Nervosa , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Ratos
8.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 51(4): 627-632, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and safety of the Tsinghua PINS Remote Tech to facilitate sacral neuromodulation programming procedure. METHOD: For 22 patients who had previously participated in the phase III clinical trial for treating overactive bladder with the Tsinghua PINS sacral neuromodulation system during several Hospital, PINS Remote Tech was applied to perform postoperative parameter adjustment in order to evaluate the safety and reliability of this new technique. Telephone surveys on Remote Tech-related questionnaires were also conducted. RESULTS: 17/22 patients underwent 26 parameter adjustments, average adjustment frequency was 1.53 times per person; the average adjustment time was 23.4 ± 5.1 min (15-32 min). The total effective rate of the Remote control was 14/17 (82.3%). 7/17 (41.1%) patients' symptoms recurrence due to not knowing how to handle patient controller, these patients were instructed on how to use it correctly through Remote Tech even without reprogramming it. Other 10 patients received reprogramming. There was no discomfort during and after parameter adjustment. The questionnaire survey showed that the remote technology saved patients' time and lowered financial costs, significantly improved patient satisfaction. All patients expressed their willingness to recommend it to other patients. CONCLUSION: The PINS Remote Tech can significantly reduce the financial cost and provide a remote reprogram control service that is as safe and reliable as outpatient program control.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Internet , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/terapia , Adulto , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/economia , Eletrodos Implantados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Plexo Lombossacral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Satisfação do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
9.
J Vis Exp ; (135)2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806840

RESUMO

The occurrence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common problem with a high incidence in the aging male population. Although it is not a life-threatening disease, BPH causes problems that seriously impact the quality of life. Here, we introduce a new technique called photoselective vaporesection of the prostate (PVRP) in treating BPH, which can be seen as a variation of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP). This procedure presents several advantages compared to the PVP technique including less laser energy loss, less intraoperative complications as well as more tissue resection rate.


Assuntos
Boratos/química , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Compostos de Lítio/química , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 44(3): 983-995, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550894

RESUMO

Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), somatolactin-α (rmSLα) and -ß (rmSLß) were identified from the pituitary gland of rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus). The full-length cDNAs of these two genes were 1288 and 801 bp, encoding prepeptides of 250 and 228 amino acids residues, respectively. rmSLß can be detected in the brain (including the pituitary), ovary, testis, and gill, while rmSLα was mainly expressed in the brain. On the other hand, rmSLα was expressed in all the fetal developmental stages; however, rmSLß can just be detected in the stages since from 14 h post-fertilization (hpf). After exposure to acute waterborne cadmium (Cd), rmSLα was distinctly upregulated in juvenile rare minnows at all detected time points, from 24 to 96 h and 10 days, while rmSLß was significantly altered only in 96 h or 10-day treatment groups. As for adults, acute Cd exposure caused alterations of both rmSLα and rmSLß in the brain (containing the pituitary) at the 24 h; subchronic waterborne Cd treatment led to upregulation of rmSLα, while decrease of mSLß in the brain. Alteration of rmSL transcripts following waterborne Cd exposure further confirmed the endocrine disruption of this heavy metal. Besides, exposure to as low as 5 µg/L Cd caused alteration of rmSLα, which suggested that rmSLα might be a potential biomarker for risk assessment of aquatic Cd.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Hormônios Hipofisários/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/genética , Feminino , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Filogenia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743461

RESUMO

The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis is critical in the stress response and other activities of fish. To further investigate cadmium (Cd) toxicity on the H-P-I axis and to identify its potential regulatory genes in fish, the adult female rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to subchronic (5weeks) levels of waterborne Cd in the present study. This kind of treatment caused dose-dependent decline in fish growth, with significance in the high dose group (100µg/L). Correspondingly, low dose (5-50µg/L) waterborne Cd disrupted the endocrine system of H-P-I axis just at the secretion level, while high dose Cd disrupted both the secretion and synthesis of cortisol and its downstream signals in rare minnows, revealed by the significantly upregulation and positive correlation of corticosteroidogenic genes including MC2R, StAR, CYP11A1, and CYP11B1 in the kidney (including the interrenal tissue) (P<0.05), and the significant alteration of Glcci1, Hsp90AA and Hsp90AB in the hepatopancreas, gill and intestine as well (P<0.05). The expression of Glcci1 was significantly decreased in hepatopancreas, gill and intestine of tested fish following treatment, and its positive correlation with GR (Glucocorticoid receptor) suggested its potential regulation on the cortisol and/or H-P-I axis in fish. The expression of FKBP5 in the intestine was positively and significantly correlated with that of Hsp90AA (P<0.05), and the Hsp90AB transcript in the hepatopancreas was positively correlated with that of Hsp90AA (P<0.05), which indicated that Hsp90AA and Hsp90AB were more likely to serve as cofactors of GR and FKBP5 in response to Cd exposure.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Inter-Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/genética , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Animais , Cloreto de Cádmio/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/genética , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Glândula Inter-Renal/fisiologia , Hormônios Estimuladores de Melanócitos/genética , Hormônios Estimuladores de Melanócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476649

