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2.
J Immunol ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880108

RESUMO

The 0.8-Mb Ig new Ag receptor (IgNAR) region of the whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) is incompletely assembled in Chr_44 of the reference genome. Here we used Cas9-assisted targeting of chromosome segments (CATCH) to enrich the 2 Mb region of the Chr_44 IgNAR loci and sequenced it by PacBio and next-generation sequencing. A fragment >3.13 Mb was isolated intact from the RBCs of sharks. The target was enriched 245.531-fold, and sequences had up to 94% coverage with a 255× mean depth. Compared with the previously published sequences, 20 holes were filled, with a total length of 3508 bp. In addition, we report five potential germline V alleles of IgNAR1 from six sharks that may belong to two clusters of the IgNAR. Our results provide a new method to research the germline of large Ig gene segments, as well as provide the enhanced bamboo shark IgNAR gene loci with fewer gaps.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6858, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824214

RESUMO

Muntjac deer have experienced drastic karyotype changes during their speciation, making it an ideal model for studying mechanisms and functional consequences of mammalian chromosome evolution. Here we generated chromosome-level genomes for Hydropotes inermis (2n = 70), Muntiacus reevesi (2n = 46), female and male M. crinifrons (2n = 8/9) and a contig-level genome for M. gongshanensis (2n = 8/9). These high-quality genomes combined with Hi-C data allowed us to reveal the evolution of 3D chromatin architectures during mammalian chromosome evolution. We find that the chromosome fusion events of muntjac species did not alter the A/B compartment structure and topologically associated domains near the fusion sites, but new chromatin interactions were gradually established across the fusion sites. The recently borne neo-Y chromosome of M. crinifrons, which underwent male-specific inversions, has dramatically restructured chromatin compartments, recapitulating the early evolution of canonical mammalian Y chromosomes. We also reveal that a complex structure containing unique centromeric satellite, truncated telomeric and palindrome repeats might have mediated muntjacs' recurrent chromosome fusions. These results provide insights into the recurrent chromosome tandem fusion in muntjacs, early evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes, and reveal how chromosome rearrangements can reshape the 3D chromatin regulatory conformations during species evolution.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503999

RESUMO

The ancestors of marine mammals once roamed the land and independently committed to an aquatic lifestyle. These macroevolutionary transitions have intrigued scientists for centuries. Here, we generated high-quality genome assemblies of 17 marine mammals (11 cetaceans and six pinnipeds), including eight assemblies at the chromosome level. Incorporating previously published data, we reconstructed the marine mammal phylogeny and population histories and identified numerous idiosyncratic and convergent genomic variations that possibly contributed to the transition from land to water in marine mammal lineages. Genes associated with the formation of blubber (NFIA), vascular development (SEMA3E), and heat production by brown adipose tissue (UCP1) had unique changes that may contribute to marine mammal thermoregulation. We also observed many lineage-specific changes in the marine mammals, including genes associated with deep diving and navigation. Our study advances understanding of the timing, pattern, and molecular changes associated with the evolution of mammalian lineages adapting to aquatic life.

5.
iScience ; 24(9): 103081, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585119

RESUMO

The feral pigs of Ossabaw Island (USA) have an outstanding propensity to obesity and develop complete metabolic syndrome (MetS) upon prolonged high energy dieting. We now report the first high quality genome of the Ossabaw pig with Contig N50 of ∼6.03 Mb, significantly higher than most other published pig genomes. Genomic comparison to Duroc reveals that variations including SNPs, INDELs and one ∼2 Mb inversion identified in Ossabaw pig may be related to its "thrifty" phenotype. Finally, an important positively selected gene (PSG) was found to be LEPR (leptin receptor) containing two positively selected sites which may lead to pseudogenization of this gene with possible significant effects on obesity and inflammation development. This work provides the first complete mapping of a genome representing a naturally 'feast and famine' evolved phenotype of MetS, serving as a blueprint to guide the search for new targets and new biomarkers for obesity comorbidities.

