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1.
Cancer ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) target volume for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been controversial for decades. In this report, the final results of a prospective randomized trial on the TRT target volume before and after induction chemotherapy are presented. METHODS: After 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin, patients arm were randomized to receive TRT to the postchemotherapy or prechemotherapy tumor volume in a study arm and a control arm. Involved-field radiotherapy was received in both arms. TRT consisted of 1.5 grays (Gy) twice daily in 30 fractions to up to a total dose of 45 Gy. Lymph node regions were contoured, and intentional and incidental radiation doses were recorded. RESULTS: The study was halted early because of slow accrual. Between 2002 and 2017, 159 and 150 patients were randomized to the study arm or the control arm, respectively; and 21.4% and 19.1% of patients, respectively, were staged using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (P = .31). With a median follow-up of 54.1 months (range, 19.9-165.0 months) in survivors, the 3-year local/regional progression-free probability was 58.2% and 65.5% in the study and control arms, respectively (P = .44), and the absolute difference was -7.3% (95% CI, -18.2%, 3.7%). In the study and control arms, the median overall survival was 21.9 months and 26.6 months, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 22.8% and 28.1%, respectively (P = .26). Grade 3 esophagitis was observed in 5.9% of patients in the study arm versus 15.5% of those in the control arm (P = .01). The isolated out-of-field failure rate was 2.6% in the study arm versus 4.1% in the control arm (P = .46), and all such failures were located in the supraclavicular fossa or contralateral hilum. The regions 7, 3P, 4L, 6, 4R, 5, and 2L received incidental radiation doses >30 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: TRT could be limited to the postchemotherapy tumor volume, and involved-field radiotherapy could be routinely applied for limited-stage SCLC.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109810, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698300

RESUMO

In order to predict the effects of climate change on the global carbon cycle, it is crucial to understand the environmental factors that affect soil carbon storage in grasslands. In the present study, we attempted to explain the relationships between the distribution of soil carbon storage with climate, soil types, soil properties and topographical factors across different types of grasslands with different grazing regimes. We measured soil organic carbon in 92 locations at different soil depth increments, from 0 to 100 cm in southwestern China. Among soil types, brown earth soils (Luvisols) had the highest carbon storage with 19.5 ±â€¯2.5 kg m-2, while chernozem soils had the lowest with 6.8 ±â€¯1.2 kg m-2. Mean annual temperature and precipitation, exerted a significant, but, contrasting effects on soil carbon storage. Soil carbon storage increased as mean annual temperature decreased and as mean annual precipitation increased. Across different grassland types, the mean carbon storage for the top 100 cm varied from 7.6 ±â€¯1.3 kg m-2 for temperate desert to 17.3 ±â€¯2.9 kg m-2 for alpine meadow. Grazing/cutting regimes significantly affected soil carbon storage with lowest value (7.9 ±â€¯1.5 kg m-2) recorded for cutting grass, while seasonal (11.4 ±â€¯1.3 kg m-2) and year-long (12.2 ±â€¯1.9 kg m-2) grazing increased carbon storage. The highest carbon storage was found in the completely ungrazed areas (16.7 ±â€¯2.9 kg m-2). Climatic factors, along with soil types and topographical factors, controlled soil carbon density along a soil depth in grasslands. Environmental factors alone explained about 60% of the total variation in soil carbon storage. The actual depth-wise distribution of soil carbon contents was significantly influenced by the grazing intensity and topographical factors. Overall, policy-makers should focus on reducing the grazing intensity and land conversion for the sustainable management of grasslands and C sequestration.

