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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804580

RESUMO

Phase-sensitive time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) can be used for fully distributed long-distance vibration monitoring. There is a fading phenolmenon in the Φ-OTDR, which will cause the signal intensity somewhere to be too low to extract the phase of the signal without distortion. In this paper, the Φ-OTDR based on space-division multiplexing (SDM) is proposed to suppress fading and we used multi-core optical fiber (MCF) to realize SDM. While inheriting the previous optimization strategy, we proposed a strategy based on frequency spectral similarity to process multiple independent signals obtained by SDM. And we compared the two methods. Through the experiments, the distortion rate can be reduced from an average level of 9.34% to less than 2% under continuous running of 270 s, which proves that SDM is a reliable technical route to achieve fading suppression. This method can effectively improve the fading suppression capability of the existed commercial systems.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 564-573, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742850

RESUMO

From November 16 to 28 2018, water-soluble ions in particulate matter and some trace gases in Nanjing City were observed using the online gas composition and aerosol monitoring system MARGA ADI 2080. Combined with meteorological elements and sounding data, the distribution characteristics and day-night differences of pollutants and water-soluble ions during haze, fog, clear, and precipitation processes were analyzed. The results show that the average concentration of PM2.5 varied from 26.9µg·m-3 (precipitation) to 96.4µg·m-3 (haze) while total water-soluble ions varied between 23.7µg·m-3 (precipitation) and 89.7µg·m-3 (haze). The ranked order of ion concentrations was NO3- > NH4+ > SO42- > Cl- > K+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ during haze and fog events, and NO3- > SO42- > NH4+ > Cl- > Ca2+ > K+ > Na+ > Mg2+ during clear weather and precipitation period. The diurnal distributions of water-soluble ions were quite different under the four conditions, although SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+(SNA) were ranked haze > fog > clear > precipitation for both day and night periods. According to the PMF source analysis, secondary sources were the main factors affecting haze; secondary sources, sea salt, and combustion sources were the main pollution sources to foggy conditions; and the removal effect of precipitation on coal-fired sources and secondary sources was more notable than during clear conditions.

4.
Microb Biotechnol ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666350

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to investigate the adaptation and competition of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in alfalfa silage alone or in combination on the fermentation quality, dynamics of bacterial community, and their functional shifts using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. Before ensiling, alfalfa was inoculated with L. plantarum (Lp), P. pentosaceus (Pp), E. faecalis (Ef) or their combinations (LpPp, LpEf, LpPpEf) and sampled at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 60 days. After 60-days fermentation, the Lp-, Pp- and LpPp-inoculated silages had lower pH but greater concentrations of lactic acid were observed in Pp, LpEf and LpPpEf-inoculated silages. The inoculants altered the keystone taxa and the bacterial community dynamics in different manners, where L. plantarum, Weissella cibaria and L. pentosaceus dominated the bacterial communities after 14 days-fermentation in all treatments. The silages with better fermentation quality had simplified bacterial correlation structures. Moreover, different inoculants dramatically changed the carbohydrate, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and vitamin metabolism of bacterial communities during ensiling. Results of the current study indicate that effect of different inoculants on alfalfa silage fermentation was implemented by modulating the succession of bacterial community, their interactions and metabolic pathways as well during ensiling.

5.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 844-854, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678122

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cells (MFC) can use microorganisms to directly convert the chemical energy of organic matter into electrical energy, and generate electrical energy while pollutants degradation. To solve the critical problem of lower power yield of power production, this study selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis as the anodic inoculums. The influence of the mixed bacteria on the power-producing effect of MFC and the synergy effect between the electrochemically active bacteria in mixed cultures were discussed. The results showed that among the mixed culture system, only the mixed cultures MFC composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus subtilis had a significant increase in power generation capacity, which could reach to 554 mV. Further analysis of the electrochemical and microbiological performance of this system was conducted afterward to verify the synergy effect between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus subtilis. The riboflavin produced by Bacillus subtilis could be utilized by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enhance the power generation capacity. Meanwhile, Saccharomyces cerevisiae could provide carbon source and electron donor for Bacillus subtilis through respiration. Finally, in the experiment of adding exogenous riboflavin in the mixed bacterial MFC, the result indicated that the mixed bacterial MFC chose the self-secreting riboflavin over the exogenous riboflavin as the electron mediator, and the excess riboflavin might hinder the electron trasfer.

