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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818133

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Fibrotic interstitial lung diseases (fILDs) represent a group of pathologic entities characterized by scarring of the lungs and high morbidity and mortality. Research investigating how socioeconomic and residential factors impact outcomes in patients with fILDs is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between neighborhood-level disadvantage and presentation severity, disease progression, lung transplant, and mortality in patients with fILD from the United States (U.S.) and Canada. METHODS: Multi-center, international, prospective cohort study of 4729 patients with fILD from one U.S. and eight Canadian ILD registry sites. Neighborhood-level disadvantage was measured by the area deprivation index (ADI) in the U.S. and the Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) in Canada. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the U.S., but not Canadian cohort, patients with fILD living in neighborhoods with the greatest disadvantage (top quartile) experience the highest risk of mortality (hazard ratio=1.51, p=0.002) and in subgroups of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the top quartile of disadvantage experienced the lowest odds of lung transplant (odds ratio=0.46, p=0.04). Greater disadvantage was associated with reduced baseline diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in both cohorts, but it was not associated with baseline forced vital capacity (FVC) or FVC or DLCO decline in either cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with fILD who live in areas with greater neighborhood-level disadvantage in the U.S. experience higher mortality, and patients with IPF experience lower odds of lung transplant. These disparities are not seen in Canadian patients, which may indicate differences in access to care between the U.S. and Canada.

2.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of lumbosacral transition vertebrae (LSTVs) in both the normal population and the lumbar disc herniation (LDH) population and to determine the risk factors for LDH. METHODS: Between January 2019 and September 2020, all patients aged 18-39 years and underwent an anteroposterior (AP) X-ray of the lumbar vertebrae were retrospective reviewed in our institution. Those patients who were diagnosed with LDH were eligible for inclusion in the LDH group. During the same period, those patients admitted to our hospital who underwent an anteroposterior X-ray of the lumbar spine and had not been diagnosed with LDH were included in the control group. Those patients with disease that might affect the lumbar anatomy were excluded from both groups. The type of LSTV was classified according to the Castellvi classification. The height of the lumbar vertebral lamina was evaluated through the h/H index. The inter- and intra-observer reliability was evaluated by one senior radiologist and one senior orthopedist using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The association between the LSTV and the herniation level was also investigated. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the association of different factors between the LDH group and the control group. RESULTS: Two hundred LDH patients (115 male and 85 female) and 200 individuals (108 male and 92 female) were investigated retrospectively. The prevalence of LSTVs was 71.5% (n = 143) in the LDH group and 34.0% (n = 68) in the control group. The most frequent LSTV types were type Ib and type IIa. The inter- and intra-observer ICCs of the measurement of "h/H" index and the classification of LSTV were all "excellent" (ICC > 0.90). The median h/H index in the control group was significantly higher than that in the LDH group (0.28 (0.26, 0.31) vs 0.34 (0.31, 0.37), P = 0.000). The distribution of the Castellvi classification in the L4/5 and L5/S1 herniation patients was significantly different (P = 0.048). LSTVs, BMI and the h/H index were closely associated with LDH, with odds ratios of 3.06 (95% CI: 2.12-4.43), 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13-1.33) and 0.09 (95% CI: 0.05-0.15), respectively. The incidence of L4/5 disc herniation in patients with an LSTV was significantly more common than that in patients with L5/S1 disc herniation (P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of LSTVs was 34.0% in the control group and 71.5% in the LDH group; LSTVs and BMI were positively correlated with LDH, and h/H was negatively correlated with LDH.