6.
Mol Ecol ; 30(23): 6162-6177, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416064

RESUMO

Runs of homozygosity (ROH) occur when offspring inherit haplotypes that are identical by descent from each parent. Length distributions of ROH are informative about population history; specifically, the probability of inbreeding mediated by mating system and/or population demography. Here, we investigated whether variation in killer whale (Orcinus orca) demographic history is reflected in genome-wide heterozygosity and ROH length distributions, using a global data set of 26 genomes representative of geographic and ecotypic variation in this species, and two F1 admixed individuals with Pacific-Atlantic parentage. We first reconstructed demographic history for each population as changes in effective population size through time using the pairwise sequential Markovian coalescent (PSMC) method. We found a subset of populations declined in effective population size during the Late Pleistocene, while others had more stable demography. Genomes inferred to have undergone ancestral declines in effective population size, were autozygous at hundreds of short ROH (<1 Mb), reflecting high background relatedness due to coalescence of haplotypes deep within the pedigree. In contrast, longer and therefore younger ROH (>1.5 Mb) were found in low latitude populations, and populations of known conservation concern. These include a Scottish killer whale, for which 37.8% of the autosomes were comprised of ROH >1.5 Mb in length. The fate of this population, in which only two adult males have been sighted in the past five years, and zero fecundity over the last two decades, may be inextricably linked to its demographic history and consequential inbreeding depression.

7.
Oncol Rep ; 45(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846816

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most diagnosed cancer worldwide. Progesterone is associated with a decreased risk of CRC and leads to a favourable prognosis. However, the specific mechanism by which progesterone suppresses malignant progression remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the level of progesterone was first analysed in 77 patients with CRC, and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) in the paired specimens. The correlations between progesterone, PGR and CRC prognosis were assessed. A Cell Counting Kit­8 assay was then used to detect proliferation of the CRC cells. Flow cytometry was performed to estimate apoptosis and to evaluate the cycle of the CRC cells. A xenograft tumour model was established in nude mice to assess the role of progesterone in tumour growth. Finally, a PCR microarray was used to screen differentially expressed genes to further interpret the mechanism by which progesterone inhibits the malignant progression of CRC. It was found that low expression of progesterone and PGR were significantly associated with poor prognosis of CRC. In addition, progesterone suppressed CRC cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, the inhibitory role of progesterone in tumour growth was verified in vivo. Further investigation showed that the level of growth arrest and DNA damage­inducible protein α (GADD45α) was up­regulated by progesterone, and this was followed by the activation of the JNK pathway. Progesterone increased the activity of the JNK pathway via GADD45α to inhibit proliferation by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis, thereby suppressing the malignant progression of CRC. Therefore, it can be concluded that progesterone and PGR might act as inhibiting factors for poor prognosis of CRC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colectomia , Colo/patologia , Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/cirurgia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Progesterona/análise , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 815-834, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous studies confirmed that abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) attenuates intestinal mucosal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and improves administration of enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of APD remain poorly understood. AIM: To evaluate the effect of APD on intestinal inflammation and accompanying apoptosis induced by SAP in rats, and its potential mechanisms. METHODS: SAP was induced in male adult Sprague-Dawley rats by 5% sodium taurocholate. Mild AP was induced by intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (20 µg/kg body weight, six consecutive injections). Following SAP induction, a drainage tube connected to a vacuum ball was placed into the lower right abdomen of the rats to build APD. Morphological changes, serum inflammatory mediators, serum and ascites high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), intestinal barrier function indices, apoptosis and associated proteins, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling molecules in intestinal tissue were assessed. RESULTS: APD significantly alleviated intestinal mucosal injury induced by SAP, as demonstrated by decreased pathological scores, serum levels of D-lactate, diamine oxidase and endotoxin. APD reduced intestinal inflammation and accompanying apoptosis of mucosal cells, and normalized the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in intestinal tissues. APD significantly suppressed activation of the intestinal TLR4 signaling pathway mediated by HMGB1, thus exerting protective effects against SAP-associated intestinal injury. CONCLUSION: APD improved intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammatory response and accompanying mucosal cell apoptosis in SAP rats. The beneficial effects are potentially due to inhibition of HMGB1-mediated TLR4 signaling.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Animais , Ascite , Drenagem , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/terapia , Paracentese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like
9.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731352

RESUMO

The suite of adaptations associated with the extreme stature of the giraffe has long interested biologists and physiologists. By generating a high-quality chromosome-level giraffe genome and a comprehensive comparison with other ruminant genomes, we identified a robust catalog of giraffe-specific mutations. These are primarily related to cardiovascular, bone growth, vision, hearing, and circadian functions. Among them, the giraffe FGFRL1 gene is an outlier with seven unique amino acid substitutions not found in any other ruminant. Gene-edited mice with the giraffe-type FGFRL1 show exceptional hypertension resistance and higher bone mineral density, both of which are tightly connected with giraffe adaptations to high stature. Our results facilitate a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanism underpinning distinct giraffe traits, and may provide insights into the study of hypertension in humans.

