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1.
JAMA ; 326(10): 916-925, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519801

RESUMO

Importance: Standard first-line therapy for advanced or metastatic esophageal carcinoma is chemotherapy, but the prognosis remains poor. Camrelizumab (an anti-programmed death receptor 1 [PD-1] antibody) showed antitumor activity in previously treated advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of camrelizumab plus chemotherapy vs placebo plus chemotherapy as a first-line treatment in advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase 3 trial (ESCORT-1st study) enrolled patients from 60 hospitals in China between December 3, 2018, and May 12, 2020 (final follow-up, October 30, 2020). A total of 751 patients were screened and 596 eligible patients with untreated advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were randomized. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either camrelizumab 200 mg (n = 298) or placebo (n = 298), combined with up to 6 cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2). All treatments were given intravenously every 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Coprimary end points were overall survival (significance threshold, 1-sided P < .02) and progression-free survival (significance threshold, 1-sided P < .005). Results: Of the 596 patients randomized (median age, 62 years [interquartile range, 56-67 years]; 523 men [87.8%]), 1 patient in the placebo-chemotherapy group did not receive planned treatment. A total of 490 patients (82.2%) had discontinued the study treatment. The median follow-up was 10.8 months. The overall survival for the camrelizumab-chemotherapy group was a median of 15.3 months (95% CI, 12.8-17.3; 135 deaths) vs a median of 12.0 months (95% CI, 11.0-13.3; 174 deaths) for the placebo-chemotherapy group (hazard ratio [HR] for death, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.56-0.88]; 1-sided P = .001). Progression-free survival for camrelizumab plus chemotherapy was a median of 6.9 months (95% CI, 5.8-7.4; 199 progression or deaths) vs 5.6 months (95% CI, 5.5-5.7; 229 progression or deaths) for the placebo-chemotherapy group (HR for progression or death, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.46-0.68]; 1-sided P < .001). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 189 patients (63.4%) in the camrelizumab-chemotherapy group and 201 (67.7%) in the placebo-chemotherapy group, including treatment-related deaths among 9 patients (3.0%) and 11 patients (3.7%), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the addition of camrelizumab to chemotherapy, compared with placebo and chemotherapy, significantly improved overall survival and progression-free survival. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03691090.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/secundário , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Placebos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Plant J ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580960

RESUMO

Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the result of selective expression of ripening-related genes, which are regulated by transcription factors (TFs). The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) TFs family is one of the largest families of plant-specific TFs and members are involved in a variety of plant physiological activities including fruit ripening. Fruit ripening-associated NAC TFs studied in tomato to date include NAC-NOR (non-ripening), SlNOR-like1 (non-ripening like1), SlNAC1, and SlNAC4. Considering the large number of NAC genes in the tomato genome, there is little information about the possible roles of other NAC members in fruit ripening, and research on their target genes is lacking. In this study, we characterize SlNAM1, a NAC TF, which positively regulates the initiation of tomato fruit ripening via its regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. The onset of fruit ripening in slnam1-deficient mutants created by CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology was delayed, whereas fruit ripening in OE-SlNAM1 lines was accelerated compared with the wild type (WT). The results of RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and promoter analysis suggested that SlNAM1 directly binds to the promoters of two key ethylene biosynthesis genes (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase: SlACS2 and SlACS4) and activates their expression. This hypothesis was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and dual-luciferase reporter assay (DLR). Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of ethylene production and enrich understanding of the tomato fruit ripening regulatory network.