3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two common diseases that result in limb disability and a decrease in quality of life. The major symptoms of OA and RA are pain, swelling, stiffness, and malformation of joints, and each disease also has unique characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To compare the pathological mechanisms of OA and RA via weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and immune infiltration analysis and find potential diagnostic and pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of OA and RA. METHODS: The gene expression profiles of ten OA and ten RA synovial tissue samples were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (GSE55235). After obtaining differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via GEO2R, WGCNA was conducted using an R package, and modules and genes that were highly correlated with OA and RA were identified. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analyses were also conducted. Hub genes were identified using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and Cytoscape software. Immune infiltration analysis was conducted using the Perl program and CIBERSORT software. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-nine DEGs, 24 modules, 16 GO enrichment terms, 6 KEGG pathway enrichment terms, 10 hub genes (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCR4, CD27, CD69, CD3D, IL7R, STAT1, RGS1, and ISG20), and 8 kinds of different infiltrating immune cells (plasma cells, CD8 T cells, activated memory CD4 T cells, T helper follicular cells, M1 macrophages, Tregs, resting mast cells, and neutrophils) were found to be involved in the different pathological mechanisms of OA and RA. CONCLUSION: Inflammation-associated genes were the top differentially expressed hub genes between OA and RA, and their expression was downregulated in OA. Genes associated with lipid metabolism may have upregulated expression in OA. In addition, immune cells that participate in the adaptive immune response play an important role in RA. OA mainly involves immune cells that are associated with the innate immune response.

4.
Gerontology ; : 1-12, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies reported poorer outcomes for patients who were admitted at weekends or off-hour, which relates to the underlying concept called the "weekend effect." We aimed to assess the effect of adverse outcomes in older patients with intertrochanteric fracture surgery. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients aged ≥65 years with intertrochanteric fracture surgery. Data were collected from computerized medical records and all patients had a long-term follow-up. The association between weekend effect with adverse outcomes and factors for all-cause mortality was studied by 3-group comparison, Spearman and partial correlation analysis, univariate analysis, and multivariate Cox proportional-hazard model. RESULTS: Our results showed no evidence supporting the existence of a weekend effect on adverse outcomes, including mortality rates (p = 0.950, log-rank), length of hospital stay, total hospital costs, rate and volume of transfusion, visual analog scale score, Harris Hip Score, and specific complications (all p > 0.05), except for an average of 0.5 days longer surgical delay found in patients admitted on Fridays relative to other days (p = 0.013). Instead, only age group (with a 10-year interval, HR 1.43, 1.28-1.59 95% CI, p < 0.001) and surgical delay (HR 1.05, 1.02-1.07 95% CI, p < 0.001) were identified as significantly associated with all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients with intertrochanteric fracture surgery have similar mortality and adverse outcomes rates when admitted on weekends or holidays compared with weekdays. Our findings suggest that collaborative multidisciplinary team care seems both effective and efficient in the management of older patients with intertrochanteric fractures on any day of the week.

5.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 1967-1974, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824528

RESUMO

Purpose: Respiratory complication is one of the major challenges in the treatment of older adults with hip fractures. However, no study so far has investigated the effect of wearing medical masks on the prevention of perioperative respiratory complications in these patients. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 1016 consecutive patients aged ≥65 years with hip fractures were included and assigned to two groups: the control group and the observation group. The two groups received the same perioperative management modalities. In addition, patients in the observation group were asked to wear medical masks for protection. Data of patients' demographics, fracture type, surgical methods, comorbidities, the incidence of perioperative respiratory and other complications, and hospital outcomes were collected and compared between the two groups. Subgroup analyses were also performed stratified by fracture types. Results: A total of 1016 patients (292 females and 724 males) with a mean age of 79.4±7.3 years were analyzed in the study, including 533 in the control group and 483 in the observation group. The overall incidence of perioperative respiratory complication, and the incidence of pulmonary infection, respiratory failure and arrhythmia in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group, especially in winter and spring. There was no difference in other complications, hospital length of stay, and total hospital costs. Further subgroup analyses showed that the incidence of heart failure and arrhythmia in the observation group was lower than that in the control group for patients with femoral neck fractures, which was different from patients with intertrochanteric fractures. Conclusion: The incidence of perioperative respiratory complications, including pulmonary infection and respiratory failure, could be reduced in older adults with hip fractures by strengthening personal protection, including wearing medical masks, especially in winter and spring. Wearing medical masks could also effectively reduce the incidence of perioperative heart failure and arrhythmia in femoral neck fracture patients and do not increase the incidence of other complications and the burden of hospitalization.

