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1.
Chembiochem ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592561

RESUMO

High resolution melting has been improved and for the first time applied to quantitative analysis of enzymatic reactions. By using the relative ratio of peak intensities of substrates and products, the quantitativity of conventional HRM analysis has been improved to allow detailed kinetic analysis. As an example, the ligation of sticky ends by T4 DNA ligase was kinetically analyzed, and comprehensive data on substrate specificity and other properties were obtained. For the first time, the kinetic parameters (kobs and apparent Km) of sticky end ligation were obtained for both full match and mismatched sticky ends. The effect of ATP concentration on sticky end ligation was also investigated. The improved HRM method can be also applicable to versatile DNA-transforming enzymes, since the only requirement is that the products have Tm values different enough from the substrates.

2.
Eur Radiol ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To classify motion-induced blurred images of calcified coronary plaques so as to correct coronary calcium scores on nontriggered chest CT, using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) trained by images of motion artifacts. METHODS: Three artificial coronary arteries containing nine calcified plaques of different densities (high, medium, and low) and sizes (large, medium, and small) were attached to a moving robotic arm. The artificial arteries moving at 0-90 mm/s were scanned to generate nine categories (each from one calcified plaque) of images with motion artifacts. An inception v3 CNN was fine-tuned and validated. Agatston scores of the predicted classification by CNN were considered as corrected scores. Variation of Agatston scores on moving plaque and by CNN correction was calculated using the scores at rest as reference. RESULTS: The overall accuracy of CNN classification was 79.2 ± 6.1% for nine categories. The accuracy was 88.3 ± 4.9%, 75.9 ± 6.4%, and 73.5 ± 5.0% for the high-, medium-, and low-density plaques, respectively. Compared with the Agatston score at rest, the overall median score variation was 37.8% (1st and 3rd quartile, 10.5% and 68.8%) in moving plaques. CNN correction largely decreased the variation to 3.7% (1.9%, 9.1%) (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) and improved the sensitivity (percentage of non-zero scores among all the scores) from 65 to 85% for detection of coronary calcifications. CONCLUSIONS: In this experimental study, CNN showed the ability to classify motion-induced blurred images and correct calcium scores derived from nontriggered chest CT. CNN correction largely reduces the overall Agatston score variation and increases the sensitivity to detect calcifications. KEY POINTS: • A deep CNN architecture trained by CT images of motion artifacts showed the ability to correct coronary calcium scores from blurred images. • A correction algorithm based on deep CNN can be used for a tenfold reduction in Agatston score variations from 38 to 3.7% of moving coronary calcified plaques and to improve the sensitivity from 65 to 85% for the detection of calcifications. • This experimental study provides a method to improve its accuracy for coronary calcium scores that is a fundamental step towards a real clinical scenario.

3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1280-1290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495283

RESUMO

The H3N2 influenza viruses became widespread in humans during the 1968 H3N2 pandemic and have been a major cause of influenza epidemics ever since. Different lineages of H3N2 influenza viruses are also commonly found in animals. If a different lineage of H3N2 virus jumps to humans, a human influenza pandemic could occur with devastating consequences. Here, we studied the genetics, receptor-binding properties, and replication and transmission in mammals of 15 H3N2 avian influenza viruses detected in live poultry markets in China. We found that the H3N2 avian influenza viruses are complicated reassortants with distinct replication phenotypes in mice. Five viruses replicated efficiently in mice and bound to both human-type and avian-type receptors. These viruses transmitted efficiently to direct-contact guinea pigs, and three of them also transmitted among guinea pigs and ferrets via respiratory droplets. Moreover, ferret antiserum induced by human H3N2 viruses did not react with any of the H3N2 avian influenza viruses. Our study demonstrates that the H3N2 avian influenza viruses pose a clear threat to human health and emphasizes the need for continued surveillance and evaluation of the H3N2 influenza viruses circulating in nature.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(77): 11638-11641, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508611

RESUMO

Hollow-sphere Fe2O3 is synthesized as a lithium-ion battery anode. Current densities for the initial material activation are important, related to electrode stability during cycling. The as-prepared anodes are able to retain 92% capacity after 1000 cycles at 1 A g-1. The full-cells assembled with Fe2O3 anodes and LiFePO4 cathodes exhibit good electrochemical properties.