3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525229

RESUMO

Subtropical forests are important ecosystems globally due to their extensive role in carbon sequestration. Extreme climate events are known to introduce disturbances in the ecosystem that cause long-term changes in carbon balance and radiation reflectance. However, how these ecosystem function changes contribute to global warming in terms of radiative forcing (RF), especially in the years following a disturbance, still needs to be investigated. We studied an extreme snow event that occurred in a subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in south-western China in 2015 and used 9 years (2011-2019) of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and surface albedo (α) data to investigate the effect of the event on the ecosystem RF changes. In the year of the disturbance, leaf area index (LAI) declined by 40% and α by 32%. The annual NEE was -718 ±â€…128 g C m-2 as a sink in the pre-disturbance years (2011-2014), but after the event, the sink strength dropped significantly by 76% (2015). Both the vegetation, indicated by LAI, and α recovered to pre-disturbance levels in the fourth post-disturbance year (2018). However, the NEE recovery lagged and occurred a year later in 2019, suggesting a more severe and lasting impact on the ecosystem carbon balance. Overall, the extreme event caused a positive (warming effect) net RF which was predominantly caused by changes in α (90%-93%) rather than those in NEE. This result suggests that, compared to the climate effect caused by forest carbon sequestration changes, the climate effect of α alterations can be more sensitive to vegetation damage induced by natural disturbances. Moreover, this study demonstrates the important role of vegetation recovery in driving canopy reflectance and ecosystem carbon balance during the post-disturbance period, which determines the ecosystem feedbacks to the climate change.

4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 631411, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513776

RESUMO

Background: Cytomegalovirus seroconversion during pregnancy is common and has a substantial risk of congenital infection with longterm sequale. Screening during pregnancy or vaccination have not been shown to be effective for eliminating congenital infections. Preconception screening policy has not been evaluated adequately in a large scale. This nationwide study aimed to investigate epidemiological features of cytomegalovirus seropositivity and its geographic variation among Chinese women planning a pregnancy to gather epidemiological evidence as an essential for developing novel prevention strategies. Method: This cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey enrolled women intending to become pregnant within 6 months in mainland China during 2010-2012. The primary outcomes in this study were cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G and M seropositivity. Secondary outcomes were the associations between Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M, with socio-demographic characteristics, including age, occupation, education level, place of residence, and ethnicity. The overall seropositivity and regional disparity was analyzed on the individual and regional level, respectively. Results: This study included data from 1,564,649 women from 31 provinces in mainland China. Among participants, 38.6% (n = 603,511) were cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G+, 0.4% (n = 6,747) were immunoglobulin M+, and 0.2% (n = 2,879) were immunoglobulin M+ and immunoglobulin G+. On individual level, participant's age, ethnicity, and residing region were significantly associated with IgG+, IgM+, and IgM+IgG+ (P < 0.001), while occupation, education level, and place of residence were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). On regional level, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M seropositivity was highest in the eastern region (49.5 and 0.5%, respectively), and lowest in the western region (26.9 and 0.4%, respectively). This geographic variation was also noted at the provincial level, characterized by higher provincial immunoglobulin M+ and immunoglobulin G+ rates associated with higher immunoglobulin G seropositivity. In the subgroup analysis of immunoglobulin G seropositivity, areas of higher immunoglobulin G positivity had a higher rate of immunoglobulin M+, indicating an expected increased risk of reinfection and primary infection. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of women (>60%) were susceptible to cytomegalovirus in preconception period in China, and immunoglobulin G seropositivity was seen at a low-medium level with substantial geographic variation. Integration of cytomegalovirus antibody testing in preconception screening program based on regional immunoglobulin G seropositivity, should be considered to promote strategies directed toward preventing sero-conversion during pregnancy to reduce the risk of this congenital infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7841-7846, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutropenia is the most common adverse reaction seen in small cell lung cancer after chemotherapy. Febrile neutropenia (FN) leads to an increase in hospitalizations and may even be life-threatening. This paper aims to investigate the efficacy and adverse reactions of mecapegfilgrastim in the primary prophylaxis of neutropenia in patients with small cell lung cancer after receiving intermediate risk chemotherapy with at least one patient risk factor. METHODS: The clinical records of 106 patients with small cell lung cancer admitted to Zhejiang Cancer Hospital from June 2019 to January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into a mecapegfilgrastim [pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF)] group and control group, each with 53 patients. The mecapegfilgrastim group received subcutaneous injection of mecapegfilgrastim 24 hours after the first cycle of chemotherapy, while the control group did not receive this. The Chi-square (χ2) test or Fisher exact test were used to compare the incidence of neutropenia, FN, and the proportion of patients administrated with full dose chemotherapy in the two groups after the first cycle of chemotherapy. Data on adverse events after mecapegfilgrastim were also collected. RESULTS: After the first cycle of chemotherapy, the incidence of neutropenia in the mecapegfilgrastim group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P=0.001) and the incidence of FN in the mecapegfilgrastim group was lower than that in the control group (P=0.118). The proportion of patients administrated with full-dose chemotherapy in the mecapegfilgrastim group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P=0.001). The main adverse reactions to mecapegfilgrastim were muscle pain, fever, and fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: After receiving intermediate risk chemotherapy, the incidence of neutropenia was significantly reduced by the primary prophylaxis of mecapegfilgrastim in patients with small cell lung cancer. The adverse events of mecapegfilgrastim were mild and tolerable, and included muscle pain, fever, and fatigue.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neutropenia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/prevenção & controle , Polietilenoglicóis , Proteínas Recombinantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356634