6.
J Lipid Res ; : 100066, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711324

RESUMO

Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), the process by which an endothelial cell undergoes a series of molecular events that result in a mesenchymal cell phenotype, plays an important role in atherosclerosis. 1-Palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), derived from the oxidation of 1-Palmitoyl-2- arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, is a pro-inflammatory lipid found in atherosclerotic lesions. Whether POVPC promotes EndMT, and how simvastatin influences POVPC-mediated EndMT remains unclear. Here, we treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells with POVPC, simvastatin, or both, and determined their effect on endothelial cell viability, morphology, tube formation, proliferation, and generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O2●-). Expression of specific endothelial and mesenchymal markers was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. POVPC did not affect endothelial cell viability, but altered cellular morphology from cobblestone-like endothelial cells to a spindle-like mesenchymal cell morphology. POVPC increased O2- generation and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, Snail-1, Twist-1, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß), TGF-ß receptor II, p-Smad2/3, and Smad2/3. POVPC also decreased NO production, and expression of CD31 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Simvastatin inhibited POVPC-mediated effects on cellular morphology, production of O2●- and NO, and expression of specific endothelial and mesenchymal markers. These data demonstrate that POVPC induces EndMT by increasing oxidative stress, which stimulates TGF-ß/Smad signaling, leading to Snail-1 and Twist-1 activation. Simvastatin inhibited POVPC-induced EndMT by decreasing oxidative stress, suppressing TGF-ß/Smad signaling, and inactivating Snail-1 and Twist-1. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of atherosclerosis that can be inhibited by simvastatin.

7.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; : 102266, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785441

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most common malignancies with increased incidence in the past few decades, making it a significant public health problem. The early diagnosis of melanoma is a major factor in improving patient's survival. The traditional pathway to melanoma diagnosis starts with a visual diagnosis, followed by subsequent biopsy and histopathologic evaluation. Recently, multiple innovative optical technology-based methods, including dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, multiphoton excited fluorescence imaging and stepwise two-photon excited fluorescence (dermatofluoroscopy), have been developed to increase the diagnostic accuracy for the non-invasive melanoma diagnosis. Some of them have already been applied to real-life clinical settings, others require more research and development. These technologies show promise in facilitating the diagnosis of melanoma since they are non-invasive, sensitive, objective and easy to apply. Diagnostic accuracy, detection time, portability and the cost-effectiveness of the device are all aspects that need to be improved. This article reviews the method of these emerging optical non-invasive diagnostic technologies, their clinical application, their benefits and limitations, as well as their possible future development.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(7): 7955-7965, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565868

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic strategy for hypertrophic scars (HSs), and nanoethosomes (ES) have attracted considerable attention as an efficient transdermal delivery system for PDT of HSs (HS-PDT). However, the delivery of photosensitizers and the hypoxic microenvironment of HSs limit HS-PDT efficacy. Consequently, functional transdermal ES (A/A-ES) that are loaded with the photosensitizer, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and immobilized nanoenzyme Au nanoclusters (ANCs) within the ES surface have been developed that exhibit superior co-delivery characteristics and produce catalase that enhances HS-PDT efficacy. The unique structure of A/A-ES enables them to co-deliver ALA and ANCs into the HS tissue and to efficiently decompose the endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the HS to generate oxygen. The findings from in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that A/A-ES efficiently co-delivered ALA and ANCs into the HS tissue and that they improved the hypoxic microenvironment of the HS. Systematic assessments reveal that A/A-ES enhance HS-PDT efficacy and that they are highly effective at improving the morphology and promoting HS fibroblast apoptosis and the rearrangement of collagen. These works give rise to an effective treatment option for HSs that integrates the transdermal co-delivery of ALA and nanoenzymes, thereby enabling them to exert their respective beneficial effects, and they highlight the enhancement of HS-PDT efficacy via self-generating oxygen.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Ouro/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Ácido Aminolevulínico/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/patologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ouro/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Coelhos , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585847