3.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 188, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The glial response in multiple sclerosis (MS), especially for recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), predicts the success of remyelination of MS plaques and return of function. As a central player in neuroinflammation, activation and polarization of microglia/macrophages (M/M) that modulate the inflammatory niche and cytokine components in demyelination lesions may impact the OPC response and progression of demyelination and remyelination. However, the dynamic behaviors of M/M and OPCs during demyelination and spontaneous remyelination are poorly understood, and the complex role of neuroinflammation in the demyelination-remyelination process is not well known. In this study, we utilized two focal demyelination models with different dynamic patterns of M/M to investigate the correlation between M/M polarization and the demyelination-remyelination process. METHODS: The temporal and spatial features of M/M activation/polarization and OPC response in two focal demyelination models induced by lysolecithin (LPC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined in mice. Detailed discrimination of morphology, sensorimotor function, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), inflammation-relevant cytokines, and glial responses between these two models were analyzed at different phases. RESULTS: The results show that LPC and LPS induced distinctive temporal and spatial lesion patterns. LPS produced diffuse demyelination lesions, with a delayed peak of demyelination and functional decline compared to LPC. Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and M/M were scattered throughout the LPS-induced demyelination lesions but were distributed in a layer-like pattern throughout the LPC-induced lesion. The specific M/M polarization was tightly correlated to the lesion pattern associated with balance beam function. CONCLUSIONS: This study elaborated on the spatial and temporal features of neuroinflammation mediators and glial response during the demyelination-remyelination processes in two focal demyelination models. Specific M/M polarization is highly correlated to the demyelination-remyelination process probably via modulations of the inflammatory niche, cytokine components, and OPC response. These findings not only provide a basis for understanding the complex and dynamic glial phenotypes and behaviors but also reveal potential targets to promote/inhibit certain M/M phenotypes at the appropriate time for efficient remyelination.

4.
World Neurosurg ; 132: 106-112, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dissecting pseudoaneurysms of the craniocervical circulation are uncommon, accounting for only 3% of all cerebral aneurysms. These aneurysms pose a challenge due to their location and anatomic configuration. The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) is a flow diversion technique that successfully treats aneurysms by diverting blood flow away from the aneurysm and reconstructing the diseased parent artery by altering its hemodynamics. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report 3 cases in which the PED was used to treat craniocervical carotid artery dissection with associated pseudoaneurysms. A single PED was used in the first case, 4 PEDs were used in the second case, and 3 PEDs and a PRECISE PRO RX carotid stent were placed in the third case. All 3 patients achieved full neurologic recovery postoperatively. Cerebral angiography performed postoperatively demonstrated revascularization, good laminar flow, and no in-stent or adjacent stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: PED placement offers a safe and effective method of treating spontaneous or traumatic craniocervical carotid artery dissections with excellent neurologic outcomes postoperatively and complete long-term aneurysmal occlusion.

5.
Exp Neurol ; 320: 112966, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145898

RESUMO

Manipulation of developmentally regulated genes presents a promising strategy to enhance the intrinsic growth capability of adult neurons. Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), a negative regulator of bHLH transcriptional factors, promotes axonal growth after its forced expression in post-mitotic neurons. Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) is a neural specific bHLH factor which controls neuronal fate and drives neuronal differentiation during development. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Id2 in promoting axonal growth and revealed that Ngn2 contributed to the growth-activating role of Id2 in neurons. Ngn2 expression was upregulated with increased Id2 activity by assessing RNA and protein levels. Forced expression of Id2 or Ngn2 in cortical neurons significantly promoted axonal growth with little effect on dendrites. Furthermore, knockdown of Ngn2 impaired the axonal growth promoting effect of Id2, implying that the effect of Id2 on axonal growth depends on Ngn2. These findings suggest that elevation of neuronal Ngn2 may be a new therapeutic strategy to stimulate axonal regeneration.