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, plays a critical role in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Due to its pleiotropic function, it has been widely investigated in various types of cancers and is strongly associated with cancer development. Mounting pieces of evidence show that NO regulates various cancer-related events, which mainly depends on phosphorylating the key proteins in several signaling pathways. However, phosphorylation of proteins modulated by NO signaling pathway may lead to different effects in different types of cancer, which is complex and remains unclear. Therefore, in this review, we focus on the effect of protein phosphorylation modulated by NO signaling pathway in different types of cancers including breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, and neuroblastoma. Phosphorylation of key proteins, including p38 MAPK, ERK, PI3K, STAT3, and p53, modified by NO in various signaling pathways affects different cancer-related processes including cell apoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and several cancer therapies. Our review links the NO signaling pathway to protein phosphorylation in cancer development and provides new insight into potential targets and cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Fosforilação
7.
J Med Food ; 24(9): 987-996, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448624

RESUMO

Small-molecular-weight collagen peptides (CPs) with high zinc-chelating ability were extracted from pufferfish skin. Chelation of CPs with zinc was performed to prepare novel CP-chelated zinc (CP-Zn) nanoparticles. CP-Zn nanoparticles were spherical, regular, and well dispersed with an average size of ∼100 nm. The zeta potential assay was used to explore the stability of CP-Zn nanoparticles. CP-Zn nanoparticles were much more stable in the pH range of 3-8. The structural properties of CP-Zn nanoparticles were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicated that CPs were chelated with Zn ions through the amino nitrogen and oxygen atoms from the carboxyl groups. Furthermore, the animal experiment results showed that CP-Zn nanoparticles were more effective in improving zinc bioavailability of Zn-deficient rats than zinc gluconate and zinc sulfate. The study demonstrated that CP-Zn nanoparticles were ideal for zinc supplementation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Tetraodontiformes , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colágeno , Peptídeos , Ratos , Zinco
8.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 6309-6317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408492

RESUMO

Background: Brain metastasis (BM) is an important factor shortening the lives of patients with lung cancer. Patients with cystic BM have seldom been reported. Here, we compared the efficacy and prognosis of different therapeutic schedules for solid BM and cystic BM in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 355 patients with pathologically confirmed stage IV NSCLC, all of whom had BM. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of these patients and the efficacy of targeted drugs and chemotherapy regimens. Results: A total of 255 patients with solid BM (cohort 1) and 33 patients with cystic BM (cohort 2) had evaluable efficacy. We evaluated these 33 patients in cohort 2. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.4 months and 23.0 months, respectively. A significant difference was observed between targeted regimens and chemotherapy treatment in terms of the PFS (12.6 months vs 6.3 months, P = 0.001) and OS (47.9 months vs 17.0 months, P = 0.007). Multivariate analyses showed that treatment regimen (chemotherapy) was a poor prognostic factor for PFS (P < 0.05). Cystic BM may be more likely to occur in patients with NSCLC with genetic mutations. A difference in prognosis was observed between patients who underwent targeted treatment and chemotherapy. A significant difference in intracranial PFS was observed between cohorts (cohort 1 vs cohort 2: 15.4 months vs 9.9 months, P = 0.015), and this advantage was clear in patients who did not receive targeted therapies (11.7 months vs 6.5 months, P = 0.003). However, the OS in patients with targeted therapies in cohort 2 was significantly longer than that in cohort 1 (23.4 months vs 47.9 months, P = 0.013). Conclusion: Patients with NSCLC, particularly those who develop cystic BM, should be genetically tested as much as possible to find out more suitable drug therapies.