5.
iScience ; 20: 110-118, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563851

RESUMO

Although gray wolves (Canis lupus) are one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, their origins in China are not well understood. We sequenced six specimens from wolf skins, showing that gray wolves from Southern China (SC) derive from a single lineage, distinct from gray wolves from the Tibetan Plateau and Northern China, suggesting that SC gray wolves may form a distinct subpopulation. Of SC gray wolves, one wolf from Zhejiang carries a genetic component from a canid and had gene flow from a population related to or further diverged from wolves than the dhole. This may indicate that interspecific gene flow likely played an important role in shaping the speciation patterns and population structure in the genus Canis. Our study is the first to survey museum gray wolves' genomes from Southern China, highlighting how sequencing the paleogenome from museum specimens can help us to study extinct species.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(18): 11031-11042, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414602

RESUMO

Despite their important contribution to the economic domain, active heat-releasing industrial plants have significant implications for human health and climate change. However, a spatially detailed dataset of various heat-releasing industrial sectors and large-scale characterization of heat emissions from industrial sources have not been reported yet. In this study, a dataset of heat-releasing industries was established using a national detection map of thermal anomalies produced by a novel and more accurate method employing daily nighttime visible infrared imaging radiometer suite thermal infrared images corresponding to 1 year. Subsequently, we quantified the dimensional features of heat radiation fluxes of China's industrial plants. A total of 12 114 industrial objects were structured in a two-level hierarchical dataset of heat-releasing industries, representing a magnitude of at least 1 order higher than the number enumerated in the state-of-the-art inventory of industrial heat sources across China. The satellite observations helped more completely characterize industrial heat plumes, which represent the industrial heat radiation fluxes with higher levels of densities that prevail in the central-eastern part of China having spatial clustering islands. Our results could be used to inform policy and environmental management in relation to meaningful dynamic industrial supervision, targeting extreme polluters and differentiated emission mitigation measurements.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11463, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391504

RESUMO

Tibetan pig is native to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and has adapted to the high-altitude environmental condition such as hypoxia. However, its origin and genetic mechanisms underlying high-altitude adaptation still remain controversial and enigmatic. Herein, we analyze 229 genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Eurasia, including 63 Tibetan pigs, and detect 49.6 million high-quality variants. Phylogenomic and structure analyses show that Tibetan pigs have a close relationship with low-land domestic pigs in China, implying a common domestication origin. Positively selected genes in Tibetan pigs involved in high-altitude physiology, such as hypoxia, cardiovascular systems, UV damage, DNA repair. Three of loci with strong signals of selection are associated with EPAS1, CYP4F2, and THSD7A genes, related to hypoxia and circulation. We validated four non-coding mutations nearby EPAS1 and CYP4F2 showing reduced transcriptional activity in Tibetan pigs. A high-frequency missense mutation is found in THSD7A (Lys561Arg) in Tibetan pigs. The selective sweeps in Tibetan pigs was found in association with selection against non-coding variants, indicating an important role of regulatory mutations in Tibetan pig evolution. This study is important in understanding the evolution of Tibetan pigs and advancing our knowledge on animal adaptation to high-altitude environments.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105777, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357085

