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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, schistosomiasis control has been scaled up. Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is the main intervention. We aimed to assess the effect of preventive chemotherapy on schistosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, comparing 2000-10 with 2011-14 and 2015-19. METHODS: In this spatiotemporal modelling study, we analysed survey data from school-aged children (aged 5-14 years) in 44 countries across sub-Saharan Africa. The data were extracted from the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database and augmented by 2018 and 2019 survey data obtained from disease control programmes. Bayesian geostatistical models were fitted to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni survey data. The models included data on climatic predictors obtained from satellites and other open-source environmental databases and socioeconomic predictors obtained from various household surveys. Temporal changes in Schistosoma species prevalence were estimated by a categorical variable with values corresponding to the three time periods (2000-10, 2011-14, and 2015-19) during which preventive chemotherapy interventions were scaled up. FINDINGS: We identified 781 references with relevant geolocated schistosomiasis survey data for 2000-19. There were 19 166 unique survey locations for S haematobium and 23 861 for S mansoni, of which 77% (14 757 locations for S haematobium and 18 372 locations for S mansoni) corresponded to 2011-19. Schistosomiasis prevalence among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa decreased from 23·0% (95% Bayesian credible interval 22·1-24·1) in 2000-10 to 9·6% (9·1-10·2) in 2015-19, an overall reduction of 58·3%. The reduction of S haematobium was 67·9% (64·6-71·1) and that of S mansoni 53·6% (45·2-58·3) when comparing 2000-10 with 2015-19. INTERPRETATION: Our model-based estimates suggest that schistosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa has decreased considerably, most likely explained by the scale-up of preventive chemotherapy. There is a need to consolidate gains in the control of schistosomiasis by means of preventive chemotherapy, coupled with other interventions to interrupt disease transmission. FUNDING: European Research Council and WHO.

2.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of trachoma in each of the 21 local government areas (LGAs) of Adamawa State, Nigeria. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in each of the 21 LGAs of Adamawa State between 2017 and 2019. With the support of Tropical Data (TD), surveys were planned and implemented in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used in each LGA, 25 or 30 clusters were selected with a probability of selection proportionate to cluster size, and in each of these clusters, 25 or 30 households were enrolled for the survey. All residents aged 1 year and older within selected households were examined by TD-certified graders for trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) using the WHO simplified grading scheme. Additionally, data were collected on household water and sanitation access. RESULTS: All 21 LGAs had TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds below 5%. The prevalence of TT unknown to the health system in people aged ≥15 years was ≥0.2% in three of the 21 LGAs. Access to improved water and sanitation facilities was <80% in the majority of the surveyed LGAs. Only 12 of the 21 LGAs had ≥50% household-level improved latrine access, and only Yola North had ≥80% household-level improved latrine access. CONCLUSION: There is no need for mass treatment with antibiotics for trachoma elimination purposes in any of these LGAs. There is a need for active TT case finding and provision of community-based TT surgical services in three LGAs. Furthermore, engagement with water and sanitation agencies is needed to augment access to improved water and sanitation facilities across the State; this will help to avoid the recrudescence of active trachoma in the State.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(9): e0009807, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guinea reported its first case of COVID-19 on March 12, 2020. Soon thereafter, a national state of emergency was declared, all land borders were closed, schools were shut down, and public gatherings were limited. Many health activities, including field-based activities targeting neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), were paused. The World Health Organization (WHO) issued updated guidance on the resumption of NTD field-based activities on July 27, 2020. In response, the Guinea Ministry of Health (MoH) and its partners planned and resumed mass drug administration (MDA) in mid-August to September 2020 in 19 health districts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A risk-benefit assessment was conducted to identify potential risks associated with the MDA in the COVID-19 context. Following this assessment, a risk mitigation plan with barrier measures was developed to guide MDA implementation. These measures included COVID-19 testing for all national staff leaving Conakry, mask wearing, social distancing of two meters, and hand washing/sanitizing. A checklist was developed and used to monitor compliance