RESUMO

A Bi2Te3/Bi2S3@Bi nanocomposite with a network microstructure was successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal method and spark plasma sintering. This composite was constructed from Bi2Te3 nanoparticles and Bi2S3@Bi nanowires, and its network structure is beneficial for obtaining excellent thermoelectric performance. A ZT peak of 1.2 at 450 K was realized for the nanocomposite sample.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-expanded pedicled flaps possess a more flexible transfer pattern and higher tissue utilization than random flaps, but the perfusion is fully dependent on the chosen axial vessels. A precise mapping of the vessels would assist the surgical design and increase the likelihood of success. The application of Infrared thermography (IRT) has been previously reported for perforator location. The aim of this study is to report the use of IRT in mapping the course and distribution of axial vessels in the pre-expanded flap to guide the designing and harvesting. METHODS: Patients who underwent head and neck reconstruction using pre-expanded flaps were included. After tissue expansion, IRT was used to mark the vessel distribution along the expanded flap. The results were compared with color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) and/or computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The flap was designed and raised based on the pre-operative marking by IRT. The mark was verified intraoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 26 expanded flaps were performed, including 20 pedicled flaps and 6 free flaps. IRT succeeded to map the vessel distribution in all cases. All marked results were verified by CDU, CTA, and intraoperative dissection (26/26, 100%). IRT showed more comprehensive distribution of vascular branches than CDU or CTA, and could be utilized intraoperatively to identify the arteries. CONCLUSION: IRT provides accurate and comprehensive mapping of the axial vessel distribution in the pre-expanded flaps, assisting with flap design and harvest. It is easy to use and non-invasive as an important tool pre- or intraoperatively to ensure the safe elevation.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526687

RESUMO

Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is one of the most effective and durable therapies for morbid obesity and its related complications. Although bile acids (BAs) have been implicated as downstream mediators of VSG, the specific mechanisms through which BA changes contribute to the metabolic effects of VSG remain poorly understood. Here, we confirm that high fat diet-fed global farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) knockout mice are resistant to the beneficial metabolic effects of VSG. However, the beneficial effects of VSG were retained in high fat diet-fed intestine- or liver-specific Fxr knockouts, and VSG did not result in Fxr activation in the liver or intestine of control mice. Instead, VSG decreased expression of positive hepatic Fxr target genes, including the bile salt export pump (Bsep) that delivers BAs to the biliary pathway. This reduced small intestine BA levels in mice, leading to lower intestinal fat absorption. These findings were verified in sterol 27-hydroxylase (Cyp27a1) knockout mice, which exhibited low intestinal BAs and fat absorption and did not show metabolic improvements following VSG. In addition, restoring small intestinal BA levels by dietary supplementation with taurocholic acid (TCA) partially blocked the beneficial effects of VSG. Altogether, these findings suggest that reductions in intestinal BAs and lipid absorption contribute to the metabolic benefits of VSG.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576236

