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1.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109810, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698300

RESUMO

In order to predict the effects of climate change on the global carbon cycle, it is crucial to understand the environmental factors that affect soil carbon storage in grasslands. In the present study, we attempted to explain the relationships between the distribution of soil carbon storage with climate, soil types, soil properties and topographical factors across different types of grasslands with different grazing regimes. We measured soil organic carbon in 92 locations at different soil depth increments, from 0 to 100 cm in southwestern China. Among soil types, brown earth soils (Luvisols) had the highest carbon storage with 19.5 ±â€¯2.5 kg m-2, while chernozem soils had the lowest with 6.8 ±â€¯1.2 kg m-2. Mean annual temperature and precipitation, exerted a significant, but, contrasting effects on soil carbon storage. Soil carbon storage increased as mean annual temperature decreased and as mean annual precipitation increased. Across different grassland types, the mean carbon storage for the top 100 cm varied from 7.6 ±â€¯1.3 kg m-2 for temperate desert to 17.3 ±â€¯2.9 kg m-2 for alpine meadow. Grazing/cutting regimes significantly affected soil carbon storage with lowest value (7.9 ±â€¯1.5 kg m-2) recorded for cutting grass, while seasonal (11.4 ±â€¯1.3 kg m-2) and year-long (12.2 ±â€¯1.9 kg m-2) grazing increased carbon storage. The highest carbon storage was found in the completely ungrazed areas (16.7 ±â€¯2.9 kg m-2). Climatic factors, along with soil types and topographical factors, controlled soil carbon density along a soil depth in grasslands. Environmental factors alone explained about 60% of the total variation in soil carbon storage. The actual depth-wise distribution of soil carbon contents was significantly influenced by the grazing intensity and topographical factors. Overall, policy-makers should focus on reducing the grazing intensity and land conversion for the sustainable management of grasslands and C sequestration.