6.
World Neurosurg ; 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by increased intracranial pressure. IIH causes significant morbidity marked by incapacitating headaches and visual disturbances. This study investigated the long-term outcomes of venous sinus stenting in a large group of patients with IIH. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients at our institution who underwent venous sinus stenting for IIH over 6 years (July 1, 2012-June 30, 2018). A particular focus was dedicated to collecting demographic, clinical, radiologic, and outcomes data. All patients had failed medical management. RESULTS: Of the 110 patients evaluated for IIH, 42 underwent venous sinus stenting, with a mean follow-up of 25.6 months (range, 8.7-60.7 months). The mean age was 32 years (range, 15-52 years), 38 (90%) were women, and the mean body mass index was 35.6 kg/m2 (range, 18.6-47.5 kg/m2). Prior to the stenting procedure, all patients had headaches, visual disturbances, and papilledema. Of the 39 patients who had an ophthalmologic evaluation poststenting, 29 (74%) had resolution of their papilledema. Eighteen patients (43%) had complete resolution of their headaches after the stenting procedure, whereas 22 patients (52%) remained under a neurologist's care for chronic migraine and other types of headaches. Two patients underwent a restenting procedure for disease progression, and 1 patient experienced an in-stent thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary approach involving neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, radiologists, and neurologists is integral in the management of patients with IIH to prevent the complications of papilledema. Venous sinus stenting offers a safe and effective means of treating IIH.

7.
Lung Cancer ; 123: 7-13, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated factors associated with (i) the likelihood of receiving a gene aberration test and (ii) the choice of treatment between chemotherapy and targeted therapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data previously extracted from the medical charts of patients with unresectable Stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC discharged from one of 12 tertiary hospitals in China between August 2015 and March 2016. Logistic regressions were applied to investigate factors associated with receiving a gene aberration test and the treatment decision. RESULTS: Data from 932 patients were analyzed. Patients were less likely to have a gene aberration test if they had a histologic subtype other than adenocarcinoma or a hospital waiting time for test results of >5 days. Patients were more likely to receive tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment than chemotherapy if they had a positive result for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene aberration testing. EGFR positive patients were more likely to receive TKI treatment than chemotherapy if they did not have insurance for TKI or pemetrexed treatment, and more likely to receive chemotherapy than TKI treatment if they had a waiting time for test results of >5 days. EGFR wild-type/unknown patients receiving chemotherapy were more likely to receive pemetrexed if they attended a hospital in a developed area or had insurance for pemetrexed. CONCLUSION: In this real-world setting in China, the choice of first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC was appropriately guided by gene aberration testing for most patients. However, gene aberration testing and the treatment decision were influenced by practical factors such as hospital location, the waiting time for test results, and insurance coverage, which should be addressed to ensure optimal patient care.

8.
J Neurotrauma ; 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893166

RESUMO

Mouse models are unique for studying molecular mechanisms of neurotrauma because of the availability of various genetic modified mouse lines. For spinal cord injury (SCI) research, producing an accurate injury is essential, but it is challenging because of the small size of the mouse cord and the inconsistency of injury production. The Louisville Injury System Apparatus (LISA) impactor has been shown to produce precise contusive SCI in adult rats. Here, we examined whether the LISA impactor could be used to create accurate and graded contusive SCIs in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice received a T10 laminectomy followed by 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 mm displacement injuries, guided by a laser, from the dorsal surface of the spinal cord using the LISA impactor. Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), grid-walking, TreadScan, and Hargreaves analyses were performed for up to 6 weeks post-injury. All mice were euthanized at the 7th week, and the spinal cords were collected for histological analysis. Our results showed that the LISA impactor produced accurate and consistent contusive SCIs corresponding to mild, moderate, and severe injuries to the cord. The degree of injury severities could be readily determined by the BMS locomotor, grid-walking, and TreadScan gait assessments. The cutaneous hyperalgesia threshold was also significantly increased as the injury severity increased. The terminal lesion area and the spared white matter of the injury epicenter were strongly correlated with the injury severities. We conclude that the LISA device, guided by a laser, can produce reliable graded contusive SCIs in mice, resulting in severity-dependent behavioral and histopathological deficits.