6.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 390, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although lower temperature (< 45 °C) photothermal therapy (LPTT) have attracted enormous attention in cancer therapy, the therapeutic effect is still unsatisfying when applying LPTT alone. Therefore, combining with other therapies is urgently needed to improve the therapeutic effect of LPTT. Recently reported oxygen-irrelevant free radicals based thermodynamic therapy (TDT) exhibit promising potential for hypoxic tumor treatment. However, overexpression of glutathione (GSH) in cancer cells would potently scavenge the free radicals before their arrival to the specific site and dramatically diminish the therapeutic efficacy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this work, a core-shell nanoplatform with an appropriate size composed of arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) functioned polydopamine (PDA) as a shell and a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) modified hollow mesoporous manganese dioxide (H-mMnO2) as a core was designed and fabricated for the first time. This nanostructure endows a size-controllable hollow cavity mMnO2 and thickness-tunable PDA layers, which effectively prevented the pre-matured release of encapsulated azo initiator 2,2'-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl) propane] dihydrochloride (AIBI) and revealed pH/NIR dual-responsive release performance. With the mitochondria-targeting ability of TPP, the smart nanocomposites (AIBI@H-mMnO2-TPP@PDA-RGD, AHTPR) could efficiently induce mitochondrial associated apoptosis in cancer cells at relatively low temperatures (< 45 °C) via selectively releasing oxygen-irrelevant free radicals in mitochondria and facilitating the depletion of intracellular GSH, exhibiting the advantages of mitochondria-targeted LPTT/TDT. More importantly, remarkable inhibition of tumor growth was observed in a subcutaneous xenograft model of osteosarcoma (OS) with negligible side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic therapy efficacy was confirmed by effectively inducing cancer cell death in vitro and completely eradicating the tumors in vivo. Additionally, the excellent biosafety and biocompatibility of the nanoplatforms were confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the current study provides a novel paradigm toward oxygen-independent free-radical-based cancer therapy, especially for the treatment of hypoxic solid tumors.

7.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common complications in the traumatic orthopedics field, but remains not adequately studied after hip fractures. AIMS: This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with SSI after surgically treated hip fractures in older adults. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including 2932 older adult patients (1416 with femoral neck fracture and 1516 with intertrochanteric fracture) surgically treated from Jan 2015 to Dec 2019 due to hip fractures was performed. Their data on demographics, injury-related data, surgery-related data, and preoperative laboratory test results were collected from hospitalization medical records. Univariate analyses were used to compare between the patients with and without SSI, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 89 patients developed SSI, with an accumulated incidence rate of 3.04% (95%CI 2.41-3.66). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common source of infection. In univariate analysis, 11 items were found to be significant in femoral neck fractures and 5 items were found to be significant in intertrochanteric fracture. In the multivariable logistic regression model, cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.17, 95%CI 1.14-4.15) and hematocrit (HCT) (< Lower limit) (OR 3.46, 95%CI 1.13-10.56) were independent risk factors for SSI in femoral neck fracture. Heart disease (OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.18-3.85) was a risk factor for SSI, while LDH (> 250 U/L) (OR 0.44, 95%CI 0.20-0.95) was a protective factor for SSI in intertrochanteric fracture. DISCUSSION: We observed 89 cases (3.04%) of SSI in 2932 older adult patients with hip fractures in this study. Cerebrovascular disease and lower HCT were two independent risk factors for SSI in femoral neck fracture, whereas heart disease was a risk factor and LDH was a protective factor for SSI in intertrochanteric fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted preoperative management, such as predicting the probability of SSI and taking appropriate measures accordingly is essential and highly regarded. Future multicentric studies with more patients evaluated are expected to better address the risk factors for SSI in older hip fracture patients.

8.
iScience ; 24(10): 103104, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611609

RESUMO

Indoor photovoltaic (IPV) with power output over 100 µW is promising to power the numerous sensor nodes in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem. All polymer photovoltaic has the advantages of excellent thermal stability and superior mechanical properties. In this work, we fabricate the first all-polymer indoor photovoltaic module with the active area of 10 cm2. The module uses polymer donor CD1 and new polymer acceptor PBN-21 with medium optical band gap of 1.9 eV as the active layer. It is processed with eco-friendly solvent tetrahydrofuran and the morphology can be improved by blade coating at 55°C. Under light emitting diode illumination at 1000 lux, the module exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 12.04% and a power output of 367.2 µW. The sufficient power output, high efficiency, excellent stability, and eco-friendly processing indicate that all-polymer indoor photovoltaic is a promising approach to achieve the self-powered of sensor nodes in the IoT ecosystem.