2.
J Diabetes ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To comprehensive evaluated the association between husband smoking amount and wives' dysglycemia status. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study which recruited 12 023 714 reproductive couples participated in the National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project (NFPCP) between 2015 and 2016 in China. Multivariable logistic models were used to estimate OR and 95% CI. Subgroup analysis and stratified analysis were further performed to investigate potential effect modification. RESULTS: Comparing to the neither-smoker group, the multivariable-adjusted ORs for DM among women was 1.09 (95 CI: 1.07-1.10), 1.04 (95% CI: 0.87-1.23) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.17-1.41) in the husband-smoker, wife-smoker and both-smokers group, respectively. Increased risk of DM was also observed for women whose husband smokes 1 to 10; 11 to 20 and over 20 cigarettes per day (OR:1.06; 95% CI: 1.04-1.07; OR:1.13; 95% CI:1.11-1.15; OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.17-1.31). The prevalence of wives' DM showed significant linear trends with husband smoking amount (p for trend<0.001). The similar growth tendency had also obtained between husband smoking amount and IFG prevalence with OR 1.04 (95% CI:1.04-1.05); 1.05 (95% CI: 1.04-1.06); 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06-1.11) for 1-10, 11-20 and over 20 cigarettes per day, respectively. The relationship between husband smoking amount and women IFG/DM prevalence appear to be modified by BMI. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed significant relationships between husband smoking and wives' risk of IFG/DM, which result exist in both categorical and dose-response manner. This association is modified by BMI. Family-oriented smoking interventions may both reduce husband active smoking and wives risk of DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Cancer ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) target volume for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been controversial for decades. In this report, the final results of a prospective randomized trial on the TRT target volume before and after induction chemotherapy are presented. METHODS: After 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin, patients arm were randomized to receive TRT to the postchemotherapy or prechemotherapy tumor volume in a study arm and a control arm. Involved-field radiotherapy was received in both arms. TRT consisted of 1.5 grays (Gy) twice daily in 30 fractions to up to a total dose of 45 Gy. Lymph node regions were contoured, and intentional and incidental radiation doses were recorded. RESULTS: The study was halted early because of slow accrual. Between 2002 and 2017, 159 and 150 patients were randomized to the study arm or the control arm, respectively; and 21.4% and 19.1% of patients, respectively, were staged using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (P = .31). With a median follow-up of 54.1 months (range, 19.9-165.0 months) in survivors, the 3-year local/regional progression-free probability was 58.2% and 65.5% in the study and control arms, respectively (P = .44), and the absolute difference was -7.3% (95% CI, -18.2%, 3.7%). In the study and control arms, the median overall survival was 21.9 months and 26.6 months, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 22.8% and 28.1%, respectively (P = .26). Grade 3 esophagitis was observed in 5.9% of patients in the study arm versus 15.5% of those in the control arm (P = .01). The isolated out-of-field failure rate was 2.6% in the study arm versus 4.1% in the control arm (P = .46), and all such failures were located in the supraclavicular fossa or contralateral hilum. The regions 7, 3P, 4L, 6, 4R, 5, and 2L received incidental radiation doses >30 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: TRT could be limited to the postchemotherapy tumor volume, and involved-field radiotherapy could be routinely applied for limited-stage SCLC.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensartinib is a potent new-generation ALK inhibitor with high activity against a broad range of known crizotinib-resistant ALK mutations and CNS metastases. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ensartinib in ALK-positive patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in whom crizotinib therapy was unsuccessful. The associations between ensartinib efficacy and crizotinib-resistant mutations were also explored. METHODS: We did a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study at 27 centres in China. Patients were aged 18 years or older, had stage IIIb or stage IV ALK-positive NSCLC that had progressed while they were on crizotinib therapy, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, had measurable disease, and had received fewer than three previous treatments. Patients with CNS metastases were included if these metastases were asymptomatic and did not require steroid therapy. All patients received 225 mg ensartinib orally once daily on a continuous dosing schedule. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an objective response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1), as assessed by an independent review committee in all patients who received at least one dose of ensartinib with no major violations of the inclusion criteria (ie, the full analysis set). Safety was assessed in all enrolled patients who received at least one dose of ensartinib. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03215693. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2017, and April 11, 2018, 160 patients were enrolled and had at least one dose of ensartinib (safety analysis set). Four patients had inclusion violations and were excluded from the efficacy analysis, which thus included 156 patients (full analysis set). 97 (62%) patients in the full analysis set had brain metastases. 76 (52% [95% CI 43-60]) of 147 patients in the full analysis set, with responses that could be assessed by the independent review committee, had an objective response. 28 (70% [53-83]) of 40 patients with measurable brain metastases as assessed by the independent review committee had an intracranial objective response. 145 (91%) of 160 patients had at least one treatment-related adverse event, which were mostly grade 1 or 2. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash (89 [56%]), increased alanine aminotransferase concentrations (74 [46%]), and increased aspartate aminotransferase concentrations (65 [41%]). INTERPRETATION: Ensartinib has activity and is well tolerated in patients with crizotinib-refractory, ALK-positive NSCLC, including those with brain metastases. The role of ensartinib in patients in whom other second-generation ALK inhibitors have been unsuccessful warrants further studies. FUNDING: Betta Pharmaceuticals.