10.
BJOG ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the vaginal microenvironment and fecundability among women. DESIGN: Register-based nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Chinese National Free Pre-conception Check-up Project from 2015 to 2018. POPULATION: Our study included a total of 3 388 554 eligible women who were attempting to become pregnant. METHOD: We assessed the vaginal microenvironment at baseline by considering four indices: vaginal pH, clue cell examination, whiff test and vaginal cleanliness grading. If any of these indicators was abnormal, the vaginal microenvironment was defined as poor. Propensity score matching was used to control for potential confounders and reduce bias. Logistic models were used to estimate the fecundability odds ratios (FORs) after adjustment for covariates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Achievement of a pregnancy within 1 year. RESULTS: Of the total study population, 379 718 women (11.2%) had a poor vaginal microenvironment and their pregnancy rate after 1 year was significantly lower than the group with a normal microenvironment (71.8% versus 76.1%, P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, the women with a poor vaginal microenvironment were associated with a 9% reduction in fecundability compared with the normal microenvironment group (FOR 0.91, 95% CI 0.90-0.92). The adverse effects of a poor vaginal microenvironment were stronger among multipara (FOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.87-0.90) or women with irregular menstruation (FOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84-0.89). CONCLUSION: There was a negative association between a poor vaginal microenvironment and the fecundability of women. These findings highlight the significance of assessing the vaginal microenvironment during pre-pregnancy health examinations. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Women with a poor vaginal microenvironment were associated with a reduction in fecundability.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13415, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183740

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is likely to be associated with increased circulating branched-chain amino acids. We investigated the relationship between changes in branched-chain amino acids levels in the serum and improvement in liver fat content caused by exercise intervention in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The exploratory study included 208 central obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease individuals from an exercise intervention randomized clinical trial for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The participants were randomly assigned to control, moderate, and vigorous-moderate exercise groups for 12 months. Changes in total branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine levels from baseline to 6 months were calculated. Liver fat content was determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reductions in circulating levels of total branched-chain amino acids, leucine, and valine levels from baseline to 6 months were significantly associated with the improvement of liver fat content at 6 months and 12 months (p < 0.01 for all) after adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, protein intake, intervention groups, HOMA-IR, BMI, liver fat content, total branched-chain amino acids, leucine, and valine at baseline, respectively. These associations were still significant after further adjustments for changes in HOMA-IR and BMI from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.05 for all). Our findings indicated that reductions in circulating branched-chain amino acids levels were associated with an improvement in liver fat content by exercise intervention among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which was independent of changes in BMI or HOMA-IR.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071930