RESUMO

Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos were used as an experimental model to investigate the effects of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) on the early life stages of G. rarus. Normal developmental parameters (survival rate, body length and average heart rate), biomarker genes [stress response (Hsp70), detoxification (Cyp1a), organizer function and axis formation (Wnt8α), and muscle (Mstn)], enzymatic activity and DNA damage were recorded as endpoints in the developing embryos/larvae after exposure until 96h post-fertilization (hpf). Reduced survival rate, decreased heart rate, altered body length, increased malformation rate, decreased hatching rate, advanced hatching time in response to low concentrations (50 and 100nmol/L) and delayed hatching time in response to high concentrations were observed after exposure, as were many other toxic effects, including pericardial edema and bent tails. The 72 hpf LC50 (median lethal concentration) was determined to be 624.364nmol/L. Treatment with certain concentrations of CuInS2/ZnS QDs significantly increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and significantly induced DNA damage. After treatment with CuInS2/ZnS QDs, the embryos showed highly up-regulated expression of Hsp70, Cyp1a and Wnt8a and significantly up-regulated expression of Mstn at 12 hpf. Overall, this study indicates that CuInS2/ZnS QDs are potentially toxic to G. rarus embryos. The information presented in this study will be helpful for fully understanding the toxicity induced by CuInS2/ZnS QDs in fish embryos.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/embriologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/toxicidade , Compostos de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Índio/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 130(6): 636-641, 2017 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28303843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photoselective vaporization of the prostate is a technique that is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and has pronounced advantages compared to the traditional transurethral resection of the prostate. Following the recent introduction of end-firing lithium triborate lasers, we have created a new technique called photoselective vaporesection of the prostate (PVRP). This study described our initial experience using the PVRP technique for the treatment of BPH. METHODS: This prospective study included a total of 35 patients with BPH who underwent PVRP from August 2013 to July 2014. The chief clinical parameters were obtained and evaluated during the perioperative period and follow-up, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) score, maximum urinary flow rate, and prostate volume. All variables were evaluated for statistically significant differences compared to baseline values using the analysis of variance. RESULTS: The mean subgroup IPSS and QoL scores significantly improved during follow-up; the respective decreases in IPSS storage score, IPSS voiding score, IPSS nocturia score, and QoL score were 75.3%, 83.6%, 51.4%, and 71.7%, respectively (all P < 0.001 compared with baseline). Three patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer based on postoperative pathological examinations. There were no serious perioperative complications. CONCLUSION: The PVRP technique demonstrates satisfactory short-term clinical outcomes and perioperative safety in the treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Boratos/uso terapêutico , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133243

RESUMO

Objective: To test the usage of microscopic examination, antigen detection(rapid dignostic test, RDT) and nucleic acid test(PCR) for detection of malaria cases. Methods: The blood test results for malaria and suspected malaria cases during 2012-2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Taking the confirmed cases as a gold standard, the three methods were compared in aspects of diagnosis indices, specificity of identification species, and cost effectiveness. Results: A total of 212 samples were included, each analyzed with the three methods. Based on the results of the three tests, 167(78.8%) were determined to be positive for malaria, and 45 negative (21.2%). Of the positive samples, 120(71.9%) were infected with Plasmodium falciparum,22(13.2%) with P. vivax,17(10.2%) with P. ovale, 6 (3.6%) with P. malariae, and 2(1.2%) with mixed infections. The method of PCR had the highest diagnostic efficiency (96.2%,204/212), followed by RDT (93.2%,192/206; P > 0.05 vs. PCR) and the microscopic method (88.2%,187/212; P < 0.05 vs. RDT and PCR). Similarly, the PCR method had the highest overall coincidence rate to the confirmed cases (95.3%,202/212), followed by RDT (93.2%,192/206) and microscopy (88.2%,187/212; P < 0.05 vs. PCR). As to the identification specificity among species, the PCR method(95.6%, 43/45) was superior to microscopy (91.1%, 41/45; P > 0.05 vs. PCR) and RDT (68.9%, 31/45; P < 0.05 vs. PCR). As to the identification of a particular species (P. falciparum), RDT performed best (100%,116/116), followed by PCR (93.3%,112/120) and microscopy (84.2%,101/120). Based on the comprehensive evaluation on 14 indicators including if it is a diagnostic criterion, equipment and technical requirement, diagnostic performance, time cost, and the need of technical training and promotion, we found that the RDT method had the highest score(37 of 42), while microscopy and PCR were scored 26 and 27, respectively. Conclusion: Under the falciparum malaria-dominated epidemiological situation, PCR and RDT show a higher detection efficiency, PCR and microscopy perform better in species identification, and RDT has the highest cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Malária , Coinfecção , Humanos , Microscopia , Plasmodium falciparum , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27292131