RESUMO

Ultrasmall Ru nanoparticles is expected as a potential alternative to Pt for efficient hydrazine oxidation (HzOR). However, preparation of ultrasmall and well-distributed Ru nanoparticles usually suffered from the steps of modification of supports, coordination, reduction with strong reducing reagents (e.g., NaBH4) or pyrolysis, imposing the complexity. Based on the self-reducibility of C-OH group and physical adsorption ability of commercial Ketjen black (KB), we developed an efficient, stable and robust Ru-based electrocatalyst (A-Ru-KB) by coupling impregnation of KB in RuCl3 solution and simple in situ electrochemical activation strategy, which endowed the formation of ultrasmall and well-distributed Ru nanoparticles. Benefiting from an enhanced exposure of Ru sites and the faster mass transport, A-Ru-KB achieved 63.4 and 3.9-fold enhancements of mass activity compared with Pt/C and Ru/C, respectively, accompanied by a ∼144 mV lower onset potential and faster catalytic kinetics than Pt/C. In the hydrazine fuel cell, the open-circuit voltage and maximal mass power density of A-Ru-KB was 130 mV and ∼3.8-fold higher than those of Pt/C, respectively, together with the long-term stability. This work would provide a facile and sustainable approach for large-scale production of other robust metal (electro)catalysts with ultrasmall nanosize for various energy conversion and electrochemical organic synthesis.

13.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5101, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625739

RESUMO

Clinically, Wangbi Capsule (WBC) is widely used in the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because of its remarkable therapeutic effect. To reveal the mechanism, a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed for the first time to assess the relationship between time-concentration (dose)-effect. Freund's Complete Adjuvant was used to induce the adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Multi-indices were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect and an S-Imax PK-PD model was established based on the concentrations of osthole, 5-O-methylvisamminoside, cimifugin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin and icariin and the levels of interleukin-1ß and prostaglandin E2 using a two-compartment PK model together with a PD model with an effect-site compartment. The results suggest that WBC can treat RA by regulating the levels of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1ß. For the PK-PD model, the parameters indicated that WBC had a large safety margin and all six bioactive ingredients of WBC have therapeutic effects on RA. Among them icariin, osthole and 5-O-methylvisamminoside may be the main effective substances. This study provided a scientific basis for further study of population pharmacokinetics / population pharmacodynamics (PPK/PPD), to develop a reasonable administration plan and improve individualized drug therapy.

14.
Biomaterials ; 269: 120637, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450583

RESUMO

Biomaterials with attenuated adverse host tissue reactions, and meanwhile, combining biocompatibility with mimicry of mechanical and biochemical cues of native extracellular matrices (ECM) to promote integration and regeneration of tissues are important for many biomedical applications. Further, the materials should also be tailorable to feature desired application-related functions, like tunable degradability, injectability, or controlled release of bioactive molecules. Herein, a non-covalently assembled, injectable hydrogel system based on oligopeptides interacting with sulphated polysaccharides is reported, showing high tolerability and biocompatibility in immunocompetent hairless mice. Altering the peptide or polysaccharide component considerably varies the in vivo degradation rate of the hydrogels, ranging from a half-life of three weeks to no detectable degradation after three months. The hydrogel with sulphated low molecular weight hyaluronic acid exhibits sustained degradation-mediated release of heparin-binding molecules in vivo, as shown by small animal magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence imaging, and enhances the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in hydrogel surrounding. In vitro investigations indicate that M2-macrophages could be responsible for the moderate difference in pro-angiogenic effects. The ECM-mimetic and injectable hydrogels represent tunable bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering, also enabling controlled release of heparin-binding signalling molecules including many growth factors.