6.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and optimization of glycemic control during pregnancy can help mitigate risks associated with diabetes. However, studies seldom focus precisely on maternal blood glucose level prior to pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate the associations between preconception blood fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level and subsequent pregnancy outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study among 6,447,339 women aged 20-49 years old who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project and completed pregnancy outcomes follow-up between 2010 and 2016 in China. During the preconception health examination, serum FPG concentration was measured, and self-reported history of DM was collected. Women were classified into three groups (normal FPG group: FPG < 5.6 mmol/L and no self-reported history of DM; impaired fasting glucose [IFG]: FPG 5.6-6.9 mmol/L and no self-reported history of DM; and DM: FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or self-reported history of DM). The primary outcomes were adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (PTB), macrosomia, small for gestational age infant (SGA), birth defect, and perinatal infant death. Logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for confounding variables. The mean age of women was 25.24 years, 91.47% were of Han nationality, and 92.85% were from rural areas. The incidence of DM and IFG was 1.18% (76,297) and 13.15% (847,737), respectively. Only 917 (1.20%) women reported a history of DM (awareness of their DM status), of whom 37.28% (337) had an elevated preconception FPG level (≥ 5.6 mmol/L), regarded as noncontrolled DM. A total of 1,005,568 (15.60%) women had adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with women with normal FPG, women with IFG had higher risks of spontaneous abortion (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.06-1.09; P < 0.001), PTB (1.02; 1.01-1.03; P < 0.001), macrosomia (1.07; 1.06-1.08; P < 0.001), SGA (1.06; 1.02-1.10; P = 0.007), and perinatal infant death (1.08; 1.03-1.12; P < 0.001); the corresponding ORs for women with DM were 1.11 (95% CI 1.07-1.15; P < 0.001), 1.17 (1.14-1.20; P < 0.001), 1.13 (1.09-1.16; P < 0.001), 1.17 (1.04-1.32; P = 0.008), and 1.59 (1.44-1.76; P < 0.001). Women with DM also had a higher risk of birth defect (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.15-1.91; P = 0.002). Among women without self-reported history of DM, there was a positive linear association between FPG levels and spontaneous abortion, PTB, macrosomia, SGA, and perinatal infant death (P for trend <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, 0.001, <0.001). Information about hypoglycemic medication before or during pregnancy was not collected, and we cannot adjust it in the analysis, which could result in underestimation of risks. Data on 2-hour plasma glucose level and HbA1c concentration were not available, and the glycemic control status was evaluated according to FPG value in women with DM. CONCLUSIONS: Women with preconception IFG or DM had higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, PTB, macrosomia, SGA, and perinatal infant death. Preconception glycemic control through appropriate methods is one of the most important aspects of preconception care and should not be ignored by policy makers.

7.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(2): 290-299, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537765

RESUMO

One of the most common strategies for sewer cleaning is to generate flushing flows using flushing gates to store water in the upstream sewer pipe. Therefore it is important to obtain the flow information on the flushing waves and their eroding effects. In this study, the flow characteristics of the flushing wave and the flushing effect were investigated by a transient flow calculation using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The values of bottom shear stress were obtained and the effect of several factors are discussed. The water depth and the slope were related to the release rate of the storage volume, while the flushing volume determined the flushing distance at long sewer distances. The initial downstream water level was found to dramatically reduce the flushing effect. Equations based on the storage depth were developed to estimate the flushing effect, and suggestions for the installation and operation of flushing gates are provided.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Movimentos da Água , Modelos Teóricos , Esgotos , Estresse Mecânico
8.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505740

RESUMO

Pien-Tze-Huang (PTH) is a famous and commonly used traditional Chinese medicine formula in China. It was first formulated by a royal physician of the Ming Dynasty (around 1555 AD). Recently, PTH has attracted attention worldwide due to its beneficial effects against various diseases, especially cancer. This paper systematically reviewed the up-to-date information on its chemical composition, pharmacology, and clinical application. A range of chemical compounds, mainly ginsenosides and bile acids, have been identified and quantified from PTH. Pharmacological studies indicated that PTH has beneficial effects against various cancers, hepatopathy, and ischemic stroke. Furthermore, PTH has been used clinically to treat various diseases in China, such as colorectal cancer, liver cancer, and hepatitis. In summary, PTH is a potential agent with extensive therapeutic effects for the treatment of various diseases. However, the lack of information on the side effects and toxicity of PTH is a non-negligible issue, which needs to be seriously studied in the future.

9.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(10): 152568, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383536

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the potential anti-tumor effect of ERß overexpression and investigate its related mechanism in osteosarcoma. Cell cycle and apoptosis rates were measured by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation and formation of autophagosome were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and dansylcadaverine (MDC) staining assay. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing assay and transwell assay. Western blot analysis was designed to detect the protein expressions of surviving, Bax, LC-3 П, Beclin-1, ERß, TßRⅠ, TßRⅡ, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7. Real-Time fluorogenic PCR was designed to examine the mRNA expressions of surviving, Bax, ERß, TßRⅠ, TßRII, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7. The results showed that ERß overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, blocked cell cycle, and induced apoptosis and autophagy. Additionally, ERß overexpression significantly inhibited the expression of surviving, TßRⅠ, TßRⅡ, Smad2 and Smad3. Meanwhile, the expressions of Bax, LC-3 П, Beclin-1 and Smad7 were dramatically upregulated by ERß overexpression. In conclusion, ERß overexpression could inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion, block cell cycle, and promote apoptosis and autophagy in OS by downregulating TNG-ß signaling pathway.