to risk mitigation measures. Data on adherence to risk mitigation measures were collected electronically during the MDA. A total of 120 checklists, representing 120 community drug distributor (CDD) teams (two CDDs per team) and 120 households, were completed. Results indicated that washing or disinfecting hands was practiced by 68.3% of CDD teams, compared to 45.0% among households. Face masks to cover the mouth and nose were worn by 79.2% of CDD teams, while this was low among households (23.3%). In 87.5% of households, participants did not touch the dose pole and in 88.3% of CDD teams, CDDs did not touch the hands of the participants while giving the drugs. A large majority of CDD teams (94.2%) and household members (94.2%) were willing to participate in the MDA despite the pandemic. The epidemiological coverage was ≥65% for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminths in 10 out of 19 HDs and ≥75% for schistosomiasis for school-aged children in 7 out of 11 HDs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Guinea was one of the first countries in Africa to resume MDA activities during the COVID-19 pandemic without causing an observed increase of transmission. The development of a risk mitigation plan and a method to monitor adherence to barrier measures was critical to this unprecedented effort. The rapid incorporation of COVID-19 barrier measures and their acceptance by CDDs and household members demonstrated both the adaptability of the National NTD Program to respond to emerging issues and the commitment of the MoH to implement NTD programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Programas Governamentais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guiné , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(Suppl 3): S172-S179, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905476

RESUMO

Maps of the geographical variation in prevalence play an important role in large-scale programs for the control of neglected tropical diseases. Precontrol mapping is needed to establish the appropriate control intervention in each area of the country in question. Mapping is also needed postintervention to measure the success of control efforts. In the absence of comprehensive disease registries, mapping efforts can be informed by 2 kinds of data: empirical estimates of local prevalence obtained by testing individuals from a sample of communities within the geographical region of interest, and digital images of environmental factors that are predictive of local prevalence. In this article, we focus on the design and analysis of impact surveys, that is, prevalence surveys that are conducted postintervention with the aim of informing decisions on what further intervention, if any, is needed to achieve elimination of the disease as a public health problem. We show that geospatial statistical methods enable prevalence surveys to be designed and analyzed as efficiently as possible so as to make best use of hard-won field data. We use 3 case studies based on data from soil-transmitted helminth impact surveys in Kenya, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe to compare the predictive performance of model-based geostatistics with methods described in current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. In all 3 cases, we find that model-based geostatistics substantially outperforms the current WHO guidelines, delivering improved precision for reduced field-sampling effort. We argue from experience that similar improvements will hold for prevalence mapping of other neglected tropical diseases.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Humanos , Quênia , Doenças Negligenciadas , Prevalência , Serra Leoa , Solo , Zimbábue
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0008995, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma and belongs to the neglected tropical diseases. The disease has been reported in 78 countries, with around 290.8 million people in need of treatment in 2018. Schistosomiasis is predominantly considered a rural disease with a subsequent focus of research and control activities in rural settings. Over the past decades, occurrence and even expansion of schistosomiasis foci in peri-urban and urban settings have increasingly been observed. Rural-urban migration in low- and middle-income countries and subsequent rapid and unplanned urbanization are thought to explain these observations. Fifty-five percent (55%) of the world population is already estimated to live in urban areas, with a projected increase to 68% by 2050. In light of rapid urbanization and the efforts to control morbidity and ultimately achieve elimination of schistosomiasis, it is important to deepen our understanding of the occurrence, prevalence, and transmission of schistosomiasis in urban and peri-urban settings. A systematic literature review looking at urban and peri-urban schistosomiasis was therefore carried out as a first step to address the research and mapping gap. METHODOLOGY: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic computer-aided literature review was carried out using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and the World Health Organization Database in November 2019, which was updated in March 2020. Only papers for which at least the abstract was available in English were used. Relevant publications were screened, duplicates were removed, guidelines for eligibility were applied, and eligible studies were reviewed. Studies looking at human Schistosoma infections, prevalence, and intensity of infection in urban and peri-urban settings were included as well as those focusing on the intermediate host snails. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 248 publications met the inclusion criteria. The selected studies confirm that schistosomiasis is prevalent in peri-urban and urban areas in the countries assessed. Earlier studies report higher prevalence levels in urban settings compared to data extracted from more recent publications, yet the challenge of migration, rapid uncontrolled urbanization, and resulting poor living conditions highlight the potential for continuous or even newly established transmission to take place. CONCLUSIONS: The review indicates that schistosomiasis has long existed in urban and peri-urban areas and remains a public health problem. There is, however, a challenge of comparability of settings due to the lack of a clear definition of what constitutes urban and peri-urban. There is a pressing need for improved monitoring of schistosomiasis in urban communities and consideration of treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Schistosoma/classificação , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , População Suburbana , População Urbana
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008877, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination in Sierra Leone. Epidemiological coverage of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole had been reported >65% in all 12 districts annually. Eight districts qualified to implement transmission assessment survey (TAS) in 2013 but were deferred until 2017 due to the Ebola outbreak (2014-2016). In 2017, four districts qualified for conducting a repeat pre-TAS after completing three more rounds of MDA and the final two districts were also eligible to implement a pre-TAS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For TAS, eight districts were surveyed as four evaluation units (EU). A school-based survey was conducted in children aged 6-7 years from 30 clusters per EU. For pre-TAS, one sentinel and one spot check site per district (with 2 spot check sites in Bombali) were selected and 300-350 persons aged 5 years and above were selected. For both surveys, finger prick blood samples were tested using the Filariasis Test Strips (FTS). For TAS, 7,143 children aged 6-7 years were surveyed across four EUs, and positives were found in three EUs, all below the critical cut-off value for each EU. For the repeat pre-TAS/pre-TAS, 3,994 persons over five years of age were surveyed. The Western Area Urban had FTS prevalence of 0.7% in two sites and qualified for TAS, while other five districts had sites with antigenemia prevalence >2%: 9.1-25.9% in Bombali, 7.5-19.4% in Koinadugu, 6.1-2.9% in Kailahun, 1.3-2.3% in Kenema and 1.7% - 3.7% in Western Area Rural. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Eight districts in Sierra Leone have successfully passed TAS1 and stopped MDA, with one more district qualified for conducting TAS1, a significant progress towards LF elimination. However, great challenges exist in eliminating LF from the whole country with repeated failure of pre-TAS in border districts. Effort needs to be intensified to achieve LF elimination.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Filaricidas , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Animais , Brugia Malayi/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação
7.
Int Health ; 13(Suppl 1): S44-S47, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349880

RESUMO

The Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) Non-governmental Development Organization (NGDO) Network was established to engage in supporting both international and national LF elimination agendas covering areas such as assisting ministries of health as an on-the-ground link between communities and programmes, which additionally gives the Network members an important voice from the field at international meetings; playing key roles in programme evolution (especially helping to both scale up and scale down mass drug administration [MDA] as elimination thresholds are met); having a role in operational research and developing new programme delivery models that can be taken to scale (such as linkages with other disease programmes and approaches to morbidity management and disability prevention); developing advocacy and policy approaches with other partners; convening other important stakeholders (academic, technical, programmatic and funding); mobilizing financial and technical resources to support programmes; supporting national human resource capacity building to catalyse national ownership of LF programmes; providing leadership in LF governance structures and working in areas of conflict to ensure that everybody in LF-endemic areas enjoys treatment services. Three case studies will illustrate the roles identified for NGDOs in LF programmes covering development of operational research, policy and advocacy linkage between LF and malaria programmes; launching LF morbidity management projects and NGDO's ability to work and deliver LF services in areas of conflict. In addition, the case studies will show the role of NGDOs in mobilising financial and technical resources that support national human resources, leading to national ownership of programmes. Conclusions will be drawn on the role of NGDOs in the Global Alliance for LF elimination and the need for continued partnerships to reach programme goals.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Morbidade