RESUMO

APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and stress response. Although AP2/ERF genes have been extensively investigated in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, little is known about their role in biotic stress response in perennial fruit tree crops such as apple (Malus × domestica). Here, we investigated the role of MdERF100 in powdery mildew resistance in apple. MdERF100 localized to the nucleus but showed no transcriptional activation activity. The heterologous expression of MdERF100 in Arabidopsis not only enhanced powdery mildew resistance but also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death. Furthermore, MdERF100-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited differential expressions of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling when infected with the powdery mildew pathogen. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that MdERF100 physically interacts with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein MdbHLH92. These results suggest that MdERF100 mediates powdery mildew resistance by regulating the JA and SA signaling pathways, and MdbHLH92 is involved in plant defense against powdery mildew. Overall, this study enhances our understanding of the role of MdERF genes in disease resistance, and provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in apple.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Expressão Gênica , Malus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Environ Res ; 200: 111399, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence is known about whether long-term exposures to air borne particulate matters of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) impact human hematologic index for women preparing for pregnancy. No study assessed the effect of PM1, which is small enough to reach the blood circulation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether exposure to PM1 and PM2.5 is associated with blood cell count of woman preparing for pregnancy. METHOD: Based on the baseline data of a national birth cohort in China, we analysed the white blood cell (WBC), red blood cells (RBC) and thrombocyte counts of 1,203,565 women who are aged 18-45 years, being Han ethnicity, had no chronic disease and preparing for pregnancy. We matched their home addresses and examination date with daily concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 which were estimated by a machine learning method with remote sensing, meteorological and land use information. Generalized additive mixed model to examine the associations between exposure to one-year average exposure to PMs prior to the health examination and the blood cells counts, after adjustment for potential individual variables. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 PM1 increment was associated with -1.49% (95%CI: 1.56%, -1.42%) difference in WBC count; with 0.33% (95%CI: 0.30%, 0.36%) difference of RBC count; and with 1.08% (95%CI: 1.01%, 1.15%) difference of thrombocyte count. For PM2.5, the corresponding difference was -0.47% (95%CI: 0.54%, -0.39%) for WBC; was 0.06% (95%CI: 0.03%, 0.09%) for RBC; and was 1.10% (95%CI: 1.02%, 1.18%) for thrombocyte. Women working as workers, being overweight and with tobacco smoking exposure had higher associations between PMs and hematologic index than their counterparts (p < 0.05 for interaction test). CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PMs were associated with decrement in WBC, as well as increment in RBC and thrombocytes among Han Chinese women preparing for pregnancy. Measures such as using air purifiers and wearing a mask in polluted areas should be improved to prevent women from the impact of PMs.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 731-738, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175339

RESUMO

The functionalities of gluten-free rice noodles are significantly affected by starch hierarchical structures. Identifying the structures that synergistically determine noodle integrated functionalities is vital to designing health-promoting starchy foods with desirable consumer sensory and nutritional qualities. This study reports on the changes in starch structures and functionalities (starch digestibility, texture, and flavor) of rice noodles during household cooking processes (steaming, boiling, and stir-frying), and describes an underlying structure-functionality relationship. Results show that all the cooking processes examined increased starch reassembled ordered structures, especially short-range ordered structures, helical and crystalline structures, and ordered aggregate structures. Steaming and boiling led to a decrease in rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and an increase in slowly digestible starch, while stir-frying yielded a reduction in RDS content and an increase in resistant starch in rice noodles. Steaming and boiling decreased while stir-frying increased the flavor variety of noodles. All cooking processes examined altered noodle textures, with a significant increase in hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Structure-functionality relationships suggested short-range ordered structures, crystalline structures, and the ordered molecular and aggregate structures of noodles synergistically determined starch digestion, texture, and flavor. By structuring such key structures, the digestion, texture, and flavor of rice noodles can thus be reasonably controlled.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Oryza/química , Amido/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cristalografia por Raios X , Manipulação de Alimentos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of preconception alcohol consumption on risk of miscarriage incidence, and further evaluate the association between maternal periconception drinking abstinence and miscarriage. METHODS: We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study in China between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2016. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in standard questionnaires. Participants who became pregnant were recontacted for pregnancy outcome information within 1 year. A total 4 531 680 women with available data on preconception alcohol intake and miscarriage were included in the final analyses. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: The prevalence of miscarriage was 2.70% among 4 531 680 women. Compared with non-drinkers, the adjusted OR of miscarriage was 1.06 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.10) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.20) in maternal occasional drinkers and regular drinkers, respectively. Compared with couples in which neither the male nor the female consumed alcohol, the adjusted OR for miscarriage among women was 1.09 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.10), 1.13 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.21) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.17) in the couples in which only the female drank alcohol, only the male drank alcohol, and both drank alcohol, respectively. The adjusted OR was 0.58 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.65) in women with alcohol abstinence compared with alcohol drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Preconception alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of miscarriage, and an increasing risk was found with paternal and maternal alcohol drinking. Periconception alcohol abstinence was inversely associated with miscarriage.