10.
Lung Cancer ; 136: 23-29, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Though the possibility of using malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) as alternatives for tumor tissues in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation test has been examined, the diagnosis of MPE is often clinically challenging, especially if the cytology is negative for malignancy. The aim of this study was to examine whether cytological-negative PE (CNPE) is useful in detecting EGFR mutation and evaluated its feasibility for predicting clinical outcomes. METHOD: In this study, we performed capture-based targeted sequencing using a panel consisting of 520 lung cancer-related genes to detect EGFR mutation status in 121 MPEs and 40 CNPE samples from 161 advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. Patients underwent TKI treatment with gefitinib, icotinib or erlotinib if EGFR sensitizing mutations were detected at their tumor biopsies or pleural effusion sediment. RESULTS: We revealed a mutation detection rate of 99.2% and 100% for MPE and CNPE, respectively (p = 1). The maximum allelic fraction (maxAF) of MPE and CNPE were 57.4% and 56.8%, respectively (p = 0.77). CNPE supernatant is comparable to MPE in reflecting the mutational profile of lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR activating mutations were detected in 47.5% (19/40) of CNPE supernatant sample and 32.5% (13/40) of matched tumor biopsies. CNPE sample is superior to tumor tissues in identifying EFGR mutation. Among the 72 EGFR-TKI treated patients, 51 were cytology positive and the remaining 21 were cytology negative. Our data showed that MPE patients exhibited comparable PFS (p = 0.41) and OS (p = 0.26) with CNPE patients treated with EGFR-TKI. Among the 21 CNPE patients received TKI treatment, patients harboring either L858R or exon 19 deletion had longer PFS than patients without a detectable mutation (p = 0.036). CONCLUSION: Collectively, we demonstrated that CNPE supernatant provided a comprehensive profile of NSCLC, and can serve as a reliable lipid biopsy media for EGFR mutational detection.

11.
Mar Drugs ; 17(7)2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261751

RESUMO

Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) has been an economically important fish in Asian countries. It can grow and reproduce in both freshwater and brackish water conditions, whereas it is also considered as a significant invasive species around the world. This species has been widely used as the hybridization parent(s) for tilapia breeding with a major aim to produce novel strains. However, available genomic resources are still limited for this important tilapia species. Here, we for the first time sequenced and assembled a draft genome for a seawater cultured blue tilapia (0.92 Gb), with 97.8% completeness and a scaffold N50 of 1.1 Mb, which suggests a relatively high quality of this genome assembly. We also predicted 23,117 protein-coding genes in the blue tilapia genome. Comparisons of predicted antimicrobial peptides between the blue tilapia and its close relative Nile tilapia proved that these immunological genes are highly similar with a genome-wide scattering distribution. As a valuable genetic resource, our blue tilapia genome assembly will benefit for biomedical researches and practical molecular breeding for high resistance to various diseases, which have been a critical problem in the aquaculture of tilapias.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 554-561, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229543

RESUMO

To modulate starch digestibility, dry heating combined with annealing treatment was employed to synergistically modulate structure and digestibility of normal maize starch (NMS) and potato starch (PS). Dry heating decreased starch molecular weight and created small molecular fractions with suitable chain length, resulting in starch better rearrangement during annealing treatment. Accordingly, after dry heating combined with annealing treatment starches had the highest pasting temperature, the thinnest and the thickest of crystalline lamellae for NMS and PS, respectively, and the highest ordered structures of cooked-starch compared with single dry heating or annealing modified starches. The results revealed that the synergistic modification altered starch lamellar thickness and increased double helices orders. Thereby, dry heating combined with annealing treated starches exhibited the lowest enzymatic digestibility with increased ca. 7.90% of slowly digestible starch for NMS or elevated ca. 5.04% of resistant starch for PS. The differential changes caused by dry heating combined with annealing treatment between NMS and PS were comprehensively discussed and the difference should result from the different starch crystalline structure and average chain length. This study provides a promising pathway for modulating starch structures and enzymatic digestibility.