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 284, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in the Central African Region has been hampered by the presence of Loa loa due to severe adverse events that arise in the treatment with ivermectin. The immunochromatographic test (ICT) cards used for mapping LF demonstrated cross-reactivity with L. loa and posed the problem of delineating the LF map. To verify LF endemicity in forest areas of Cameroon where mass drug administration (MDA) has not been ongoing, we used the recently developed strategy that combined serology, microscopy and molecular techniques. METHODS: This study was carried out in 124 communities in 31 health districts (HDs) where L. loa is present. At least 125 persons per site were screened. Diurnal blood samples were investigated for circulating filarial antigen (CFA) by FTS and for L. loa microfilariae (mf) using TBF. FTS positive individuals were further subjected to night blood collection for detecting W. bancrofti. qPCR was used to detect DNA of the parasites. RESULTS: Overall, 14,446 individuals took part in this study, 233 participants tested positive with FTS in 29 HDs, with positivity rates ranging from 0.0 to 8.2%. No W. bancrofti mf was found in the night blood of any individuals but L. loa mf were found in both day and night blood of participants who were FTS positive. Also, qPCR revealed that no W. bancrofti but L.loa DNA was found with dry bloodspot. Positive FTS results were strongly associated with high L. loa mf load. Similarly, a strong positive association was observed between FTS positivity and L loa prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Using a combination of parasitological and molecular tools, we were unable to find evidence of W. bancrofti presence in the 31 HDs, but L. loa instead. Therefore, LF is not endemic and LF MDA is not required in these districts.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Camarões/epidemiologia , Reações Cruzadas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Loa/imunologia , Loa/patogenicidade , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Wuchereria bancrofti/imunologia , Wuchereria bancrofti/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 41, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baseline mapping of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among school age children (SAC) in 2008-2009 found high or moderate prevalence in 13 of the 14 districts in Sierra Leone. Following these surveys, mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole/albendazole was conducted biannually at national level targeting pre-school children (PSC) aged 12-59 months and intermittently at sub-national level targeting SAC. In addition, MDA with ivermectin and albendazole for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been conducted nationwide since 2010 targeting individuals over 5 years of age. Each MDA achieved high coverage, except in 2014 when all but one round of MDA for PSC was cancelled due to the Ebola emergency. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH infections among SAC after a decade of these deworming campaigns. METHODS: Seventy-three schools in 14 districts were purposefully selected, including 39 schools from the baseline surveys, with approximately two sites from each of low, moderate and high prevalence categories at baseline per district. Fresh stool samples were collected from 3632 children aged 9-14 years (male 51%, female 49%) and examined using the Kato Katz technique. RESULTS: The prevalence of STH infections in Sierra Leone decreased in 2016 compared to 2008: Ascaris lumbricoides 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-5.1%) versus 6.6% (95% CI: 0-25%), Trichuris trichiura 0.7% (95% CI: 0.5-1.1%) versus 1.8% (95% CI: 0-30.2%), hookworm 14.9% (95% CI: 13.8-16.1) versus 38.5% (95% CI: 5.4-95.1%), and any STH 18.3% (95% CI:17.0-19.5%) versus 48.3% (CI: 5.4-96.3%), respectively. In 2016, no district had high hookworm prevalence and four districts had moderate prevalence, compared with eight and four districts respectively in 2008. In 2016, the arithmetic mean hookworm egg count in all children examined was light: 45.5 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces, (95% CI:\ 35.96-55.07 EPG); three (0.08%) children had heavy infections and nine (0.25%) children had moderate infections. CONCLUSIONS: Sierra Leone has made considerable progress toward controlling STH as a public health problem among SAC. As LF MDA phases out (between 2017 and 2021), transition of deworming to other platforms and water and sanitation strategies need to be strengthened to maintain STH control and ultimately interrupt transmission.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancilostomíase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Ancilostomíase/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ascaríase/prevenção & controle , Quimioprevenção , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/prevenção & controle
10.