16.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110323, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053528

RESUMO

Health Tonic oral liquid (HT) is a popular functional food in China and is used to enhance host immune response. However, its mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. In this work, we combined ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) serum metabolomics with 16S rDNA sequencing to evaluate the effects of HT on metabolomics profiling and microbial community signatures. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) contents in fecal were quantified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicated that HT use leads to a significant increase in IgG, IgM and IgA. Thirty-four metabolites were identified and quantified using metabolomics, most were aromatic amino acids and metabolites involved in glucose metabolism. HT intervention significantly increased the abundance of Alloprevotella, which may contribute to intestinal barrier integrity and inflammatory response inhabitation. Most SCFAs were highly expressed following HT intake. In summary, HT use maintains glucose and lipid metabolism balance, promotes high expressions of beneficial bacteria, and exerts promising immunomodulatory effects.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , China , DNA Ribossômico , Fezes , Metabolômica
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e215723, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847747

RESUMO

Importance: Maternal thyrotropin levels during gestation have a profound effect on pregnancy outcomes; however, few studies to date have evaluated the importance of preconception thyrotropin levels. Objective: To investigate the associations between preconception thyrotropin levels and pregnancy outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study enrolled Chinese women aged 20 to 49 years from the National Free Prepregnancy Checkups Project in China. Participants conceived within 6 months after the thyrotropin examination and completed follow-up for pregnancy outcomes between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2017. Data were analyzed between May 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020. Exposures: Levels of thyrotropin within 6 months before pregnancy, measured as less than 0.10 mIU/L, 0.10 to 0.36 mIU/L, 0.37 to 2.49 mIU/L, 2.50 to 4.87 mIU/L, 4.88 to 9.99 mIU/L, and 10.00 mIU/L or greater. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association of maternal preconception thyrotropin levels with the 4 primary adverse pregnancy outcomes was assessed, including preterm birth (PTB), small for gestational age (SGA), birth defect, and perinatal infant death. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between preconception maternal thyrotropin levels and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The dose-response associations were assessed using restricted cubic spline regression. Results: This study enrolled 5 840 894 women (mean [SD] age, 26.30 [4.10] years) in the primary analysis. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) thyrotropin level was 1.60 (1.06-2.37) mIU/L. The cumulative incidences for the adverse pregnancy outcomes were as follows: PTB, 6.56%; SGA, 7.21%; birth defect, 0.02%; and perinatal infant death, 0.33%. Compared with the reference group (thyrotropin range, 0.37-2.49 mIU/L), both low (<0.10 mIU/L and 0.10-0.36 mIU/L) and high (4.88-9.99 mIU/L and ≥10.00 mIU/L) maternal preconception thyrotropin levels were associated with higher risk of PTB (low: odds ratio [OR], 1.23 [95% CI, 1.19-1.27] and OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.13-1.18] vs high: OR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.10-1.15] and OR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.08-1.20]), SGA (low: OR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.33-1.40] and OR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.12-1.17] vs high: OR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.03-1.08] and OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.11-1.23]), and perinatal infant death (low: OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.10-1.43] and OR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.05-1.24] vs high: OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.20-1.43] and OR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.21-1.80]). J-shaped associations between preconception thyrotropin levels and PTB (χ2 = 1033.45; nonlinear P < .001), SGA (χ2 = 568.90; nonlinear P < .001), and perinatal infant death (χ2 = 38.91; nonlinear P < .001) were identified. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, both low and high maternal thyrotropin levels were associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results suggest that the optimal preconception thyrotropin levels may be between 0.37 mIU/L and 2.50 mIU/L to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814016

