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1.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014456

RESUMO

Radioresistance reduces the success of therapy for patients with ESCC. Enhancing our understanding of the cardinal principles of radioresistance may improve the response of patients to irradiation. MicroRNAs perform a key role in posttranscriptional regulation, which is linked with the response of tumors to irradiation. Here, we successfully constructed a radioresistant cell line model, ECA109R, from parental esophageal cancer cell line ECA109. We used RNA-Seq analysis and qRT-PCR to compare the miRNA expression profiles of the ECA109 and ECA109R cell lines. The results revealed that miR-450a-5p was downregulated in the radioresistant cells. Functional analysis indicated that miR-450a-5p increases cellular radiosensitivity and suppresses autophagy in ESCC cells. We utilized a luciferase reporter assay to identify the target gene, DUSP10, as an indispensable regulator of the p38 and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways. Upregulation or downregulation of DUSP10 expression could reverse the effects of miR-450a-5p overexpression or inhibition. Tumor xenograft experiments verified that miR-450a-5p overexpression could increase sensitivity to radiation therapy in vivo. In general, our findings indicate that miR-450a-5p is a latent radiosensitizer and may represent a potential novel therapeutic target for radioresistance in ESCC.

3.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932644

RESUMO

Chronic tissue injury with fibrosis results in the disruption of tissue architecture, organ dysfunction, and eventual organ failure. Therefore, the development of effective antifibrotic drugs is urgently required. IMB-S7 is novel biphenyl compound derived from bifendate (biphenyldicarboxylate) that is used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis in China. In the current study we investigated the potential of IMB-S7 as an antihepatic fibrosis agent. In bile duct ligation (BDL) rat model, oral administration of IMB-S7 (400 mg· kg-1· d-1, for 14 days) significantly ameliorated BDL-induced liver necrosis, bile duct proliferation, and collagen accumulation. We then showed that IMB-S7 treatment markedly suppressed the TGF-ß/Smad pathway in human hepatic stellate cell line LX2 and mouse primary HSCs, as well as in liver samples of BDL rats, thus inhibiting the transcription of most fibrogenesis-associated genes, including TGF-ß1, COL1A1, and ACTA2. Furthermore, IMB-S7 treatment significantly suppressed the expression of integrin αv at the mRNA and protein levels in TGF-ß-treated LX2 cells and liver samples of BDL rats. Using integrin αv overexpression and silencing, we demonstrated that integrin αv activity correlated positively with the activation of TGF-ß/Smad pathway. Based on dual luciferase assay and DNA affinity precipitation assay, we revealed that IMB-S7 inactivated integrin αv through competitively inhibiting the binding of Sp1, a transcription factor, to the integrin αv (ITGAV) promoter (-173/-163 bp). These results suggest that IMB-S7 inhibits HSCs activation and liver fibrosis through Sp1-integrin αv signaling, and IMB-S7 may be a promising candidate to combat hepatic fibrosis in the future.

4.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125141, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677505

RESUMO

Diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is widespread in aquatic environments and coexists with heavy metals to form combined pollution. However, the interactive effects of DCF and heavy metals on aquatic organisms remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effects of DCF and copper (Cu) on the bioconcentration, oxidative stress status and detoxification-related gene expression in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Fish were exposed to Cu (100 µg L-1) and DCF (1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg L-1) alone or in combination for 7 days. Results obtained showed that the treatment of Cu combined with high levels of DCF (100 and 1000 µg L-1) significantly decreased tissue concentrations of DCF and Cu compared to the correspondingly individual exposure. Concerning oxidative stress status, as reflected by the activities of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content, low exposure concentrations of DCF (1 and 10 µg L-1) seemed to mitigate the oxidative stress induced by Cu, whereas the co-exposure of Cu with the highest level of DCF (1000 µg L-1) led to stronger oxidative damage in fish liver than Cu exposure alone. With regarding to detoxification-related genes, in most cases, the expressions of cyp 1a, cyp 3a, gstα, gstπ, pxr and P-gp in crucian carp were significantly altered upon exposure to the compounds in combination compared to exposure to the compounds individually. Collectively, these findings indicate the capacity of each of these pollutants to alter bioconcentration potential, pro-oxidative effects and detoxification-related gene responses of the other when both co-occur at specific concentrations.