9.
Surg Neurol Int ; 9: 81, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721359

RESUMO

Background: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare complication of spinal or epidural anesthesia. It is attributed to direct mechanical injury to the spinal roots of the cauda equina that may result in saddle anesthesia and paraplegia with bowel and bladder dysfunction. Case Description: The first patient underwent a hip replacement and received 5 mL of 1% lidocaine epidural anesthesia. Postoperatively, when the patient developed an acute CES, the lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan demonstrated clumping/posterior displacement of nerve roots of the cauda equina consistent with adhesive arachnoiditis attributed to the patient's previous L4-L5 lumbar decompression/fusion. The second patient underwent spinal anesthesia (injection of 10 mg of isobaric bupivacaine for an epidural block) for a total knee replacement. When the patient developed an acute CES following surgery, the lumbar MRI scan showed an abnormal T2 signal in the conus and lower thoracic spinal cord over 4.3 cm. Conclusions: Acute CES should be considered in patients undergoing spinal or epidural anesthesia for joint replacement surgery. Prompt evaluation with MRI studies may lead to appropriate medical/surgical measures to reverse the deficit.

10.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 24(3): 202-211, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274291

RESUMO

AIMS: Social isolation increases the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Environmental enrichment, a complicated social and physical construct, plays beneficial effects on brain plasticity and function. This study was designed to determine whether physical enrichment can reduce the deleterious consequences of social isolation on the onset of AD. METHODS: One-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic AD model mice were singly housed in the enriched physical environment for 8 weeks and then received behavioral tests, neuropathological analyses, and Western blot of the hippocampus. RESULTS: The enriched physical environment reversed spatial cognitive decline of socially isolated APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. The functional reversal was associated with decreases in cellular apoptosis, synaptic protein loss, inflammation, and glial activation in the hippocampus, without changes in amyloid ß neuropathology. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the enriched physical environment may serve as a nonpharmacological intervention for delaying the onset of AD accompanied with social isolation.

11.
Dis Model Mech ; 11(1)2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208736

RESUMO

Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of death from trauma in infants and young children. An AHT animal model was developed on 12-day-old mice subjected to 90° head extension-flexion sagittal shaking repeated 30, 60, 80 and 100 times. The mortality and time until return of consciousness were dependent on the number of repeats and severity of the injury. Following 60 episodes of repeated head shakings, the pups demonstrated apnea and/or bradycardia immediately after injury. Acute oxygen desaturation was observed by pulse oximetry during respiratory and cardiac suppression. The cerebral blood perfusion was assessed by laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) using a PeriCam PSI system. There was a severe reduction in cerebral blood perfusion immediately after the trauma that did not significantly improve within 24 h. The injured mice began to experience reversible sensorimotor function at 9 days postinjury (dpi), which had completely recovered at 28 dpi. However, cognitive deficits and anxiety-like behavior remained. Subdural/subarachnoid hemorrhage, damage to the brain-blood barrier and parenchymal edema were found in all pups subjected to 60 insults. Proinflammatory response and reactive gliosis were upregulated at 3 dpi. Degenerated neurons were found in the cerebral cortex and olfactory tubercles at 30 dpi. This mouse model of repetitive brain injury by rotational head acceleration-deceleration partially mimics the major pathophysiological and behavioral events that occur in children with AHT. The resultant hypoxia/ischemia suggests a potential mechanism underlying the secondary rotational acceleration-deceleration-induced brain injury in developing mice.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Comportamento Animal , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Desaceleração , Rotação , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Edema Encefálico/complicações , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Edema Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/patologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Degeneração Neural/complicações , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Degeneração Neural/fisiopatologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Reflexo/fisiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Água
12.
Neuroscientist ; 23(6): 627-648, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283028

RESUMO

The chemokine CXCL12 plays a vital role in regulating the development of the central nervous system (CNS) by binding to its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7. Recent studies reported that the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis regulates both embryonic and adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The changes in the expression and distribution of CXCL12 and its receptors are tightly associated with the pathological process of demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that modulating the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis may benefit myelin repair by enhancing OPC recruitment and differentiation. This review aims to integrate the current findings of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 signaling pathway in the CNS and to highlight its role in oligodendrocyte development and demyelinating diseases. Furthermore, this review provides potential therapeutic strategies for myelin repair by analyzing the relevance between the pathological changes and the regulatory roles of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 during MS.