RESUMO

Rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) is a widely used experimental fish in risk assessments of aquatic pollutants in China. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the world; however, few studies have used fish gills, a multi-functional organ. In this study, we characterized the differential expression of adult female rare minnow gills after sub-chronic waterborne Cd (75µg/L CdCl2) exposure for 35d. A total of 452 genes (209 up-regulated and 243 down-regulated) were identified by gene expression profiling using RNA-Seq before and after treatment. Of these differentially expressed genes, 75, 21, and 54 differentially expressed genes are related to ion transport, oxidation-reduction processes, and the immune response, respectively. The results of GO and KEGG enrichment analyses, together with the altered transcript levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules and the significant increases in the levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1ß (IL1ß) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), indicated a disruption of the immune system, particularly the induction of inflammation and autoimmunity. The significant down-regulation of coagulation factor XIII A1 polypeptide (F13A1), tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21), and Golgi-associated plant pathogenesis-related protein (GAPr) during both acute (≤96h) and sub-chronic (35d) waterborne Cd exposure, as well as their dosage dependence, suggested that these three genes could be used as sensitive biomarkers for aquatic Cd risk assessment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacologia , Cyprinidae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Genômica , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27312325

RESUMO

Individual variation in growth, metabolism and swimming performance, their possible interrelationships, and the effects of temperature were investigated in 30 juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two acclimation temperatures (15 and 25°C). We measured body mass, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), resting metabolic rate (RMR), active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) twice (28days apart) in both temperature groups. Fish acclimated to 25°C showed a 204% higher specific growth rate (SGR) than those acclimated to 15°C due to a 97% higher feeding rate (FR) and a 46% higher feed efficiency (FE). Among individuals, SGR was positively correlated with the FR and FE at both low and high temperatures. All measured variables (Ucrit, RMR and AMR) related to swimming except MS showed a high repeatability after adjusting for body mass (mass-independent). Fish acclimated to 25°C had a 40% higher Ucrit compared with 15°C acclimated fish, which was at least partially due to an improved metabolic capacity. AMR showed a 97% increase, and MS showed a 104% parallel increase with the higher acclimation temperature. Residual (mass-independent) Ucrit was positively correlated with residual RMR, AMR and MS, except for the residual RMR at high temperature. When acclimated to the lower temperature, both the residual and absolute Ucrit were negatively correlated with FR and FE and, hence, with SGR, suggesting a functional trade-off between growth and locomotion in fish acclimated to low temperatures. However, when acclimated to the higher temperature, this trade-off no longer existed; absolute Ucrit was positively correlated with SGR because individuals with rapid growth exhibited greatly increased body mass. The higher metabolic capacity at 25°C showed a positive effect on both swimming performance and growth rate (because of improved digestive efficiency) under the high-temperature condition, which we did not anticipate. Overall, these results indicate that temperature alters the relationship between growth and swimming performance of juvenile common carp. This change may be an adaptive strategy to seasonal temperature variation during their life history.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Carpas/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Temperatura , Algoritmos , Animais , Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Baixa , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27033032