5.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 59-64, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is reported that the expression of aquaporin4 (AQP4) in the brain is increased and leads to the brain edema after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, by using AQP4 knockout rat model, the opposite role of AQP4 in early brain injury following SAH through modulation of interstitial fluid (ISF) transportation in the brain glymphatic system had been explored. METHODS: The SAH model was established using endovascular perforation method, the AQP4 knockout rat model was generated using TALENs (transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases) technique. The animals were randomly divided into four groups: sham (n = 16), AQP4-/-sham (n = 16), SAH (n = 24), and AQP4-/-SAH groups (n = 27). The roles of AQP4 in the brain water content and neurological function were detected. In addition, immunohistochemistry and Nissl staining were applied to observe the effects of AQP4 on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and the loss of neurons in the hippocampus. To explore the potential mechanism of these effects, the distribution of Gd-DTPA (interstitial fluid indicator) injected from cisterna magna was evaluated with MRI. RESULTS: Following SAH, AQP4 knockout could significantly increase the water content in the whole brain and aggravate the neurological deficits. Furthermore, the loss of neuron and BBB disruption in hippocampus were also exacerbated. The MRI results indicated that the ISF transportation in the glymphatic system of AQP4 deficit rat was significantly injured. CONCLUSION: AQP4 facilitates the ISF transportation in the brain to eliminate the toxic factors; AQP4 knockout will aggravate the early brain injury following SAH through impairment of the glymphatic system.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4 , Edema Encefálico , Lesões Encefálicas , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Animais , Aquaporina 4/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Sistema Glinfático , Ratos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia
6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 560: 260-272, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670099

RESUMO

Micron-sized zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl), a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst in organic wastewater treatment, whose catalytic activity is limited by the dense and stable oxide layer coating on its surface. In this paper, a simple method of ball milling was exploited to pretreat inert aluminum particles with the addition of low-cost and non-toxic sodium chloride (NaCl) grains. Then the pretreated ZVAl (marked as ZVAlbm) was employed to activate molecular oxygen catalytically for phenol oxidative degradation. No induction period was observed in ZVAlbm/Air system. Meanwhile, the reaction rate and mineralization efficiency of phenol degradation had improved in contrast with the original ZVAl. The characterization results of SEM-EDS, BET, XRD and XPS revealed that the native oxide layer of ZVAlbm was destroyed and became rougher, where its surface was embedded in NaCl grains. Thus the dissolution of NaCl in aqueous solution was imagined to expose the fresh surface of ZVAlbm, facilitating the electron transfer at the interface of ZVAlbm/H2O. Moreover, the specific surface area of ZVAlbm increased for ball milling improved its surface roughness, resulting in the enhanced reactivity of ZVAlbm. The interfacial reaction mechanism was revealed that more dissolved oxygen (DO) was activated by the exposed surface of ZVAlbm to form large amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Then in-situ production of H2O2 was catalyzed by the active-surface of ZVAlbm via a Fenton-like process to generate massive OH, which was detected as the predominant active species for phenol degradation. Finally, the reusability experiment indicated that ball milling could rejuvenate the main catalytic activity of used ZVAlbm easily. In summary, ball milling provides a green and easily-operated method to promote the reactivity of inert ZVAl for its application in organic wastewater treatment.