13.
Lung Cancer ; 113: 37-44, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited understanding exists of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation frequency in less common subgroups of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]), and to what extent local practices exclude patients from EGFR testing based on their clinical characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IGNITE (non-comparative/-interventional; NCT01788163) was conducted in 90 centres (Asia-Pacific/Russia). Eligible patients: local/metastatic aNSCLC; chemotherapy-naïve, newly-diagnosed/recurrent disease after resection; ineligible for curative treatment. Patients provided a tissue/cytology (all) and a blood plasma (China/Russia/South Korea/Taiwan) sample. Primary endpoint: EGFR mutation frequency in aNSCLC patients (adenocarcinoma [ADC]/non-ADC), as per local practices. RESULTS: 3382 patients were enrolled. EGFR mutation frequencies for evaluable tissue/cytology samples in Asia-Pacific and Russian patients: 49.3% (862/1749) and 18.0% (90/500) for ADC tumours; 14.1% (74/525) and 3.7% (15/402) for non-ADC; 9.9% (40/403) and 3.7% (13/349) for SCC. Of Russian patients with SCC tumours harbouring common, activating EGFR mutations, 6/9 were never-/former-smokers. Mutation status concordance between 2581 matched tissue/cytology and plasma samples: 80.5% (sensitivity 46.9%, specificity 95.6%). CONCLUSION: EGFR mutation testing should be considered in all Asian aNSCLC patients. Also, as activating EGFR mutations were observed in a small number of Caucasian squamous NSCLC patients, testing here may be appropriate, particularly in those with no/remote smoking history. Circulating free tumour-derived DNA is feasible for mutation analysis employing well-validated and sensitive methods, when tumour samples are unavailable.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 130(18): 2198-2204, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875956

RESUMO

Background:: Quantifying syphilis prevalence is important for planning interventions and advocating for resources on syphilis. However, data on large sample studies regarding the prevalence of syphilis among reproductive-age women in rural China were not available for analysis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, epidemiological characteristics, and related factors of syphilis infection among reproductive-age women in rural China. Methods:: Data were obtained from a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study under the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project which covered all the 31 provinces in Mainland China. Women intending to get pregnant within the next 6 months were enrolled between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012. Sociodemographic, gynecological and obstetric characteristics, and other relevant information were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay test was used to detect positive samples of syphilis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to assess the associations between syphilis seropositivity and related factors. Results:: The overall seroprevalence of syphilis (SPS) among the 2,044,126 women who received syphilis screening test during 2010-2012 was 0.37% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36-0.37%). The SPS appeared 0.24% (95% CI: 0.23-0.26%) and 0.66% (95% CI: 0.59-0.72%) in women at 21-24 and 40-44 years of age, respectively, showing an increase of SPS, parallel with age, and the difference was significant. SPS was significantly higher in ethnic minorities than that in Han nationality (0.58% vs. 0.35%, respectively, odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.30-1.53) and higher in workers than that in farmers (0.45% vs. 0.36%, respectively, OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14-1.41). Women with primary school or below level had a higher SPS as compared to those with college or above educational level (0.61% vs. 0.32%, respectively, OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 2.14-2.89), and the increase reversely correlated with the levels of education. Women whose spouses were syphilis seropositive had significant greater risk (OR = 48.26, 95% CI: 44.38-52.48) as compared those whose spouses were seronegative. Women who reported having had a history of sexually transmitted infections were more likely to be tested positive for serological syphilis (OR = 27.17, 95% CI: 20.44-36.11) as compared to those without. Conclusions:: High SPS is seen among reproductive-age women in rural China that calls for targeted interventions on syphilis prevention and control in this target population, with emphasis on those who are 35 years of age and above, less educated, being minor ethnicity, workers, and living in the western regions of China.