Front Public Health ; 7: 1, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809516

RESUMO

Historic data and baseline surveys showed schistosomiasis as highly/moderately endemic in 7 of 14 districts in Sierra Leone, justifying annual/biennial mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel. MDA commenced in 2009 and reported treatment coverage had been above the World Health Organization recommended 75% of target population. Assessment in 2012 showed significant reduction in infection. In 2016, another national school-based survey was conducted to evaluate the progress. Two schools from each category (high, moderate or low) of endemic communities in each MDA district and five schools in non-MDA districts were selected. Fifty children (25 boys and 25 girls) aged 9-14 years were randomly selected per school. Parasitological examination of 1,980 stool and 1,382 urine samples were conducted. Overall Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in the seven MDA districts decreased to 20.4% (95% CI: 18.7-22.3%) in 2016 from 42.2% (95% CI: 39.8-44.5%) at baseline (p < 0.0001). Mean overall S. mansoni intensity of infection reduced to 52.8 epg (95% CI: 43.2-62.4 epg) in 2016 from 100.5 epg (95% CI: 88.7-112.3 epg) at baseline (p < 0.001). The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium in the five MDA districts that had baseline prevalence data decreased to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.5-3.1%) in 2016 from 18.3% (95% CI: 16.3-20.5%) at baseline (p < 0.0001). Mean overall intensity of infection increased to 1.12 e/10 ml (95% CI: 0.55-0.1.70 e/10 ml) in 2016 compared to 0.47 e/10 ml (95% CI: 0.16-0.78 e/10 ml) in 2012 (p < 0.05) (no baseline data). No district was highly endemic in 2016 compared to three at baseline and there was no significant difference in prevalence or intensity of infection by sex for both species. This survey illustrated the significant progress made in controlling schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone. The fact that prevalence and intensity of infection showed an increase from the 2010 level suggested a detrimental effect of missing MDA due to the Ebola toward schistosomiasis control. The national program needs to continue the treatment and adopt a comprehensive approach including water, hygiene, and sanitation measures to achieve control and elimination of schistosomiasis.

11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007064, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mali has become increasingly interested in the evaluation of transmission of both Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus as prevalences of both infections move toward their respective elimination targets. The SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test was used in 2 evaluation units (EU) to assess its performance as an integrated surveillance tool for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional survey with SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test was piggy-backed onto a transmission assessment survey (TAS) (using the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) Binax Filariasis Now test for filarial adult circulating antigen (CFA) detection) for LF in Mali among 6-7 year old children in 2016 as part of the TAS in two EUs namely Kadiolo-Kolondieba in the region of Sikasso and Bafoulabe -Kita-Oussoubidiagna-Yelimane in the region of Kayes. In the EU of Kadiolo- Kolondieba, of the 1,625 children tested, the overall prevalence of W. bancrofti CFA was 0.62% (10/1,625) [CI = 0.31-1.09]; while that of IgG4 to Wb123 was 0.19% (3/1,600) [CI = 0.04-0.50]. The number of positives tested with the two tests were statistically comparable (p = 0.09). In the EU of Bafoulabe-Kita-Oussoubidiagna-Yelimane, an overall prevalence of W. bancrofti CFA was 0% (0/1,700) and that of Wb123 IgG4 antibody was 0.06% (1/1,700), with no statistically significant difference between the two rates (p = 0.99). In the EU of Kadiolo- Kolondieba, the prevalence of Ov16-specific IgG4 was 0.19% (3/1,600) [CI = 0.04-0.50]. All 3 positives were in the previously O. volvulus-hyperendemic district of Kolondieba. In the EU of Bafoulabe-Kita-Oussoubidiagna-Yelimane, an overall prevalence of Ov16-specific IgG4 was 0.18% (3/1,700) [CI = 0.04-0.47]. These 3 Ov16 IgG4 positives were from previously O.volvulus-mesoendemic district of Kita. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid test appears to be a good tool for integrated exposure measures of LF and onchocerciasis in co-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Filariose Linfática/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Onchocerca volvulus/imunologia , Oncocercose/imunologia , Wuchereria bancrofti/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Filariose Linfática/sangue , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Testes Imunológicos , Mali/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/sangue , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/imunologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Oncocercose/sangue , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 334, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A baseline survey in 2007-2008 found lymphatic filariasis (LF) to be endemic in Sierra Leone in all 14 districts and co-endemic with onchocerciasis in 12 districts. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin started in 2006 for onchocerciasis and was modified to add albendazole in 2008 to include LF treatment. In 2011, after three effective MDAs, a significant reduction in microfilaraemia (mf) prevalence and density was reported at the midterm assessment. After five MDAs, in 2013, mf prevalence and density were again measured as part of a pre-transmission assessment survey (pre-TAS) conducted per WHO guidelines. METHODS: For the pre-TAS survey, districts were paired to represent populations of one million for impact assessment. One sentinel site selected from baseline and one spot check site purposefully selected based upon local knowledge of patients with LF were surveyed per pair (two districts). At each site, 300 people over five years of age provided mid-night blood samples and mf prevalence and density were determined using thick blood film microscopy. Results are compared with baseline and midterm data. RESULTS: At pre-TAS the overall mf prevalence was 0.54% (95% CI: 0.36-0.81%), compared to 0.30% (95% CI: 0.19-0.47) at midterm and 2.6% (95% CI: 2.3-3.0%) at baseline. There was a higher, but non-significant, mf prevalence among males vs females. Eight districts (four pairs) had a prevalence of mf < 1% at all sites. Two pairs (four districts) had a prevalence of mf > 1% at one of the two sites: Koinadugu 0.98% (95% CI: 0.34-2.85%) and Bombali 2.67% (95% CI: 1.41-5.00%), and Kailahun 1.56% (95% CI: 0.72-3.36%) and Kenema 0% (95% CI: 0.00-1.21%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to baseline, there was a significant reduction of LF mf prevalence and density in the 12 districts co-endemic for LF and onchocerciasis after five annual LF MDAs. No statistically significant difference was seen in either measure compared to midterm. Eight of the 12 districts qualified for TAS. The other four districts that failed to qualify for TAS had historically high LF baseline prevalence and density and had regular cross-border movement of populations. These four districts needed to conduct two additional rounds of LF MDA before repeating the pre-TAS. The results showed that Sierra Leone continued to make progress towards the elimination of LF as a public health problem.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Criança , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Feminino , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Wuchereria bancrofti/efeitos dos fármacos , Wuchereria bancrofti/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(6): e0006585, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on previous studies, historical records and risk factors, trachoma was suspected to be endemic in 31 health districts (HDs) in Guinea. To facilitate planning for the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, national trachoma surveys were conducted between 2011 and 2016 to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in all 31 endemic HDs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 27 cross-sectional surveys were conducted, each using two-stage cluster sampling (one survey in 2011 covered five HDs). Children aged 1-9 years and adults aged ≥15 years were examined for TF and TT, respectively, using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system. Indicators of household access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) were also collected. A total of 100,051 people from 13,725 households of 556 clusters were examined, of whom 44,899 were male and 55,152 were female. 44,209 children aged 1-9-years and 48,745 adults aged ≥15 years were examined. The adjusted prevalence of TF varied between 1.0% (95%CI: 0.6-1.5%) to 41.8% (95%CI: 39.4-44.2%), while the adjusted prevalence of TT ranged from 0.0% (95%CI: 0.0-0.2%) to 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3-3.5%) in the 27 surveys. In all, 18 HDs had a TF prevalence ≥5% in children aged 1-9 years and 21 HDs had a TT prevalence ≥0.2% in adults aged ≥15 years. There were an estimated 32,737 (95% CI: 19,986-57,811) individuals with TT living in surveyed HDs at the time of surveys. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Trachoma is a public health problem in Guinea. 18 HDs required intervention with at least one round of mass drug administration and an estimated 32,737 persons required TT surgery in the country. The results provided clear evidence for Guinea to plan for national trachoma elimination.