9.
Int Wound J ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651435

RESUMO

It is well established that the postoperative results were affected by the surgeon volume in a variety of elective and emergent orthopaedic surgeries; however, by far, no evidences have been available as for surgically treated displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures (DIACFs). We aimed at investigating the relationship between surgeon volume and deep surgical site infection (DSSI) following open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of DIACFs. This was a further analysis of prospectively collected data from a validated database. Patients with DIACFs stabilised by ORIF between 2016 and 2019 were identified. Surgeon volume was defined as the number of surgically treated calcaneal fractures within one calendar year and was dichotomised based on the optimal cut-off value. The outcome measure was DSSI within 1 year postoperatively. Multivariate logistics regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship, adjusting for confounders. Among 883 patients, 19 (2.2%) were found to have a DSSI. The DSSI incidence was 6.5% in surgeons with a low volume (<6/year), 5.5 times as that in those with a high volume (≥6/year) (incidence rate, 1.2%; P < 0.001). The multivariate analyses showed a low volume <6/year was associated with a 5.8-fold increased risk of DSSI (95% confidence interval, 2.2-16.5, P < 0.001). This value slightly increased after multiple sensitivity analyses, with statistical significances still unchanged (OR range, 6.6-6.9; P ≤ 0.001). The inverse relationship indicates a need for at least six cases/year for a surgeon to substantially reduce the DSSIs following the ORIF of DIACFs.

10.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(10): e550, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651137

RESUMO

Preclinical studies from our laboratory demonstrated therapeutic effects of enteral dextrose administration in the acute phase of sepsis, mediated by the intestine-derived incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. The current study investigated the effects of an early enteral dextrose infusion on systemic inflammation and glucose metabolism in critically ill septic patients. DESIGN: Single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot clinical trial (NCT03454087). SETTING: Tertiary-care medical center in Pittsburgh, PA. PATIENTS: Critically ill adult patients within 48 hours of sepsis diagnosis and with established enteral access. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive a continuous water (placebo) or enteral dextrose infusion (50% dextrose; 0.5 g/mL) at 10 mL per hour for 24 hours. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We randomized 58 participants between June 2018 and January 2020 (placebo: n = 29, dextrose: n = 29). Protocol adherence was high with similar duration of study infusion in the placebo (median duration, 24 hr [interquartile range, 20.9-24 hr]) and dextrose (23.9 hr [23-24 hr]) groups (p = 0.59). The primary outcome of circulating interleukin-6 at end-infusion did not differ between the dextrose (median, 32 pg/mL [19-79 pg/mL]) and placebo groups (24 pg/mL [9-59 pg/mL]; p = 0.13) with similar results in other measures of the systemic host immune response. Enteral dextrose increased circulating glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (76% increase; 95% CI [35-119]; p < 0.01) and insulin (53% [17-88]; p < 0.01) compared with placebo consistent with preclinical studies, but also increased blood glucose during the 24-hour infusion period (153 mg/dL [119-223] vs 116 mg/dL [91-140]; p < 0.01). Occurrence of emesis, ICU and hospital length of stay, and 30-day mortality did not differ between the placebo and enteral dextrose groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early infusion of low-level enteral dextrose in critically ill septic patients increased circulating levels of insulin and the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide without decreasing systemic inflammation.