Assuntos
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/sangue , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Biometeorol ; 61(10): 1885-1892, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761981

RESUMO

Canopy temperature is a result of the canopy energy balance and is driven by climate conditions, plant architecture, and plant-controlled transpiration. Here, we evaluated canopy temperature in a rubber plantation (RP) and tropical rainforest (TR) in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. An infrared temperature sensor was installed at each site to measure canopy temperature. In the dry season, the maximum differences (Tc - Ta) between canopy temperature (Tc) and air temperature (Ta) in the RP and TR were 2.6 and 0.1 K, respectively. In the rainy season, the maximum (Tc - Ta) values in the RP and TR were 1.0 and -1.1 K, respectively. There were consistent differences between the two forests, with the RP having higher (Tc - Ta) than the TR throughout the entire year. Infrared measurements of Tc can be used to calculate canopy stomatal conductance in both forests. The difference in (Tc - Ta) at three gc levels with increasing direct radiation in the RP was larger than in the TR, indicating that change in (Tc - Ta) in the RP was relatively sensitive to the degree of stomatal closure.


Assuntos
Hevea , Floresta Úmida , Temperatura Ambiente , Mudança Climática , Hevea/fisiologia , Raios Infravermelhos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal , Estações do Ano , Árvores/fisiologia , Clima Tropical
16.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 462, 2017 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28673332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, systemic chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy have become standard first-line treatments for locally advanced or metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this survey was to investigate first-line anticancer treatment patterns and gene aberration test status of patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC in China. METHODS: Patients included in this study had unresectable Stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC and were admitted during August 2015 to March 2016 into one of 12 tertiary hospitals throughout China for first-line anticancer treatment. Patient data (demographics, NSCLC histologic type, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] Performance Status [PS], gene aberration test and results [if performed], and first-line anticancer treatment regimen) were extracted from medical charts and entered into Medical Record Abstraction Forms (MERAFs), which were collated for analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 1041 MERAFs were collected and data from 932 MERAFs were included for analysis. Patients with unresectable Stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC had a median age of 59 years, 56.4% were male, 58.2% were never smokers, 95.0% had adenocarcinoma, and 92.9% had an ECOG PS ≤1. A total of 665 (71.4%) patients had gene aberration tests; 46.5% (309/665) had epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations, 11.5% (48/416) had anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusions, and 0.8% (1/128) had a c-ros oncogene 1 gene fusion. The most common first-line treatment regimen for unresectable Stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC was chemotherapy (72.5%, 676/932), followed by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs; 26.1%, 243/932), and TKIs plus chemotherapy (1.4%, 13/932). Most chemotherapy regimens were platinum-doublet regimens (93.5%, 631/676) and pemetrexed was the most common nonplatinum chemotherapy-backbone agent (70.2%, 443/631) in platinum-doublet regimens. Most EGFR mutation-positive patients (66.3%, 205/309) were treated with EGFR-TKIs. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from our survey of 12 tertiary hospitals throughout China showed an increased rate of gene aberration testing, compared with those rates reported in previous surveys, for patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. In addition, pemetrexed/platinum-doublet chemotherapy was the predominant first-line chemotherapy regimen for this population. Most patients were treated based on their gene aberration test status and results.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
17.
J Vis Exp ; (124)2017 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28654063

RESUMO

Producing a consistent and reproducible contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) is critical to minimizing behavioral and histological variabilities between experimental animals. Several contusive SCI models have been developed to produce injuries using different mechanisms. The severity of the SCI is based on the height that a given weight is dropped, the injury force, or the spinal cord displacement. In the current study, we introduce a novel mouse contusive SCI device, the Louisville Injury System Apparatus (LISA) impactor, which can create a displacement-based SCI with high injury velocity and accuracy. This system utilizes laser distance sensors combined with advanced software to produce graded and highly-reproducible injuries. We performed a contusive SCI at the 10th thoracic vertebral (T10) level in mice to demonstrate the step-by-step procedure. The model can also be applied to the cervical and lumbar spinal levels.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desenho de Equipamento , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Laminectomia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
18.
J Biotechnol ; 251: 68-75, 2017 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28427921