RESUMO

Anaemia is a global public health problem affecting women worldwide, and reproductive-age women are at increased risk. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study analysing the prevalence of overall anaemia and anaemia according to severity in Chinese pre-pregnant women to update current knowledge on anaemia epidemiology. Based on the National Free Preconception Check-up Projects supported by the Chinese government, 5 679 782 women participating in this project in 2017 were included in the present study. The cyanmethemoglobin method was applied to assess Hb concentrations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied for associated factors. The prevalence of anaemia among Chinese pre-pregnant women was 21·64 % (mild: 14·10 %, moderate: 7·17 % and severe : 0·37 %). The prevalence of overall and severe anaemia was the highest in Tibet and the lowest in Beijing among thirty-one provinces. Women's age, region, ethnic origin, educational level, occupation and pregnancy history were all correlated with anaemia. Women with B blood type (adjusted OR (aOR) = 0·89), higher BMI (overweight: aOR = 0·84; obesity: aOR = 0·70) and alcohol consumption (aOR = 0·69) were less likely to have anaemia, while those with rhesus negative blood type (aOR = 1·10), history of anaemia (aOR = 2·60), older age at menarche (aOR = 1·19), heavy menstrual blood loss (aOR = 1·39), longer menstrual period (aOR = 1·09) and shorter menstrual cycle (aOR = 1·08) were more likely to suffer from anaemia. Meat or egg eaters were not significantly associated with severe anaemia. Anaemia is of moderate public health significance among Chinese pre-pregnant women. Interventions should be considered to prevent anaemia to the greatest extent possible to avoid potential harm in this population.

19.
Front Chem ; 9: 639023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816438

RESUMO

Strain-reduced micro-LEDs in 50 µm × 50 µm, 100 µm × 100 µm, 200 µm × 200 µm, 500 µm × 500 µm, and 1,000 µm × 1,000 µm sizes were grown on a patterned c-plane sapphire substrate using partitioned growth with the metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The size effect on the optical properties and the indium concentration for the quantum wells were studied experimentally. Here, we revealed that the optical properties can be improved by decreasing the chip size (from 1,000 to 100 µm), which can correspondingly reduce the in-plane compressive stress. However, when the chip size is further reduced to 50 µm × 50 µm, the benefit of strain release is overridden by additional defects induced by the higher indium incorporation in the quantum wells and the efficiency of the device decreases. The underlying mechanisms of the changing output power are uncovered based on different methods of characterization. This work shows the rules of thumb to achieve optimal power performance for strain-reduced micro-LEDs through the proposed partitioned growth process.

20.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(3): 2611-2618, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811573

RESUMO

Procambarus clarkii is an important model crustacean organism in many researches. Ammonia nitrogen is one of common contaminants in aquatic environment, influencing the health of aquatic organisms. The primary objective of this study was to investigate molecular mechanisms on ammonia stress in gills of P. clarkii to provide new insights into the strategies of aquatic animals in responding to high concentration of ammonia in the environment. Procambarus clarkii were randomly assigned into two groups (ammonia stress group, AG; control group, CG), and gill samples were dependently excised from AG and CG. Then response mechanisms on ammonia stress were investigated based on transcriptome data of P. clarkii. 9237 differentially expressed genes were identified in ammonia stress group. The genes of ion transport enzymes (NKA and SLC6A5S) were significantly up-regulated. Whereas the immune-related genes (e.g. MAP3K7, HSP70, HSP90A, CTSF, CTSL1, CHI and CTL4) and pathways were significantly up-regulated, which played an important role in reacting to ammonia stress. Procambarus clarkii may enhance immune defense to counteract ammonia toxicity by the up-regulation of immune-related genes and signaling pathways. The activities of ion transport enzymes are changed to mobilise signal transduction and ion channel regulation for adapting to ammonia environment. These previous key genes play an important role in resistance to ammonia stress to better prepare for survival in high concentration of ammonia.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Amônia/toxicidade , Astacoidea/genética , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/imunologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
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