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelination disease characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. In this disease, failure of remyelination could cause persistent disability. Cordycepin, also known as 3'-deoxyadenosine, exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidic, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects. The cuprizone (CPZ) model has been widely used to study MS as it mimics some characteristics of demyelination disease. To determine whether cordycepin promotes remyelination and functional recovery after CPZ-induced demyelination, we administered cordycepin to the CPZ-induced demyelination mice. Cordycepin reversed CPZ-induced loss of body weight and rescued motor dysfunction in the model mice. Cordycepin effectively promoted remyelination and enhanced MBP expression in the corpus callosum. Cordycepin also inhibited the CPZ-induced increase in the number of Iba1-positive microglia, GFAP-positive astrocytes and Olig2-positive oligodendroglial precursor cells in the corpus callosum and cerebral cortex. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1ß and IL-6) was inhibited while anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 and neurotrophic factor BDNF release was elevated in the corpus callosum and hippocampus after cordycepin treatment. In addition, we also found that cordycepin ameliorated CPZ-induced body weight loss, motor dysfunction, demyelination, glial cells activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the corpus callosum and hippocampus. Our results suggest that cordycepin may represent a useful therapeutic agent in demyelination-related diseases via suppression of neuroinflammation.

10.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4381-4395, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282516

RESUMO

In this work, fucoxanthin-oleic acid-protein complexes were constructed to improve the dispersibility and intestinal absorption of fucoxanthin in water. The in vivo absorption/antioxidant capacity was evaluated using a mouse model, and the binding processes were investigated using multi-spectroscopic methods and molecular docking. Results showed that the oleic acid-protein delivery system dramatically improved the absorption of fucoxanthin mainly in its original form. When the molar ratio of oleic acid to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was 4 : 1, the plasma response level of fucoxanthin at 4 h could reach 91.25% that of the pure soybean oil delivery system (336.9 pg mL-1vs. 369.2 pmol mL-1). Furthermore, the loading capacity of BSA to fucoxanthin was increased 5 times when oleic acid acted as a protein ligand. Fucoxanthin, oleic acid and BSA can form complexes with good water dispersibility (transmittance nearly 90% and particle size 265 nm) at the molar ratio of 5 : 4 : 1. Spectral analysis and molecular docking indicated that oleic acid and fucoxanthin have different binding domains in BSA and that fucoxanthin can bind to the hydrophobic cavity of BSA in a static manner. After administration of fucoxanthin-oleic acid-BSA complexes for 15 days in mice, only fucoxanthinol accumulation was discovered in eyes and the ocular antioxidant capability increased by 71.02%. These results suggest that the oleic acid-protein delivery system may be useful in facilitating the application of fat-soluble active substances to hydrophilic food systems.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 379: 120783, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252344

RESUMO

To enhance the adsorption capacity of Cd2+, -NH2 groups were introduced into the rice straw-derived biochar surface by combining nitrification and amination. The batch and continuous Cd2+ adsorption experiments were performed to determine the role of -NH2 groups on the surface of biochar. The physical and chemical characteristics were analyzed for comparison. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of the modified biochar (BC-NH2) was boosted by 72.1%. The results of continuous adsorption experiments in fixed bed columns showed that the penetration time of BC-NH2 was three times that of original biochar. The adsorption of Cd2+ by BC-NH2 is a spontaneous endothermic chemical reaction, which was obtained by combing sorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic analysis. The Cd2+ adsorption was mainly the complexation between -NH2 group on biochar surface and Cd2+ in solution. Finally, a possible interaction mechanism between Cd2+ and BC-NH2 was proposed.

12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(1): 147-154, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250070

RESUMO

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three additives - citric acid (CA), polyaspartic acid (PASP), and FeCl3 - on the phytoextraction efficiency of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by ryegrass (Lolium perenneL.) from artificially contaminated soils with different heavy metal concentrations. The results showed that as the concentration of pollutants increased, the TI (tolerance index) and BCF (bio-concentration factor) of ryegrass gradually increased only when FeCl3 was applied. FeCl3 also exhibited the most significant biomass enhancement and heavy metal accumulation of ryegrass, as well as the highest phytoextraction efficiency in heavily-polluted soils. The overall orders of the optimal phytoextraction efficiency for the three additives in terms of their MER (metal extraction ratio) were: FeCl3 > PASP > CA. Therefore, FeCl3 can be used to improve the Cd and Pb phytoextraction efficiency of ryegrass in heavily-polluted soils.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Lolium/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Ácido Cítrico , Metais Pesados/análise , Raízes de Plantas , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(6): e8523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166383