15.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 5, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central sensitization is an important pathophysiological mechanism of chronic migraine (CM). According to our previous studies, microglial activation and subsequent inflammation in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) contribute to the central sensitization. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a purinergic receptor expressed in microglia and participates in central sensitization in chronic pain, but its role in CM is unclear. Numerous studies have shown that P2X7R regulates the level of autophagy and that autophagy affects the microglial activation and inflammation. Recently, autophagy has been shown to be involved in neuropathic pain, but there is no information about autophagy in CM. Therefore, the current study investigated the role of P2X7R in CM and its underlying mechanism, focusing on autophagy regulation. METHODS: The CM model was established by repeated intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin (NTG) in mice. A Von Frey filament and radiant heat were used to assess the mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were performed to detect the expression of P2X7R, autophagy-related proteins, and the cellular localization of P2X7R. To determine the role of P2X7R and autophagy in CM, we detected the effects of the autophagy inducer, rapamycin (RAPA) and P2X7R antagonist, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), on pain behavior and the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and c-fos. In addition, the effect of RAPA and BBG on microglial activation and subsequent inflammation were investigated. RESULTS: The expression of P2X7R was increased and was mainly colocalized with microglia in the TNC following recurrent NTG administration. The autophagic flux was blocked in CM, which was characterized by upregulated LC3-II, and accumulated autophagy substrate protein, p62. RAPA significantly improved the basal rather than acute hyperalgesia. BBG alleviated both basal and acute hyperalgesia. BBG activated the level of autophagic flux. RAPA and BBG inhibited the activation of microglia, limited the inflammatory response, and reduced the expression of CGRP and c-fos. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the dysfunction of the autophagic process in CM. Activated autophagy may have a preventive effect on migraine chronification. P2X7R contributes to central sensitization through mediating autophagy regulation and might become a potential target for CM.

16.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 49, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic wounds remain a challenging clinical problem, which requires further treatment development. Published data showed that dermis-derived stem/progenitor cells (DSPCs) display superior wound healing in vitro. The beneficial effects of DSPCs are mediated through paracrine secretion, which can be obtained from conditioned medium (CM). Hyaluronic acid (HA) is especially suitable for skin regeneration and delivering bioactive molecules in CM. This study investigated the effect of human foreskin-derived dermal stem/progenitor cell (hFDSPC)-CM combined with HA on a diabetic mouse model and relevant mechanism in vitro. METHODS: hFDSPCs and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were identified, and the respective CM was prepared. PBS, HA, hFDSPC-CM combined with HA, or hADSC-CM combined with HA was topically applied to mice. HE, CD31, CD68, CD86, and CD206 staining was performed to evaluate gross wound condition, angiogenesis, and inflammation, respectively. Masson and Picrosirius red staining was performed to evaluate collagen deposition and maturation. The effects of hFDSPC-CM and hADSC-CM on human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro using CCK-8 and EdU assays to determine cell viability and proliferation, respectively. The scratch assay was performed to evaluate cell migration. Tube formation assay was performed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to confirm angiogenesis. Extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolic balance-related genes and proteins, such as collagen I (COL 1), collagen III (COL 3), fibronectin (FN), α-SMA, matrix metalloproteinases 1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinases 3 (MMP-3), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1), were analysed. RESULTS: hFDSPC-CM combined with HA showed superior wound closure rate over hADSC-CM. Histologically, the hFDSPC-CM combined with HA group showed significantly improved re-epithelialisation, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, collagen regeneration, and maturation compared to hADSC-CM combined with HA group. In vitro assays revealed that hFDSPC-CM displayed significant advantages on cell proliferation, migration, and ECM regeneration through a TGF-ß/Smad signalling pathway compared with hADSC-CM. CONCLUSIONS: hFDSPC-CM combined with HA was superior for treating diabetic wounds. The underlying mechanism may promote proliferation and migration of epidermal cells with fibroblasts, thus leading to ECM deposition and remodelling. Reduced inflammation may be due to the above-mentioned mechanism.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111725, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396056