13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(5): 470.e1-470.e10, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of abnormal blood pressure levels (including hypertension and prehypertension) with reduced fecundability among young childbearing-age couples is not yet elucidated completely. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between abnormal preconception blood pressure level and time to pregnancy among couples who are attempting to conceive their first pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 2,234,350 eligible couples (with no previous gravidity and whose female partners were 20-49 years old) participated in the National Free Preconception Check-up Projects from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. Each couples' preconception blood pressure levels were measured, and time to pregnancy was recorded. Cox models for discrete survival time were used to estimate fecundability odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals after adjustment for age, ethnicity, educational level, occupation, household registration, region, tobacco exposure, alcohol intake, body mass index, duration of marriage of the couples, and fasting plasma glucose levels of the female partner. RESULTS: Compared with normotensive women, those women with hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg) had a 21% lower pregnancy rate (fecundability odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.81). A similar finding was found among men (fecundability odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.90). Prehypertension (systolic blood pressure between 120 and 139 mm Hg, and/or a diastolic blood pressure between 80 and 89 mm Hg) in both male and female partners was associated slightly with reduced fecundability odds ratios. Compared with couples in which both partners were normotensive, the pregnancy rate was reduced by 27% (fecundability odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.77) among couples in which both partners had hypertension. CONCLUSION: Abnormal preconception blood pressure levels were associated with prolonged time to pregnancy among couples who were attempting to conceive their first pregnancy; the mechanism is worth further investigation.

14.
Hum Reprod ; 34(7): 1325-1333, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216361

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between pre-pregnancy maternal glucose levels and fecundability in Chinese couples? SUMMARY ANSWER: Elevated pre-pregnancy maternal glucose levels were associated with fecundability, as reflected by prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP) among the couples with no prior gravidity. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Based on the National Free Pre-conception Check-up Projects supported by the Chinese government, 2 226 048 eligible couples attempting first pregnancy and participating in the project from 2015 to 2016 were included. They were followed-up for 1 year or until they reported pregnancy. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative pregnancy rate in each menstrual cycle, and the discrete-time analogue of the Cox models was used to estimate the fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% CIs by different pre-pregnancy maternal glucose levels (impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or diabetes as compared to normal). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The cumulative pregnancy rate for 12 cycles of the normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level group was 42.29%, significantly higher than that of the IFG (35.52%) and diabetes groups (31.52%). After adjusting for confounding factors, the FORs were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.81-0.83) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.72-0.76) for the IFG and diabetes groups, respectively, as compared to the normal group. The association between pre-pregnancy maternal FPG levels and the FORs was non-linear, and the optimal FPG level for greatest fecundability (shortest TTP) was 3.90-4.89 mmol/L. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The findings from this register-based cohort study require cautious interpretation given that information bias would be inevitable for single FPG measurements and for TTP calculations that were based on telephone follow-up information. Additionally, because couples who achieved pregnancy during their first menstrual cycle in the study were excluded, the pregnancy rates reported were low and possibly biased. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The current report suggests that elevated pre-pregnancy maternal glucose levels were associated with prolonged TTP. Early evaluation and preventive treatment for female partners with IFG or diabetes in a pre-pregnancy examination are necessary. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Funding was provided by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grants No. 2016YFC1000300 and 2016YFC1000307), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant No. 81872634), the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (grant No. 2018-I2M-1-004), the National Human Genetic Resources Sharing Service Platform (grant No. 2005DKA21300) and the National Population and Reproductive Health Science Data Center (grant No. 2005DKA32408), People's Republic of China. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

15.
Exp Neurol ; 320: 112966, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145898

RESUMO

Manipulation of developmentally regulated genes presents a promising strategy to enhance the intrinsic growth capability of adult neurons. Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), a negative regulator of bHLH transcriptional factors, promotes axonal growth after its forced expression in post-mitotic neurons. Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) is a neural specific bHLH factor which controls neuronal fate and drives neuronal differentiation during development. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Id2 in promoting axonal growth and revealed that Ngn2 contributed to the growth-activating role of Id2 in neurons. Ngn2 expression was upregulated with increased Id2 activity by assessing RNA and protein levels. Forced expression of Id2 or Ngn2 in cortical neurons significantly promoted axonal growth with little effect on dendrites. Furthermore, knockdown of Ngn2 impaired the axonal growth promoting effect of Id2, implying that the effect of Id2 on axonal growth depends on Ngn2. These findings suggest that elevation of neuronal Ngn2 may be a new therapeutic strategy to stimulate axonal regeneration.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1362-1369, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096346