RESUMO

This study aimed to observe the effects of lung-protective ventilation (LPV) on oxygenation index (OI) and postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after laparoscopic radical gastrectomy in middle-aged and elderly patients. A total of 120 patients who were scheduled to undergo laparoscopic radical gastrectomy with an expected time of >3 h were randomly divided into conventional ventilation (CV group) with tidal volume (TV) of 10 mL/kg without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and lung-protective ventilation (PV group) with 7 mL/kg TV and personal level of PEEP with regular recruitment maneuver every 30 min. Measurements of OI, modified clinical pulmonary infection score (mCPIS), and PPCs were assessed during the perioperative period. Fifty-seven patients in the CV group and 58 in the PV group participated in the data analysis. Patients in the PV group showed better pulmonary dynamic compliance, OI, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation during and after surgery. The mCPIS was significantly lower in the PV group than in the CV group after surgery. The incidence rate of PPCs was lower in the PV group than in the CV group and the difference was significant in patients whose ventilation time was longer than 6 h in both groups. LPV during laparoscopic radical gastrectomy significantly improved pulmonary oxygenation function and reduced postoperative mCPIS and the incidence of PPCs during the early period after surgery of middle-aged and elderly patients, especially patients whose mechanical ventilation time was longer than 6 h.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(5): 703-711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061312

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke is a well-known strong risk factor for inducing airway hyperreactivity (AHR), but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, mouse in-vivo and in-vitro models were used to study effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-extracted cigarette smoke particles (DSP) on the airway, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms that are involved in DSP-induced AHR. In mouse in-vivo model, DSP (0.75, 1.5 or 3 µL/mL) was administered intranasally daily for 7 d. At the end of this period, lung functions were measured with flexiVent™. The results showed that the mice exhibited AHR in a dose-dependent manner following methacholine inhalation in vivo. In mouse in-vitro organ culture model, exposure of mouse tracheal segments to DSP (0.1 µL/mL) with or without the following pharmacological inhibitors: specific c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 (10 µM) or the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (1 µM). DSP-induced bradykinin receptor-mediated airway contraction with increased mRNA and protein expressions for bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors could be significantly reduced by SP600125 or dexamethasone. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that DSP could induce AHR in vivo and in vitro. In addition to this, the upregulation of bradykinin receptors in airway is most likely one of the underlying molecular mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/induzido quimicamente , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antracenos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Receptor B1 da Bradicinina/fisiologia , Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/fisiologia , Solventes/química , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueia/fisiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2037, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048690

RESUMO

Genome-wide analysis of genomic signatures might reveal novel mechanisms for gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis. Here, we analysis structural variations (SVs) and mutational signatures via whole-genome sequencing of 168 GCs. Our data demonstrates diverse models of complex SVs operative in GC, which lead to high-level amplification of oncogenes. We find varying proportion of tandem-duplications (TDs) among individuals and identify 24 TD hotspots involving well-established cancer genes such as CCND1, ERBB2 and MYC. Specifically, we nominate a novel hotspot involving the super-enhancer of ZFP36L2 presents in approximately 10% GCs from different cohorts, the oncogenic role of which is further confirmed by experimental data. In addition, our data reveal a mutational signature, specifically occurring in noncoding region, significantly enriched in tumors with cadherin 1 mutations, and associated with poor prognoses. Collectively, our data suggest that TDs might serve as an important mechanism for cancer gene activation and provide a novel signature for stratification.