11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 901, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between the posterior tibial slope (PTS) and meniscal tears in adults. However, little is known about the association between the PTS of the adolescents and medial meniscal tears (MMT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the PTS and MMT in adolescents, and to determine the optimal cut-off values of PTS for discriminating between the MMT and the control groups. METHODS: Between January 2018 and January 2020, a retrospective case-control study was performed. In this study, isolated MMT adolescent patients with no ligamentous injuries were matched by age and sex to a control group of radiologically normal images. The PTS was defined as the angle between the perpendicular line to proximal tibial cortex (PTC) and the tangent line along the tibial plateau. Then, both the medial posterior tibial slope (MPTS) and lateral posterior tibial slope (LPTS) were measured by plain radiographs on the lateral views. In addition, the optimal cut-off values of PTS were determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: A total of seventy-two patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the final analysis (36 patients with isolated MMT, 36 controls). The MPTS was greater in the knees with isolated MMT (10.7° ± 2.1°) than that of the control group (8.8° ± 1.7°), showing significant difference (P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference regarding the LPTS between the isolated MMT and controls (11.5 ± 3.4 vs 10.9 ± 2.6, p>0.05). In the ROC curve analysis, the calculated cutoff value of the MPTS discriminating between the groups was 10.3°, with a sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 78.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that steep MPTS is associated with MMT, and MPTS≥10.3° was identified to be a risk factor for MMT in adolescents.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Traumatismos do Joelho , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Meniscos Tibiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
J Orthop Trauma ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the location and frequency of the fracture lines and comminution zones of both-column fractures using fracture mapping. METHODS: Both-column fractures were retrospectively reviewed in four Level-I trauma centers. Mimics software was used to reconstruct the both-column fractures and simulate the fracture reduction. Then, the fracture lines and the intra- and extra-articular comminution zones were drawn on a 3-D innominate bone template. The distribution of fracture lines and fracture fragments were also be mapped on the 2-D template of the acetabulum. All the included patients were divided into low- and high-variety group according to the anterior column fracture line above or below the anterior superior spine. The anatomical characteristics of the posterior wall fragment were also analyzed in these two groups. RESULTS: Seventy-eight both-column fracture patients were included. The "T" type or inverted "Y" type main fracture lines divided the innominate bone into low-variety (n=11) and high-variety (n=67) both-column fractures. The extra-articular comminution zones are usually distributed between the posterior iliac fragment and anterior column fragment. High-variety-type both-column fractures are usually combined with "high" and "sharp" posterior wall fragments, while low-variety-type both-column fractures are usually accompanied by "low" and "flat" posterior wall fragments. The comminution zones in the acetabulum are mostly concentrated in the anterior and inferior parts of the acetabulum. CONCLUSIONS: The innominate bone is divided into three major parts in the both-column fracture, and the fracture center is located at the proximal of the acetabular dome. The both-column fractures are divided into low- and high-variety patterns. The location of the anterior column fracture determined the characteristics of the posterior wall fragment.

13.
Asian J Surg ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for posterior malleolar fractures (PMFs) in patients with spiral distal tibial fractures (SDTFs). METHODS: In a retrospective study, 248 adults with SDTFs who underwent treatment were enrolled between November 2017 and May 2020. In a prospective study, we recruited 113 consecutive, skeletally mature patients with SDTFs who were identified from the trauma clinic of our hospital between June 2020 and May 2021. Radiographs and CT scans of the ankle region on the affected side were obtained to determine the presence of PMFs. If the CT scan was negative, additional MRI examination of the ankle was performed as a supplementary protocol in the prospective study. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were conducted to analyze the risk factors. RESULTS: In the retrospective study, the incidence of PMFs associated with simple SDTFs was 74.0% (105/142), which was significantly lower than 90.8% (69/76) in the prospective study. Independent predictors of PMFs in patients with simple SDTFs identified by multivariate analysis in the retrospective study were age (OR = 1.07; P = 0.001) and external rotation of the proximal tibia (OR = 3.36; P = 0.027) and those in the prospective study were osteoporosis (OR = 0.04; P = 0.007) and spiral fibula fractures (OR = 16.05; P = 0.046). CONCLUSION: This study reexamined the high incidence of concurrent PMFs. Additionally, ankle radiographs and CT scans were recommended for all simple SDTF patients. For simple SDTF patients with negative CT scans, especially those caused by external rotation of the proximal tibia, combined with nonosteoporotic or spiral fibula fractures, additional MRI examinations are recommended.