RESUMO

A recent increase in urban floods has necessitated more effective assessment of urban flood risks to quantify the failure probability of urban drainage systems. However, the random hyetographs of storm events influences the results of flood risk assessment using existing methods. In this study, an alternative and more effective method is developed. After extracting characteristic parameters from hyetographs, the correlation between storm events characteristic and urban flood is analyzed according to the hydraulic model simulation results. Based on it, the storm characteristic parameters sensitive to catchment-specific drainage system response and its threshold to urban flood can be determined. And then, the storm events probability can be described with joint probability distribution of the sensitive parameters through using the Frank Copula. Therefore, flood risks for specific urban catchment can then be assessed by calculating the frequency of occurrence of all the storm events for which sensitive parameter exceed the threshold. This methods was successfully applied for the Chengzhong drainage system in Jiaxing, China. For the catchment-specific system it was found that the most important storm event characteristics are the mean rainfall intensity (I) and the peak 30-min intensity (30-Rp). Thus, the bivariate joint probability distribution of I and 30-Rp was estimated and based on that the risks that the catchment may be flooded every year can be assessed by calculating the probabilities of occurrence of flood-causing storm events per year. The proposed method is applicable for urban areas with different catchment conditions and drainage facilities, and it can provide alternative efficient means for urban flood risk assessment.

17.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 28, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) regimen is the standard first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), however, the optimal second-line regimen for KRAS wild-type mCRC patients is still investigational. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of CMAB009 plus irinotecan compared to irinotecan-only as a second-line regimen for treating KRAS wild-type mCRC patients. METHODS: Patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC who had previously failed to respond to FOLFOX treatment were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio, to receive CMAB009 plus irinotecan or irinotecan-only. Patients receiving irinotecan-only were permitted to switch to CMAB009 therapy on disease progression and were grouped as the sequential-CMAB009 arm. The primary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR) and median progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints were median overall survival (OS), disease control rate (DCR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and duration of response (DOR). RESULTS: The CMAB009 plus irinotecan arm demonstrated significantly improved ORR (33.2% vs. 12.8%; P < 0.001) and longer median PFS (169 days vs. 95 days; P < 0.001) as compared to the irinotecan-only arm. Patients receiving CMAB009 plus irinotecan also demonstrated improved DCR (80.1% vs. 65.2%, P < 0.001), CBR (30.0% vs. 14.6%, P < 0.001), and DOR (210 days vs. 109 days; P < 0.001) as compared to irinotecan-only. However, patients treated with CMAB009 had an increased risk of skin rash (66.9% vs. 5.5%, P < 0.001) and paronychia (9.8% vs. 0.0%, P < 0.001). Anti-drug antibodies (ADA) were detected in 3.6% of patients, and only 0.9% of patients who received CMAB009 experienced hypersensitivity reactions. In patients receiving sequential-CMAB009 therapy after failure with irinotecan, their median PFS was 84 days (95% CI 65 to 113 days). The median OS was 425 days for patients receiving CMAB009 plus irinotecan and 401 days for those with sequential-CMAB009 (P = 0.940). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with CMAB009 plus irinotecan was found to be a superior second-line regimen in comparison to irinotecan-only in KRAS wild-type mCRC patients. Further, switching to CMAB009 can be considered as an efficient third-line of treatment after treatment failure with second-line irinotecan-only. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01550055, retrospectively registered on March 9, 2012.