Assuntos
Oncogenes/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estômago/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1965, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036805

RESUMO

Large-scale applications of rechargeable batteries consume nonrenewable resources and produce massive amounts of end-of-life wastes, which raise sustainability concerns in terms of manufacturing, environmental, and ecological costs. Therefore, the recyclability and sustainability of a battery should be considered at the design stage by using naturally abundant resources and recyclable battery technology. Herein, we design a fully recyclable rechargeable sodium ion battery with bipolar electrode structure using Na3V2(PO4)3 as an electrode material and aluminum foil as the shared current collector. Such a design allows exceptional sodium ion battery performance in terms of high-power correspondence and long-term stability and enables the recycling of ∼100% Na3V2(PO4)3 and ∼99.1% elemental aluminum without the release of toxic wastes, resulting in a solid-component recycling efficiency of >98.0%. The successful incorporation of sustainability into battery design suggests that closed-loop recycling and the reutilization of battery materials can be achieved in next-generation energy storage technologies.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075128

RESUMO

Caenophidian snakes include the file snake genus Acrochordus and advanced colubroidean snakes that radiated mainly during the Neogene. Although caenophidian snakes are a well-supported clade, their inferred affinities, based either on molecular or morphological data, remain poorly known or controversial. Here, we provide an expanded molecular phylogenetic analysis of Caenophidia and use three non-parametric measures of support-Shimodaira-Hasegawa-Like test (SHL), Felsentein (FBP) and transfer (TBE) bootstrap measures-to evaluate the robustness of each clade in the molecular tree. That very different alternative support values are common suggests that results based on only one support value should be viewed with caution. Using a scheme to combine support values, we find 20.9% of the 1265 clades comprising the inferred caenophidian tree are unambiguously supported by both SHL and FBP values, while almost 37% are unsupported or ambiguously supported, revealing the substantial extent of phylogenetic problems within Caenophidia. Combined FBP/TBE support values show similar results, while SHL/TBE result in slightly higher combined values. We consider key morphological attributes of colubroidean cranial, vertebral and hemipenial anatomy and provide additional morphological evidence supporting the clades Colubroides, Colubriformes, and Endoglyptodonta. We review and revise the relevant caenophidian fossil record and provide a time-calibrated tree derived from our molecular data to discuss the main cladogenetic events that resulted in present-day patterns of caenophidian diversification. Our results suggest that all extant families of Colubroidea and Elapoidea composing the present-day endoglyptodont fauna originated rapidly within the early Oligocene-between approximately 33 and 28 Mya-following the major terrestrial faunal turnover known as the "Grande Coupure" and associated with the overall climate shift at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Our results further suggest that the caenophidian radiation originated within the Caenozoic, with the divergence between Colubroides and Acrochordidae occurring in the early Eocene, at ~ 56 Mya.

20.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(7): 869-877, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033183

RESUMO

As a human carcinogen, coal tar pitch (CTP) can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer. However, the mechanism underlying CTP-induced lung carcinogenesis has not been well understood. This study aims to explore the role of the LncRNA-ENST00000501520 in the proliferation of malignant-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (BAES-2B) induced by CTP extract for the first time. BEAS-2B cells were stimulated with 2.4 µg/mL CTP extract, and then passaged for three times, which were named passage 1 and then passaged until passage 30 (named as CTP group). The ENST000001520 of cells in CTP group was interfered using siRNA. The results showed that ENST000001520 located in cell nucleus (>80%) had no or weak ability of protein encoding. After interference of ENST000001520, the migration and proliferation of cells in CTP group were inhibited, and the cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase; however, the apoptosis of cells in CTP group was promoted. The target genes (SKB1, CLTB, TAP2, PIPK2, and SOCS3) of ENST000001520 were screened out, and the mRNA and protein expression of SBK1 and SOCS3 was significantly decreased after ENST000001520 interference. SBK1 and SOCS3 may play a promoting role in occurrence and development of cancers. The study suggests that LncRNA-ENST00000501520 could promote the proliferation in malignant-transformed BEAS-2B cells induced with CTP extract which may be mediated by target genes. This study may provide a new target for prevention and treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Alcatrão/toxicidade , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/metabolismo , Brônquios/patologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo
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