10.
Cell ; 184(5): 1362-1376.e18, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545087

RESUMO

Lungfishes are the closest extant relatives of tetrapods and preserve ancestral traits linked with the water-to-land transition. However, their huge genome sizes have hindered understanding of this key transition in evolution. Here, we report a 40-Gb chromosome-level assembly of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) genome, which is the largest genome assembly ever reported and has a contig and chromosome N50 of 1.60 Mb and 2.81 Gb, respectively. The large size of the lungfish genome is due mainly to retrotransposons. Genes with ultra-long length show similar expression levels to other genes, indicating that lungfishes have evolved high transcription efficacy to keep gene expression balanced. Together with transcriptome and experimental data, we identified potential genes and regulatory elements related to such terrestrial adaptation traits as pulmonary surfactant, anxiolytic ability, pentadactyl limbs, and pharyngeal remodeling. Our results provide insights and key resources for understanding the evolutionary pathway leading from fishes to humans.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Peixes/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/fisiologia , Filogenia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Sistema Respiratório/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/genética
11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(2): 395-405, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) is a subtype of cerebral small vessel disease. Their underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between infectious burden (IB) and CMBs. METHODS: Seven hundred and seventy-three consecutive patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Neurology in General Hospital of Western Theater Command without severe neurological symptoms were recruited and selected in this pilot cross-sectional study. CMBs were assessed using the susceptibility-weighted imaging sequence of magnetic resonance imaging. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against common pathogens, including herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Helicobacter pylori (HP), and Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi), were measured by commercial ELISA assays. IB was defined as a composite serologic measure of exposure to these common pathogens. RESULTS: Patients with and without CMBs were defined as the CMBs group (n = 76) and the non-CMBs group (n = 81), respectively. IB was significantly different between the CMBs and non-CMBs groups. After adjusted for other risk factors, the increased IB was independently associated with the presence of CMBs (P = 0.031, OR = 3.00, 95% CI [1.11-8.15]). IB was significantly positively associated with the number of CMBs (Spearman ρ = 0.653, P < 0.001). The levels of serum inflammatory markers were significantly different between the CMBs and non-CMBs groups and among the categories of IB. INTERPRETATION: IB consisting of HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV, C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, EBV, HP, and B. burgdorferi was associated with CMBs. All the findings suggested that pathogen infection could be involved in the pathogenesis of CMBs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais , Idoso , Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/microbiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/virologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/microbiologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/virologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/imunologia , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco , Simplexvirus/imunologia
12.
Front Genet ; 11: 581161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329719

RESUMO

Anglerfishes are a highly diverse group of species with unique characteristics. Here, we report the first chromosome-level genome of a species in the order Lophiiformes, the yellow goosefish (Lophius litulon), obtained by whole genome shotgun sequencing and high-throughput chromatin conformation capture. Approximately 97.20% of the assembly spanning 709.23 Mb could be anchored to 23 chromosomes with a contig N50 of 164.91 kb. The BUSCO value was 95.4%, suggesting that the quality of the assembly was high. A comparative gene family analysis identified expanded and contracted gene families, and these may be associated with adaptation to the benthic environment and the lack of scales in the species. A majority of positively selected genes were related to metabolic processes, suggesting that digestive and metabolic system evolution expanded the diversity of yellow goosefish prey. Our study provides a valuable genetic resource for understanding the mechanisms underlying the unique features of the yellow goosefish and for investigating anglerfish evolution.