RESUMO

Asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutyrate (COBE) by carbonyl reductases presents an efficient way to produce Ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ((S)-CHBE), an important chiral intermediate for the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors such as Lipitor®. In this study, an NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase (SrCR) from Synechocystis sp. was characterized to demonstrate a broad substrate spectrum, and the highest activity (53.1U/mg protein) with COBE. To regenerate the cofactor NADPH, Bacillus subtilis glucose dehydrogenase was successfully coexpressed with SrCR. Owing to the product inhibition, no more than 400mM of COBE could be completely reduced to (S)-CHBE using the recombinant Escherichia coli/pET-SrCR-GDH. The macroporous adsorption resin HZ 814 was applied to adsorb (S)-CHBE in situ to alleviate the product inhibitio. Consequently, 3000mM (494g/L) of COBE was bioconverted within 8h, resulting in a (S)-CHBE yield of 98.2%, with 99.4% ee and total turnover number of 15,000, revealed great industrial potential of (S)-CHBE production.


Assuntos
Hidroxibutiratos/metabolismo , Adsorção , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Bacillus/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Escherichia coli/genética , Glucose 1-Desidrogenase/genética , Glucose 1-Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidroxibutiratos/química , Cetonas/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Synechocystis/enzimologia , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43031, 2017 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28216656

RESUMO

We calculated water use efficiency (WUE) using measures of gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) from five years of continuous eddy covariance measurements (2009-2013) obtained over a primary subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in southwestern China. Annual mean WUE exhibited a decreasing trend from 2009 to 2013, varying from ~2.28 to 2.68 g C kg H2O-1. The multiyear average WUE was 2.48 ± 0.17 (mean ± standard deviation) g C kg H2O-1. WUE increased greatly in the driest year (2009), due to a larger decline in ET than in GPP. At the diurnal scale, WUE in the wet season reached 5.1 g C kg H2O-1 in the early morning and 4.6 g C kg H2O-1 in the evening. WUE in the dry season reached 3.1 g C kg H2O-1 in the early morning and 2.7 g C kg H2O-1 in the evening. During the leaf emergence stage, the variation of WUE could be suitably explained by water-related variables (relative humidity (RH), soil water content at 100 cm (SWC_100)), solar radiation and the green index (Sgreen). These results revealed large variation in WUE at different time scales, highlighting the importance of individual site characteristics.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7: 42822, 2017 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220812

RESUMO

A cross-sectional analysis of prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) among rural couples was conducted between 2010 and 2014. Serologic HBV markers, including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg), were tested. Primary outcome of interest comprised HBsAg positivity in couples (both positive: F+M+, only wife positive: F+M-, only husband positive: F-M+), and secondary outcome consisted of prevalence and risk factors of HBsAg positivity among husbands or wives. Of 14,816,300 couples included, 0.7% were F+M+; 6.3% were F-M+; 4.4% were F+M-, resulting in the overall seroprevalence of 11.4%. Individually, 6.1% were HBsAg positive with a higher rate seen in husbands (7.0%) than in wives (5.2%). Wife's HBeAg(+)/HBsAg (+) (AOR = 2.61), HBeAg(-)/HBsAg (+) (AOR = 2.23), positivity of syphilis (AOR = 1.50), living in a high-risk region (AOR = 1.46) were significantly predictors of HBsAg positivity in husbands. Prevalence and predictors of HBsAg positivity in wives had similar results. Our data show a high burden and discordant pattern of HBV infection in rural couples, and partner's double positivity of HBeAg and HBsAg was the most significant factor of HBV infection in couples. A comprehensive strategy that emphasizes vaccination and education is needed.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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