14.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 649, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the characteristics of plasma D-dimer level with increasing age and establish a new age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff value for excluding preoperative lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in elderly patients with hip fractures. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of elderly patients who presented with acute hip fracture in our institution between June 2016 and June 2019. All patients underwent D-dimer test and duplex ultrasound. Patients were divided into six 5-year-apart age groups. The optimal cutoff value for each group was calculated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, whereby the new age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff value was determined. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated and compared when different D-dimer cutoff values were applied, i.e., conventional 0.5 mg/L, previously well-established age-adjusted cutoff value (age × 0.01 mg/L) and the new age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff value herein. RESULTS: There were 2759 patients included, 887 males and 1872 females, with an average age of 78 years. In total, 280 patients were diagnosed with preoperative DVT. The optimal cutoff values for the six age groups were 0.715 mg/L, 1.17 mg/L, 1.62 mg/L, 1.665 mg/L, 1.69 mg/L and 1.985 mg/L, respectively, and the calculated age-adjusted coefficient was 0.02 mg/L. With this new coefficient applied, the specificity was 61%, clearly higher than those for conventional threshold (0.5 mg/L, 37%) or previously established age-adjusted D-dimer threshold (age × 0.01 mg/L, 22%). In contrast, the sensitivity was lower than that (59% vs 85% or 77%) when D-dimer threshold of 0.5 mg/L or age-adjusted cutoff value (age × 0.01 mg/L) was used. The other indexes as PPV (15%, 11% and 12%) and NPV (93%, 93% and 94%) were comparable when three different D-dimer thresholds were applied. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a new age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff value (age × 0.02 mg/L) for a specified high-risk population of patients aged 65 years or older with hip fractures, and demonstrated the improved utility of the D-dimer test for exclusion of DVT. This formula can be considered for use in elderly hip fracture patients who meet the applicable standards as preoperative DVT screening, after its validity is confirmed by more well-evidenced studies.

15.
J Drug Target ; : 1-14, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) is always affected by some resistance factors from tumour environment (TME), such as hypoxia and the antioxidant defense system. PURPOSE: This study aims at developing a cascaded intelligent multifunctional nanoplatforms to modulate the TME resistance for synergistically enhanced chemo- and photodynamic therapies. METHODS: In this study, we synthesised hollow manganese dioxide nanoparticles (HMDNs) loaded with the hydrophilic chemotherapeutic drug (acriflavine, ACF) and the hydrophobic photosensitizer (chlorine6, Ce6), which was further encapsulated by pH-sensitive liposome to form core-shell nanocomposite, with surface modified with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide to achieve tumour targeting. RESULTS: After uptake by tumour cells, the liposome shell was rapidly degraded by the low pH, and the inner core could be released from the liposome. Then, the released HMDNs/ACF/Ce6 would be dissociated by low pH and high levels of intracellular GSH within TME to release encapsulated drugs, thereby resulting in synergistic effects of chemotherapy and PDT. Meanwhile, the released ACF could bind with HIF-1a and then inhibit the expression levels of HIF-1's downstream signalling molecules P-gp and VEGF, which could further strengthen the antitumor effects. As a result, HMDNs/ACF/Ce6@Lipo-RGD NPs with laser irradiation exhibited superior anti-tumour therapeutic efficiency.

16.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological features of major joints fracture-dislocations between 2015 and 2019. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled patients with majorintra-articular fracture-dislocations who were treated in the third hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 2015 to December 2019. A total of 582 patients (389 [66.84%] males and 193 [33.16%] females) were identified. The distribution characteristics of intra-articular fracture-dislocations involving shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle joints were included. The potential associations between fractures with concomitant dislocations and related factors, such as age, gender and sites were explored. RESULTS: There were 92 cases (15.81%) of shoulder joints, 67 cases (11.51%) of elbow joints, 45 cases (7.73%) of wrist joints, 181 cases (31.10%) of hip joints, 42 cases (7.22%) of knee joints, and 155 cases (26.63%) of ankle joints. The overall male-to-female ratio was 2.02:1.The highest proportion age group of the six types intra-articular fracture-dislocations included the ages 25-34 years. For males, the highest proportion age group was 25-34 years, for females, it was 45-54 years. For male patients, hip was the most common, accounted for 35.48%, but ankle fracture-dislocation was the most common for females, accounted for 30.57%. The highest proportion age group of shoulder fracture-dislocation included the ages 55-64 years(22.83%), with a male to female ratio of 1.24:1. While the age group with the highest risk of elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle fracture- dislocation was 25-34 years (28.36%) with a male to female ratio of 2.19:1, 25-34 years (31.11%) with a male to female ratio of 8:1, 45-54 years (27.07%) with a male to female ratio of 3.21:1, 15-24 years (45.24%) with a male to female ratio of 0.75:1, 25-44 years (43.87%) with a male to female ratio of 1.63:1, respectively. The most common site of joint fracture-dislocation in different age groups was corresponding as follows, 0-14 years(elbow), 15-24 years(knee), 25-34 years(hip), 35-44 years(hip), 45-54 years(hip), 55-64 years(ankle), 65-74 years(shoulder), ≥75 years(shoulder). CONCLUSION: Major joints fracture-dislocations were most common in the hip and the least common in the knee, and there were more men than women. Hip was the most common affected joint in men while ankle in women. Age and sex factors can significantly affect the location of intra articular fracture and dislocation. The current study could aid orthopaedic surgeons in a better understanding of this injury and help to implement targeted preventive measures.