13.
Gigascience ; 9(12)2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The scaly-foot snail (Chrysomallon squamiferum) is highly adapted to deep-sea hydrothermal vents and has drawn much interest since its discovery. However, the limited information on its genome has impeded further related research and understanding of its adaptation to deep-sea hydrothermal vents. FINDINGS: Here, we report the whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the scaly-foot snail and another snail (Gigantopelta aegis), which inhabits similar environments. Using Oxford Nanopore Technology, 10X Genomics, and Hi-C technologies, we obtained a chromosome-level genome of C. squamiferum with an N50 size of 20.71 Mb. By constructing a phylogenetic tree, we found that these 2 deep-sea snails evolved independently of other snails. Their divergence from each other occurred ∼66.3 million years ago. Comparative genomic analysis showed that different snails have diverse genome sizes and repeat contents. Deep-sea snails have more DNA transposons and long terminal repeats but fewer long interspersed nuclear elements than other snails. Gene family analysis revealed that deep-sea snails experienced stronger selective pressures than freshwater snails, and gene families related to the nervous system, immune system, metabolism, DNA stability, antioxidation, and biomineralization were significantly expanded in scaly-foot snails. We also found 251 H-2 Class II histocompatibility antigen, A-U α chain-like (H2-Aal) genes, which exist uniquely in the Gigantopelta aegis genome. This finding is important for investigating the evolution of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. CONCLUSION: Our study provides new insights into deep-sea snail genomes and valuable resources for further studies.


Assuntos
Fontes Hidrotermais , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Genoma , Humanos , Filogenia , Caramujos/genética
14.
iScience ; 23(11): 101662, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134892

RESUMO

Osteoglossiformes is a basal clade of teleost, evolving since the Jurassic period. The genomes of Osteoglossiformes species would shed light on the evolution and adaptation of teleost. Here, we established a chromosome-level genome of African arowana. Together with the genomes of pirarucu and Asian arowana, we found that they diverged at ∼106.1 million years ago (MYA) and ∼59.2 MYA, respectively, which are coincident with continental separation. Interestingly, we identified a dynamic genome evolution characterized by a fast evolutionary rate and a high pseudogenization rate in African arowana and pirarucu. Additionally, more transposable elements were found in Asian arowana which confer more gene duplications. Moreover, we found the contraction of olfactory receptor and the expansion of UGT in African arowana might be related to its transformation from carnivore to be omnivore. Taken together, we provided valuable genomic resource of Osteoglossidae and revealed the correlation of biogeography and teleost evolution.

15.
iScience ; 23(11): 101754, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251490

RESUMO

Chondrichthyan (cartilaginous fish) occupies a key phylogenetic position and is important for investigating evolutionary processes of vertebrates. However, limited whole genomes impede our in-depth knowledge of important issues such as chromosome evolution and immunity. Here, we report the chromosome-level genome of white-spotted bamboo shark. Combing it with other shark genomes, we reconstructed 16 ancestral chromosomes of bamboo shark and illustrate a dynamic chromosome rearrangement process. We found that genes on 13 fast-evolving chromosomes can be enriched in immune-related pathways. And two chromosomes contain important genes that can be used to develop single-chain antibodies, which were shown to have high affinity to human disease markers by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also found three bone formation-related genes were lost due to chromosome rearrangements. Our study highlights the importance of chromosome rearrangements, providing resources for understanding of cartilaginous fish diversification and potential application of single-chain antibodies.

16.
iScience ; 23(10): 101640, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103078

RESUMO

The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is a small inshore species of odontocete cetacean listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Here, we report on the evolution of S. chinensis chromosomes from its cetruminant ancestor and elucidate the evolutionary history and population genetics of two neighboring S. chinensis populations. We found that breakpoints in ancestral chromosomes leading to S. chinensis could have affected the function of genes related to kidney filtration, body development, and immunity. Resequencing of individuals from two neighboring populations in the northwestern South China Sea, Leizhou Bay and Sanniang Bay, revealed genetic differentiation, low diversity, and small contemporary effective population sizes. Demographic analyses showed a marked decrease in the population size of the two investigated populations over the last ~4,000 years, possibly related to climatic oscillations. This study implies a high risk of extinction and strong conservation requirement for the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962186