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Guiné/epidemiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Tracoma/microbiologia , Triquíase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 30, 2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is endemic in 12 of the 14 health districts of Sierra Leone. Good treatment coverage of community-directed treatment with ivermectin was achieved between 2005 and 2009 after the 11-year civil conflict. Sentinel site surveys were conducted in 2010 to evaluate the impact of five annual rounds of ivermectin distribution. METHODS: In total, 39 sentinel villages from hyper- and meso-endemic areas across the 12 endemic districts were surveyed using skin snips in 2010. Results were analyzed and compared with the baseline data from the same 39 villages. RESULTS: The average microfilaridermia (MF) prevalence across 39 sentinel villages was 53.10% at baseline. The MF prevalence was higher in older age groups, with the lowest in the age group of 1-9 years (11.00%) and the highest in the age group of 40-49 years (82.31%). Overall mean MF density among the positives was 28.87 microfilariae (mf)/snip, increasing with age with the lowest in the age group of 1-9 years and the highest in the age group of 40-49 years. Males had higher MF prevalence and density than females. In 2010 after five rounds of mass drug administration, the overall MF prevalence decreased by 60.26% from 53.10% to 21.10%; the overall mean MF density among the positives decreased by 71.29% from 28.87 mf/snip to 8.29 mf/snip; and the overall mean MF density among all persons examined decreased by 88.58% from 15.33 mf/snip to 1.75 mf/snip. Ten of 12 endemic districts had > 50% reduction in MF prevalence. Eleven of 12 districts had ≥50% reduction in mean MF density among the positives. CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction of onchocerciasis MF prevalence and mean density was recorded in all 12 districts of Sierra Leone after five annual MDAs with effective treatment coverage. The results suggested that the onchocerciasis elimination programme in Sierra Leone was on course to reach the objective of eliminating onchocerciasis in the country by the year 2025. Annual MDA with ivermectin should continue in all 12 districts and further evaluations are needed across the country to assist the NTDP with programme decision making.


Assuntos
Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Microfilárias/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Onchocerca volvulus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Onchocerca volvulus/fisiologia , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
16.
Int Health ; 10(suppl_1): i97-i101, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471339

RESUMO

The NGDO Coordination Group for the Control of Onchocerciasis was launched in 1992, and with the paradigm shift from control of disease to elimination of onchocerciasis transmission, the Group shifted its orientation to that new paradigm in 2013. It also changed its name, replacing 'control' with 'elimination.' In doing so, the Group has repositioned itself to build on the successes of the past to finish the job it began over 25 years ago.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Internacionalidade , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006289, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2009, three years after stopping mass treatment with azithromycin, a trachoma impact survey in four health districts in the Kayes region of Mali found a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) among children aged 1 to 9 years of >5% and a trachomatous trichiasis (TT) prevalence within the general population (≥1-year-old) of <1%. As a result, the government's national trachoma program expanded trichiasis surgery and related activities required to achieve trachoma elimination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2015, to assess progress towards elimination, a follow-up impact survey was conducted in the Kayes, Kéniéba, Nioro and Yélimané health districts. The survey used district level two-stage cluster random sampling methodology with 20 clusters of 30 households in each evaluation unit. Subjects were eligible for examination if they were ≥1 year. TF and TT cases were identified and confirmed by experienced ophthalmologists. In total 14,159 people were enumerated and 11,620 (82%) were examined. TF prevalence (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 0.5% (0.3-1%) in Kayes, 0.8% (0.4-1.7%) in Kéniéba, 0.2% (0-0.9%) in Nioro and 0.3% (0.1-1%) in Yélimané. TT prevalence (95% CI) was 0.04% (0-0.25%) in Kayes, 0.29% (0.11-0.6%) in Kéniéba, 0.04% (0-0.25%) in Nioro and 0.07% (0-0.27%) in Yélimané. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Eight years after stopping MDA and intensifying trichiasis surgery outreach campaigns, all four districts reached the TF elimination threshold of <5% and three of four districts reached the TT elimination threshold of <0.1%.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Tracoma/diagnóstico , Tracoma/patologia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(6): e0005633, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the 10 neglected tropical diseases targeted for control or elimination by 2020. For LF elimination, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a comprehensive strategy including (i) interruption of LF transmission through large-scale annual treatment (or mass drug administration (MDA)) of all eligible individuals in endemic areas, and (ii) alleviation of LF-associated suffering through morbidity management and disability prevention. In Cameroon, once-yearly mass administration of ivermectin and albendazole has been implemented since 2008. The aim of this study was to assess progress towards the elimination goal, looking specifically at the impact of six rounds of MDA on LF transmission in northern Cameroon. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted in the North and Far North Regions of Cameroon. Five health districts that successfully completed six rounds of MDA (defined as achieving a treatment coverage ≥ 65% each year) and reported no positive results for Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariaemia during routine surveys following the fifth MDA were grouped into three evaluation units (EU) according to WHO criteria. LF transmission was assessed through a community-based transmission assessment survey (TAS) using an immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in children aged 5-8 years old. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 5292 children (male/female ratio 1.04) aged 5-8 years old were examined in 97 communities. Positive CFA results were observed in 2, 8 and 11 cases, with a CFA prevalence of 0.13% (95% CI: 0.04-0.46) in EU#1, 0.57% (95% CI: 0.32-1.02) in EU#2, and 0.45% (95% CI: 0.23-0.89) in EU#3. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The positive CFA cases were below WHO defined critical cut-off thresholds for stopping treatment and suggest that transmission can no longer be sustained. Post-MDA surveillance activities should be organized to evaluate whether recrudescence can occur.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração de Serviços de Saúde , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(5): e0004707, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27163294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF) mass drug administration (MDA) for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls) were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.8%) in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6%) and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0-4.2 epg). Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9-6.1%) and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3-26.6 epg). A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS). In this assessment, 351 children aged 6-7 years and 345 children aged 10-14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2-2.1%)) and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0-4.1%)) of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also demonstrated that LF TAS provides one feasible and efficient platform to assess the STH situation for post LF MDA decision making.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Bull World Health Organ ; 94(1): 37-45, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26769995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a decade of biennial mass administration of praziquantel on schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso. METHODS: In 2013, in a national assessment based on 22 sentinel sites, 3514 school children aged 7-11 years were checked for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infection by the examination of urine and stool samples, respectively. We analysed the observed prevalence and intensity of infections and compared these with the relevant results of earlier surveys in Burkina Faso. FINDINGS: S. haematobium was detected in 287/3514 school children (adjusted prevalence: 8.76%, range across sentinel sites: 0.0-56.3%; median: 2.5%). The prevalence of S. haematobium infection was higher in the children from the Centre-Est, Est and Sahel regions than in those from Burkina Faso's other eight regions with sentinel sites (P < 0.001). The adjusted arithmetic mean intensity of S. haematobium infection, among all children, was 6.0 eggs per 10 ml urine. Less than 1% of the children in six regions had heavy S. haematobium infections - i.e. at least 50 eggs per 10 ml urine - but such infections were detected in 8.75% (28/320) and 11.56% (37/320) of the children from the Centre-Est and Sahel regions, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni was only detected in two regions and 43 children - i.e. 1 (0.31%) of the 320 from Centre-Sud and 42 (8.75%) of the 480 from Hauts Bassins. CONCLUSION: By mass use of preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso may have eliminated schistosomiasis as a public health problem in eight regions and controlled schistosome-related morbidity in another three regions.


Assuntos
Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Urinária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/economia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Quimioprevenção/economia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Quimioprevenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Praziquantel/economia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Schistosoma haematobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose Urinária/economia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Urina/parasitologia
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