18.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(1): 1-8, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the difference of meat intake caused by demographic and economic factors among adults in 15 provinces(autonomous regions and municipalities) in China. METHODS: A total of 10 367 adults aged 18-59 years old who have complete meals and relevant data of Nutritional Status and Health Transition of Chinese Residents in 2015 were selected as object of study. Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling was adopted, and the neighborhood committees of county and urban, villages, and suburban villages were taken as the basic investigation points. 20 households were randomly selected from each investigation point, and all family members in the households were taken as the investigation objects. The 3-consecutive day-24-hour dietary recall was used to the dietary survey. Adults who consumed livestock or poultry on any of the three days in the survey were seen as corresponding meat consumers. The consumption rate and average daily intake of class(total population and consumer) were calculated by using the three days of meat food intake. Evaluate all kinds of meat intake accounted for the proportion of total meat intake and analyze the difference of meat consumption on different characteristics(gender, age, income, education level, urban and rural, regional). RESULTS: In 2015, the total consumption rate of adult meat in 15 provinces of China was 86. 0%, and that of livestock and poultry was 83. 6% and 30. 0%, respectively. The average intake of adult meat was 94. 0 g/d, with the average intake of livestock meat and poultry being 77. 4 g/d and 16. 7 g/d, respectively. Consumer of meat, livestock and poultry intake was 109. 8 g/d, 92. 5 g/d and 55. 6 g/d, respectively. Pork accounts for 73. 9% of total meat intake and 86. 3% of livestock intake. Compared with the recommended dietary guidelines, 49. 9% and 32. 2% of adults consumed more or less than the recommended amounts. The meat intake and consumption rate and the proportion more then recommended amount in western regions, high income and high education level was higher than another group. (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: In 2015, the consumption pattern of adult meat in 15 provinces(autonomous regions and municipality) of China is not very reasonable, the excessive consumption is relatively serious, and the proportion of pork intake is high.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Carne , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , China , Cidades , Dieta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(1): 49-55, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of nutritional intervention for Kazak's pregnant women, lactating women and infants in farming and stockbreeding region of Jeminay County, Altay City. METHODS: 24 h record method was conducted to implement dietary survey, and results were used to analyze dietary structure and nutrient intake level of pregnant women, lactating women and infants. Pregnant women, lactating women and infants over 6 months were intervened with iron fortified soy sauce nutrients supplement and Yingyangbao(YYB) for 2. 4 years. Hemoglobin was detected for pregnant women, lactating women and infants by using HemoCue analyzer. RESULTS: The nutrient intakes of the pregnant women, lactating women and infants were averagely lower than that of the recommended levels. In these infants who received breast feeding, the least acceptability diet quality rate was 42. 1%, and in other infants who didn't receive breast feeding, the rate was 25%. After intervention, anemia prevalence of pregnant women, lactating women and infants were significantly reduced compared with the base line levels at 2 survey time points(2014:pregnant women χ~2=26. 27, lactating women χ~2=18. 06, infants χ~2=44. 46, 2015:pregnant women χ~2=35. 62, lactating women χ~2=25. 05, infants χ~2=39. 61;all P<0. 001). CONCLUSION: The nutrition intervention of whole covering could improve nutrition status of Kazak's pregnant women, lactating women and infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Lactação , Estado Nutricional , Agricultura , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cazaquistão , Gravidez
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16588-16595, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989597

RESUMO

Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been applied to remediate heavy metal pollution effectively in practice. However, the heavy metal release from CWs has not been paid enough attention. In this study, a 5-month experiment was carried out with three parallel lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) with zeolites as fillers. The artificial rainwater was pumped into VFCWs to study the release characteristic and mechanisms of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, and Pb). The results showed that significant amounts of Zn and Cu were released from the VFCWs at the end of the experiment while Pb and Cr rarely escaped. The upper layer (0-30 cm) of the VFCWs was the most effective area for heavy metal removal due to the presence of sediments, but it was also the most active area for heavy metal release. To explain this result, the sediments were analyzed before and after being leached by the tap water. The results indicated that Zn and Cu existed mainly in the exchangeable state, and they had strong leachability and bioavailability, causing its releases. Also, competitive adsorption of different metals meant that the metal ions with strong adsorption to zeolite caused the metal ions with weak adsorption to be desorbed from zeolites, and thus, a large amount of Zn escaped from VFCWs. The escape of heavy metals from CWs illustrated that it should be paid more attention in the management.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Chuva/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
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