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most commonly found mycotoxin in corn, which is highly toxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic for the health of humans and animals. In order to reduce the AFB1 in corn, corn kernels were processed with Water-assisted Microwaves Treatment (WMT) and the feasibility of WMT processing on AFB1 reduction and its effects on corn quality were analyzed. Increasing the treatment time and microwave power could increase the reduction of AFB1, and the maximum reduction rate could reach 58.6% and 56.8%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the initial concentration of AFB1 and the reduction rate of AFB1. During WMT, the main toxigenic molds were sterilized completely, and the moisture content of corn climbed up and then declined to the initial level. WMT could obviously increase the fatty acid value and pasting temperature of corn and reduce the all paste viscosity of corn. However, it had little effect on the color of corn. The results indicated that WMT could reduce AFB1 effectively and avoid the vast appearance of heat-damaged kernels simultaneously. Undoubtedly, water played an important role in WMT. This result provides a new idea for the reduction of AFB1 by microwave.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Valor Nutritivo , Pasteurização , Água/química , Zea mays/microbiologia , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Cor , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Estudos de Viabilidade , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fatores de Tempo , Viscosidade
18.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 815-827, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883127

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Despite the abundance of knowledge regarding high-altitude pulmonary edoema (HAPE) and high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH), their prevalence continues to be on the rise. Thus, there is an urgent need for newer safe, effective, and relatively economic drug candidates. China is particularly known for the use of medicinal plants. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the medicinal plants used for HAPE and HAPH in the past 30 years, as well as some potential plants. METHODS: Publications on HAPE and HAPH from 1990 to 2020 were identified using Web of Science, PubMed, SCOPUS, Springer Link, Google Scholar databases, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and CNKI with the following keywords: 'medicinal plants,' 'hypoxia,' 'high altitude pulmonary edema,' 'high altitude pulmonary hypertension,' 'pathophysiology,' 'mechanisms,' 'prevention,' 'treatment,' 'human,' 'clinical,' 'safety,' and 'pharmacokinetics.' RESULTS: We found 26 species (from 20 families) out of 5000 plants which are used for HAPE and HAPH prevention or treatment. Rhodiola rosea Linn. (Crassulaceae) is the most widely utilized. The most involved family is Lamiaceae, which contains 5 species. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We mainly reviewed the medicinal plants and mechanisms for the treatment of HAPE and HAPH, and we also assessed related toxicology experiments, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. Potential medicinal plants were also identified. Further research is needed to determine the pharmacological effects and active ingredients of these potential medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Edema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Altitude , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Camundongos , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos
19.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 187, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561793

RESUMO

Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis) is the only subspecies of red deer (of 22 subspecies) from Central Asia. This species is a desert dweller of the Tarim Basin of southern Xinjiang, China, and exhibits some unique adaptations to the dry and extreme hot climate. We report here the assembly of a Tarim red deer genome employing a 10X Genomics library, termed CEY_v1. Our genome consisted of 2.6 Gb with contig N50 and scaffold N50 of 275.5 Kb and 31.7 Mb, respectively. Around 96% of the assembled sequences were anchored onto 34 chromosomes based on the published high-quality red deer genetic linkage map. More than 94% BUSCOs complete genes (including 90.5% single and 3.6% duplicated ones) were detected in the CEY_v1 and 20,653 genes were annotated. The CEY_v1 is expected to contribute to comparative analysis of genome biology, to evolutionary studies within Cervidae, and to facilitating investigation of mechanisms underlying adaptation of this species to the extreme dry and hot climate.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cervos/genética , Genoma , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , China , Clima , Ligação Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2431, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051450

RESUMO

Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate species, which belongs to the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family. It is closely related to human, serving as a model for human health related research. However, the genetic studies on and genomic resources of mandrill are limited, especially in comparison to other primate species. Here we produced 284 Gb data, providing 96-fold coverage (considering the estimated genome size of 2.9 Gb), to construct a reference genome for the mandrill. The assembled draft genome was 2.79 Gb with contig N50 of 20.48 Kb and scaffold N50 of 3.56 Mb. We annotated the mandrill genome to find 43.83% repeat elements, as well as 21,906 protein-coding genes. The draft genome was of good quality with 98% gene annotation coverage by Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO). Based on comparative genomic analyses of  the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the immune system in mandrill and human, we found that 17 genes in the mandrill that have been associated with disease phenotypes in human such as Lung cancer, cranial volume and asthma, barbored amino acids changing mutations. Gene family analyses revealed expansion of several genes, and several genes associated with stress environmental adaptation and innate immunity responses exhibited signatures of positive selection. In summary, we established the first draft genome of  the mandrill of value for studies on evolution and human health.


Assuntos
Mandrillus/genética , Animais , Cercopithecidae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Tamanho do Genoma , Genômica , Humanos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Família Multigênica , Filogenia
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