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatotoxic and carcinogenic agent. Curcumin possesses potential anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects. However, the role of LncRNAs in the protective mechanisms of curcumin against AFB1-induced liver damage is still elusive. Experimental broilers were randomly divided into 1) control group, 2) AFB1 group (1 mg/kg feed), 3) cur + AFB1 group (1 mg/kg AFB1 plus 300 mg/kg curcumin diet) and 4) curcumin group (300 mg/kg curcumin diet). Liver transcriptome analyses and qPCR were performed to identify shifts in genes expression. In addition, histopathological assessment and oxidant status were determined. Dietary AFB1 caused hepatic morphological injury, significantly increased the production of ROS, decreased liver antioxidant enzymes activities and induced inflammation and apoptosis. However, dietary curcumin partially attenuated the abnormal morphological changes, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in liver tissues. Transcriptional profiling results showed that 34 LncRNAs and 717 mRNAs were differentially expressed with AFB1 and curcumin co-treatment in livers of broilers. Analysis of the LncRNA-mRNA network, GO and KEGG enrichment data suggested that oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis pathway were crucial in curcumin's alleviating AFB1-induced liver damage. In conclusion, curcumin prevented AFB1-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis through LncRNAs. These results provide new insights for unveiling the protective mechanisms of curcumin against AFB1-induced liver damage.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Curcumina/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta , Inflamação/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/farmacologia
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(4): 1613-1629, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of dementia among elderly people. Hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau correlates with the clinical progression of AD; therefore, therapies targeting the aggregation of tau may have potential applications for anti-AD drug development. Several inhibitors of tau aggregation, including small molecules and antibodies, have been found to decrease the aggregation of tau and the corresponding pathology. OBJECTIVE: To screen one kind of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody which could inhibit the aggregation of tau and ameliorate its cytotoxicity. METHODS/RESULTS: Using phosphorylated tau (pTau) as an antigen, we obtained a scFv antibody via the screening of a high-capacity phage antibody library. Biochemical analysis revealed that this scFv antibody (scFv T1) had a strong ability to inhibit pTau aggregation both in dilute solutions and under conditions of macromolecular crowding. ScFv T1 could also depolymerize preformed pTau aggregates in vitro. Furthermore, scFv T1 was found to be able to inhibit the cytotoxicity of extracellular pTau aggregates and ameliorate tau-mediated toxicity when coexpressed with a hTauR406W mutant in the eye of transgenic Drosophila flies. CONCLUSION: This scFv T1 antibody may be a potential new therapeutic agent against AD. Our methods can be used to develop novel strategies against protein aggregation for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

19.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis ; 38(1): 36-41, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362150

RESUMO

We employ non-diffractive Bessel-Gaussian beams to investigate the effect of oceanic turbulence on quantum communication protocols via behaviors of quantum-channel capacity and trace distance, based on the analytical expression of the phase structure function of an orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) beam in underwater wireless optical communication. Our results show that turbulence conditions with a larger inner-scale and outer-scale factors, higher dissipation rate of kinetic energy, lower dissipation rate of the mean-squared temperature, and smaller temperature-salinity contribution ratio are beneficial to quantum communication performance. Moreover, we show that the distribution protocol may be improved by distributing quantum superposition states instead of OAM eigenstates. We believe our work provides the first theoretical exploration of quantum-channel capacity in underwater OAM quantum communication.

20.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(6): 965-973, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the intervention of Chushizi (Fructus Broussonetiae) (CSZ) on drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in rats, as well as indicators of liver function, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, and expression of proteins and mRNA associated with toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in the liver [TLR3, janus protein tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2), c-jun, c-fos, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2), and STAT3]. METHODS: Forty specified pathogen free grade Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, the silybin group and the CSZ group. Rats were given acetaminophen (APAP) to trigger DILI. Histopathology of the liver was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), direct bilirubin (DBIL), and total bilirubin (TBIL) in serum were detected by a semi-automatic biochemical instrument. Content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-13, and IL-22 in serum were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the expression of TLR3, phosphorylation of JAK2 (p-JAK2), while c-jun and c-fos proteins in the liver were determined by immunohistochemistry; expression of JNK2, and STAT3 in the liver were assayed by Western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. P-JNK2 and p-STAT3 in the liver were assayed by Western blot. RESULTS: After treatment, the activity of ALT, AST, and concentrations of TBIL, DBIL, TNF-α, IL-6, as well as IL-13 in serum, were lower than those in the model group, and expression of p-JAK2, TLR3, c-jun, c-fos, p-STAT3, and p-JNK2 could be downregulated. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that CSZ is a valid medicine to alleviate APAP-induced DILI, while its partial mechanism may regulate the TLR3/JNK/ c-jun/c-fos/JAK/STAT3 pathway.

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