RESUMO

The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis plays a critical role in the fish stress response and is regulated by several factors. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the world, but its effects on the H-P-I axis of teleosts are largely unknown. Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) as an experimental animal, we found that Cd only disrupted the secretion and synthesis of cortisol. Neither hormones at the H or P level nor the expressions of their receptor genes (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR) and melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R)) were affected. Steroidogenic acute regulator (StAR), CYP11A1 and CYP11B1, which encode the key enzymes in the cortisol synthesis pathway, were significantly up-regulated in the kidney (including the head kidney). The level of 11ß-HSD2, which is required for the conversion of cortisol to cortisone, was increased in the kidney, intestine, brain, and hepatopancreas, whereas the expression of 11ß-HSD1, which encodes the reverse conversion enzyme, was increased in the gill, kidney and almost unchanged in other tissues. The enzyme activity concentration of 11ß-HSD2 was increased in the kidney as well. The level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) decreased in the intestine, gill and muscle, and the key GR regulator FK506 binding protein5 (FKBP5) was up-regulated in the GR-decreased tissues, whereas the level of nuclear receptor co-repressor 1 (NCoR1), another GR regulator remained almost unchanged. Thus, GR, FKBP5 and 11ß-HSD2 may be involved in Cd-induced cortisol disruption.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2/genética , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2/metabolismo , Animais , Cyprinidae/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/biossíntese , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 42(4): 1203-12, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26932844

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of starvation and re-feeding on growth and swimming performance and their relationship in juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). We measured the specific growth rate (SGR), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and constant acceleration test speed (U CAT, the maximum swimming speed at exhaustion by constant acceleration test with 0.1667 cm s(-2) rate) in a treatment group (21 days of starvation then 21 days of re-feeding) and control group (routine feeding) (n = 20). Starvation resulted in a 17 % decrease in body mass of black carp (P < 0.05). After 21 days of re-feeding, body mass was greater than that of pre-starvation but still less than that of the control group at 42 days. During the re-feeding phase, the SGR of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Starvation resulted in a significant decrease in the RMR and U CAT. After 21 days of re-feeding, both the RMR and U CAT recovered to the pre-starvation levels. In the control group, individual juvenile black carp displayed strong repeatability of the RMR and U CAT across the measurement periods (P ≤ 0.002). In the treatment group, RMR showed significant repeatability between pre-starvation and re-feeding (P = 0.007), but not between pre-starvation and starvation or between starvation and re-feeding. U CAT showed significant repeatability between pre-starvation and starvation (P = 0.006) and between pre-starvation and re-feeding (P = 0.001), but not between starvation and re-feeding. No correlation or only a weak correlation was found between any two variables of RMR, U CAT and SGR, whereas the increment of the U CAT (ΔU CAT) was negatively correlated with that of SGR during the starvation phase (r = -0.581, n = 20, P = 0.007) and re-feeding phase (r = -0.568, n = 20, P = 0.009). This suggested that within individual black carp, there is a trade-off between growth and maintenance (or development) of swimming performance under food-limited conditions.


Assuntos
Carpas , Inanição/fisiopatologia , Animais , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Inanição/metabolismo , Natação
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26774184

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance, postprandial metabolic response and their interaction in a sedentary fish species, either satiation-fed or starved juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were exercised at 25 °C under three water velocities, i.e., nearly still water (control), 1 body length (bl) s(-1) and 2 bl s(-1), for eight weeks. Then, the feed intake (FI), food conversion efficiency (FCE), specific growth rate (SGR), morphological parameters, resting MO2 (MO2rest) and postprandial MO2 responses of the experimental fish were measured. Exercise at a low velocity (1 bl s(-1)) showed no effect on any growth performance parameter, whereas exercise at a high velocity (2 bl s(-1)) exhibited higher FI but similar SGR due to the extra energy expenditure from swimming and consequent decreased FCE. Starvation led to a significant body mass loss, whereas the effect intensified in both exercise groups. Exercise resulted in improved cardio-respiratory capacity, as indicated by increased gill and heart indexes, whereas it exhibited no effect on resting and postprandial metabolism in S. meridionalis. The starved fish displayed significantly larger heart, gill and digestive tract indexes compared with the feeding fish, suggesting selective maintenance of cardio-respiratory and digestive function in this fish species during starvation. However, starved fish still exhibited impaired digestive performance, as evidenced by the prolonged duration and low postprandial metabolic increase, and this effect was further exacerbated in both the 1 and 2 bl s(-1) exercise groups. These data suggest the following: (1) aerobic exercise produced no improvement in growth performance but may have led to the impairment of growth under insufficient food conditions; (2) the mass of different organs and tissues responded differently to aerobic exercise and starvation due to the different physiological roles they play; and (3) aerobic exercise had no effect on the postprandial metabolic response under a "normal feeding" situation, whereas it may have resulted in the impairment of the digestive capacity when food availability was low due to the competition of energy and oxygen under unfavorable conditions in juvenile S. meridionalis.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Inanição/fisiopatologia , Animais , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Inanição/metabolismo , Natação/fisiologia
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