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Curr Res Food Sci ; 4: 737-745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729500


The effects of legume protein fractions on Fe and Zn bioaccessibility remain equivocal to date, largely due to the protein's structure and the presence of anti-nutritional compounds. We administered Fe and Zn salts with legume concentrates consisting mainly of albumin or globulin from lupin, pea and faba to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Under the fasted intestinal state, faba globulins were found to enhance Fe2+ and Zn solubility compared to control salts without legume proteins. Meanwhile, other fractions had no effect or significantly lowered Fe and Zn solubility. Under the fed intestinal state, the presence globulins enhanced Fe solubility versus the control, where protein solubilization due to high bile concentration likely played a role in circumventing precipitation. The lupin albumin fraction significantly enhanced Fe2+ and Zn solubility, whilst other fractions generally reduced Zn solubility under fed state. Our results highlight the complex role of legume proteins towards Fe and Zn solubility.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(1): 652-685, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443794


Understanding of the mechanism of interactions between dietary elements, their salts, and complexing/binding ligands is vital to manage both deficiency and toxicity associated with essential element bioavailability. Numerous mineral ligands are found in both animal and plant foods and are known to exert bioactivity via element chelation resulting in modulation of antioxidant capacity or micobiome metabolism among other physiological outcomes. However, little is explored in the context of dietary mineral ligands and element bioavailability enhancement, particularly with respect to ligands from plant-derived food sources. This review highlights a novel perspective to consider various plant macro/micronutrients as prospective bioavailability enhancing ligands of three essential elements (Fe, Zn, and Ca). We also delineate the molecular mechanisms of the ligand-binding interactions underlying mineral bioaccessibility at the luminal level. We conclude that despite current understandings of some of the structure-activity relationships associated with strong mineral-ligand binding, the physiological links between ligands as element carriers and uptake at targeted sites throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract still require more research. The binding behavior of potential ligands in the human diet should be further elucidated and validated using pharmacokinetic approaches and GI models.

Ferro , Zinco , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Estudos Prospectivos
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-17, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190514


Myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate or phytic acid concentration is a prominent factor known to impede divalent element bioavailability in vegetal foods including legumes. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that phytic acid and other plant-based constituents may synergistically form insoluble complexes affecting bioavailability of essential elements. This review provides an overview of existing investigations on the role of phytic acid in the binding, solubility and bioavailability of iron, zinc and calcium with a focus on legumes. Given the presence of various interference factors within legume matrices, current findings suggest that the commonly adapted approach of using phytic acid-element molar ratios as a bioavailability predictor may only be valid in limited circumstances. In particular, differences between protein properties and molar concentrations of other interacting ions are likely responsible for the observed poor correlations. The role of phytate degradation in element bioavailability has been previously examined, and in this review we re-emphasize its importance as a tool to enhance mineral bioavailability of mineral fortified legume crops. Food processing strategies to achieve phytate reduction were identified as promising tools to increase mineral bioavailability and included germination and fermentation, particularly when other bioavailability promoters (e.g. NaCl) are simultaneously added.

Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354190


Growing ethical, environmental and health concerns have encouraged demand for novel plant-based milk alternatives, yet it remains nebulous whether these products are nutritionally adequate as cow's milk replacements. The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional survey of plant-based milk alternatives available in major Australian supermarkets and selected niche food retailers from November 2019 to January 2020 and assess two dietary scenarios (adolescents and older women) where dairy serves were substituted for plant-based alternatives against Australian Estimated Average Requirements (EAR). We collected compositional data from nutrition panels in juxtaposition with derivatives from the Australian Food Composition database, with a total of 115 products, including tree nuts and seeds (n = 48), legumes (n = 27), coconut (n = 10), grains (n = 19) and mixed sources (n = 10). Just over 50% of products were fortified, but only 1/3 contained similar calcium content to cow's milk. Indiscriminate substitutions might reduce intakes of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, B2, B12, iodine and zinc, and lead to reductions >50% of the EARs for protein, zinc and calcium in the chosen dietary scenarios. To avoid unintended dietary outcomes, it is vital that consumers make pragmatic decisions regarding dietary replacements for cow's milk.

Cálcio/análise , Cocos , Grão Comestível , Fabaceae , Análise de Alimentos , Substitutos do Leite , Nutrientes/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Nozes , Sementes , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Iodo/análise , Substitutos do Leite/química , Vitaminas/análise , Zinco/análise
J Food Sci ; 83(11): 2873-2881, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370926


Australian produced pulse grains are exported worldwide, predominantly to developing countries where severe essential mineral deficiencies putatively subsist. An in vitro digestion model that simulates human gastric, intestinal and colonic digestion and fermentation, was used to examine the bioaccessibility of Fe, Mg, K, Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu in commercially available cultivars of Australian field pea, lentil, and sweet lupin. The hull and dehulled seeds were prepared following a traditional cooking method, and quantities of bioaccessible minerals were assessed at each stage of in vitro digestion using ICP-OES elemental analyses. Results revealed that dehulled field pea (100 g dry weight) had the highest bioaccessible quantity of Fe (2.44 ± 0.73 mg), K (717.10 ± 56.66 mg), P (272.88 ± 9.30 mg), Zn (1.72.028 ± 0.28 mg), and Cu (0.41 ± 0.02 mg). Dehulled lupin was the best source of Mg (138.62 ± 1.53 mg) and Mn (1.28 ± 0.0.06 mg), and lentil hull showed the greatest Ca bioaccessible quantity (116.33 ± 16.73 mg/100 g dry weight). Additionally, the fed state digestion (11.7 mg bile/mL sample) increased the bioaccessibility of all elements significantly (P < 0.05) compared to fasted (1.95 mg bile/mL sample), except for Zn and Mn in lupin and lentils. These results demonstrated that dehulled seeds possess higher mineral bioaccessibility on a percentage basis compared with hulls, and that the fed state of in vitro digestion generally improved the mineral solubility significantly (P < 0.05). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research aimed to assess the prospective biological accessibility of various essential elements in three commercially available Australian pulses. Results of the study provided an insight into the contents of essential minerals in Australian pulses and illustrated the impact of traditional cooking of dehulled pulses on these minerals bioaccessibility. These findings will provide the consumers with information about some nutritional aspects of major Australian pulses.

Fabaceae/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/farmacocinética , Austrália , Disponibilidade Biológica , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Culinária , Digestão , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Lens (Planta)/química , Lupinus/química , Ervilhas/química , Recomendações Nutricionais , Oligoelementos/análise