17.
Int Orthop ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Based on the features of the three-dimensional spatial structure of the proximal femoral trabeculae, we developed a bionic triangular supporting intramedullary nail (TSIN) for the treatment of the femoral intertrochanteric fracture. The current study aimed to compare the mechanical stability and restoration of mechanical conduction between proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) and TSIN to fix the intertrochanteric fractures. METHODS: Firstly, five sets of PFNA and TSIN with the same size were selected and fixed on a biomechanical testing machine, and strain gauges were pasted on the main nail, lag screw, and supporting screw to load to the vertical load to 600 N, and the displacement and strain values were recorded. Secondly, formalin-preserved femurs were selected, and the left and right femurs of the same cadaver were randomly divided into two groups to prepare intertrochanteric femur fractures (AO classification 31-A1), which were fixed with PFNA (n = 15) and TSIN (n = 15), respectively. Sixteen sites around the fracture line were chosen to paste strain gauges and loaded vertically to 600 N, and then, the fracture fragment displacement and strain values were recorded. Finally, a 10,000-cycle test ranging from 10 to 600 N was conducted, and the cycle number and displacement value were recorded. RESULTS: The overall displacement of PFNA was 2.17 ± 0.18 mm, which was significantly greater than the displacement of the TSIN group (1.66 ± 0.05 mm, P < 0.05) under a vertical load of 600 N. The strain below the PFNA lag screw was 868.29 ± 147.85, which was significantly greater than that of the TSIN (456.02 ± 35.06, P < 0.05); the strain value at the medial side of the PFNA nail was 444.00 ± 34.23, which was significantly less than that of the TSIN (613.57 ± 108.00, P < 0.05). Under the vertical load of 600 N, the displacement of the fracture fragments of the PFNA group was 0.95 ± 0.25 mm, which was significantly greater than that of the TSIN group (0.41 ± 0.09 mm, P < 0.05). The femoral specimens in the PFNA group showed significantly greater strains at the anterior (1, 2, and 4), lateral (7, 9, and 10), posterior (11), and medial (15 and 16) sites than those in the TSIN group (all P < 0.05). In the cyclic compression experiment, the displacements of the PFNA group at 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, and 10,000 cycles were 1.38 mm, 1.81 mm, 2.07 mm, 2.64 mm, and 3.58 mm, respectively, which were greater than the corresponding displacements of the TSIN group: 1.01 mm, 1.48 mm, 1.82 mm, 2.05 mm, and 2.66 mm (P8000 = 0.012, P10000 = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that TSIN had apparent advantages in stability and stress conduction. TSIN enhanced the stability of intertrochanteric fractures, particularly in superior fracture fragments, improved stress conduction, reduced the stress in the anterior and medial femur, and restored the biomechanical properties of the femur.

18.
Orthop Surg ; 13(7): 2070-2080, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of arthroscopic debridement and repair in treating Ellman grade II bursal-side partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. METHODS: This is a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial. From September 2017 to April 2019, 78 patients underwent arthroscopic debridement (35 patients) or repair (43 patients) due to Ellman grade II bursal-side partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Twenty-six men and 52 women were included in the study, with an average age of 56.31 years (range, 42 to 74 years). After the acromioplasty was formed, the debridement group only performed stump refreshing and surrounding soft tissue cleaning, while the repair group converted the partial tears into full-thickness tears and then sutured them by single row or suture bridge technique. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Constant-Murley shoulder (CMS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) scores were used to evaluate clinical results preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the integrity of the rotator cuff, muscle atrophy, and fat infiltration. RESULTS: A total of 85 patients met the inclusion criteria and were randomly divided into the debridement group (41 patients) and the repair group (43 patients). During the 18-month follow-up period, a total of seven patients were lost to follow-up. The functional scores of both groups were significantly improved: the VAS score decreased 5.06 and 4.63 in the debridement group (5.77 preoperative to 0.71 postoperative) and the repair group (5.49 to 0.86) (P < 0.05). Moreover, the CMS, ASES, UCLA scores increased 51.63, 58.24, 20.57 in debridement group (39.46 to 91.09, 34.14 to 92.38, 13.29 to 33.86), and increased 48.14, 60.53, 20.93 in repair group (43.63 to 91.77, 33.10 to 93.63, 12.58 to 33.51) (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in functional scores between the two groups at 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively (P > 0.05). The magnetic resonance imaging showed no re-tears, and no difference was observed in the degree of muscle atrophy and fat infiltration between the two groups (P > 0.05). Except for four cases of shoulder stiffness, no other obvious surgery-related complications were found. CONCLUSION: For Ellman grade II bursal-side partial-thickness rotator cuff tears, both the debridement and repair groups achieved good results during 18-month follow-ups, with no difference between the two groups.

19.
Int Orthop ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661699

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the pre-operative incidence of and risk factors for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in geriatric intertrochanteric fractures to help facilitate the peri-operative management of them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 1515 geriatric intertrochanteric fracture patients were extracted from a prospective intertrochanteric fractures database according to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The demographics, fracture characteristics, and pre-operative laboratory indicators of patients were evaluated statistically. RESULTS: The incidence of pre-operative DVT was 10.2% (155 in 1360 patients) in the present study. The rates of proximal DVT, distal DVT, and mixed DVT were 18.1% (28 patients), 56.8% (88 patients), and 25.2% (39 patients), respectively. The percentages of DVT developing in the affected limb, uninjured limb, and bilateral limbs were 74.2% (115 in 55 patients), 16.8% (26 in 155 patients), and 9% (14 in 155 patients), respectively. After the multivariable analysis, the time from injury to surgery (TIS) > 4 days [odds ratio (OR) = 1.870, p = 0.001], the number of comorbidities > 2 (OR = 2.124, p = 0.014), and albumin (ALB) < 35 g/L (OR = 1.516, p = 0.043), etc. were significantly associated with the development of preoperative DVT in geriatric intertrochanteric fracture patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although routine anticoagulant therapy was used to prevent the formation of DVT, the incidence of which was still high. Therefore, pre-operative ultrasound of both lower extremities was advised for pre-operatively, especially for patients with delayed surgery, hypoproteinemia, three or more comorbidities, and a D-dimer level > 1.59 mg/L.

20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 816, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The invasiveness of different surgical procedures is variable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of the postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as biomarkers in assessing the magnitude of surgery-related trauma in young and middle-aged patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (TPFs). METHODS: A total of 136 young and middle-aged patients with bicondylar TPFs who underwent surgical treatment between May 2016 and April 2020 were included. Details about demographic information, pre- and postoperative laboratory data, and surgical variables were obtained from the electronic database of our level I trauma center. According to the different surgery programs, all patients were divided into two groups: group 1, which represented minimally invasive reduction and internal fixation (MIRIF), and group 2, which represented open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and ROC curve analyses were used. RESULTS: The operative time, intraoperative tourniquet use, intraoperative blood loss, length of incision, postoperative NLR, PLR, RBC and HCRP were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, postoperative PLR ≥ 223.9, surgical incision > 19.0 cm and operative time > 130 min were closely related to severe surgery-related trauma. The ROC curve analysis indicated that postoperative PLR could predict severe surgery-related trauma with a specificity of 76.0 % and a sensitivity of 55.7 %. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative PLR appears to be a useful biomarker that is closely associated with magnitude of surgery-related trauma in young and middle-aged patients with bicondylar TPFs.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos , Fraturas da Tíbia , Plaquetas , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Linfócitos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia
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