7.
Oncologist ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram to predict 1-year overall survival (OS) and 2-year OS in patients with high-grade digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) as well as to guide selection of subgroups that could benefit from systemic chemotherapy. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 223 patients with NENs of the gut and hepato-biliary-pancreatic system from four centers included in the development cohort. The nomogram was externally validated in a cohort of 90 patients from another one. RESULTS: The final model included lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, stage, Ki67, and site of primary tumor, all of which had a significant effect on OS. The uncorrected C-index was 0.761 for OS, and the bias-corrected C-index was 0.744. Predictions correlated well with observed 1-year and 2-year outcomes (judged by eye). The area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve at 12 months and 24 months was 0.876 and 0.838, respectively. The nomogram performed well in terms of both discrimination and calibration when applied to the validation cohort, and OS was significantly different between the two groups classified by nomogram score (log-rank p < .001). CONCLUSION: The validated nomogram provided useful prediction of OS, which can be offered for clinicians to improve their abilities to assess patient prognosis, to create clinical risk groups for informing treatment or for patient stratification by disease severity in clinical trials. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms of the digestive system are rare malignancies with great heterogeneity. An overall survival nomogram was developed and externally validated in this study. Two subgroups were classified by the nomogram score, and platinum-based chemotherapy may not bring clinical benefit for the low-risk patients.

8.
Stem Cells Dev ; 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801411

RESUMO

In this study, the roles of exosomes (Exo) from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in attenuating early brain injury (EBI) in rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) had been investigated. The male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were used to establish the SAH model using endovascular perforation method. The animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham (n = 25), SAH+PBS (n = 42), and SAH+Exo groups (n = 33). At 1 h after SAH, Exo or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was administered by femoral vein injection. The effects of Exo on the mortality, neurological function, brain water content, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) were explored. Furthermore, the expressions of miRNA129-5p and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) after Exo treatment were also detected. In addition, immunohistochemistry and western blot were applied to investigate the mechanism of Exo's effects. The results indicated that Exo could improve the neurological functions, reduce brain water content and maintain BBB integrity after SAH. After Exo treatment, the expression of miRNA129-5p was significantly increased, whereas the RNA level of HMGB1 was decreased. The protein levels of proinflammatory and proapoptosis factors, such as HMGB1, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor-α, and p53, were increased after SAH, which were significantly declined after Exo application. The results indicated that Exo from BMSCs could alleviate EBI after SAH through miRNA129-5p's anti-inflammation and antiapoptosis effects through quenching the activity of HMGB1-TLR4 pathway.

9.
J Psychol ; : 1-15, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815608

RESUMO

Based on the integration of the group socialization theory and the individual-context interaction model, we examined whether moral disengagement mediated the association between deviant peer affiliation and bullying perpetration and whether this mediation model was moderated by moral identity. A total of 438 adolescents participated in the current study. They completed measures regarding deviant peer affiliation, bullying perpetration, moral disengagement, and moral identity. Deviant peer affiliation positively predicted adolescents' bullying perpetration at six months later and this relationship was partially mediated by moral disengagement. Moral identity did not moderate the direct relationship between deviant peer affiliation and adolescents' bullying perpetration. Moral identity moderated the relationship between moral disengagement and adolescents' bullying perpetration and in turn moderated the indirect relationship between deviant peer affiliation and bullying perpetration. Specifically, the relationship between moral disengagement and bullying perpetration and the indirect relationship between deviant peer affiliation and bullying perpetration via moral disengagement both became nonsignificant for adolescents with high moral identity.

10.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125536, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816547

RESUMO

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in 2013, but till now there is a lack of efficient methods for its degradation. In this study, nanoscale zero-valent aluminum (nZVAl), an excellent reductant with a very low redox potential of E0(Al3+/Al0) = -1.662 V and strong electron transfer ability, was used to reductively degrade HBCD. Nearly 100% HBCD was degraded within 8 h reaction at 25 °C in ethanol/water (v/v, 50/50) solution without pH adjustment. And about 67% cyclododecatriene (CDT) was obtained, which is the complete debromination product. What's more, the yield of Br- could achieve nearly 100% after optimizing conditions. The reaction was strongly promoted by increasing the dosages of nZVAl or decreasing the initial concentration of HBCD. The temperature had the most significant influence and the degradation was completed in 40 min with elevating the reaction temperature to 45 °C. The reaction mechanism was further revealed through the characterization of nZVAl particles before and after the reaction by SEM-EDS, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, and XPS. It was found that, after corrosion of the oxide film on the surface of nZVAl, metallic aluminum inside was exposed. The reactive sites were provided and electrons released were transferred from nZVAl to HBCD, causing HBCD degraded to dibromocyclododecadiene (DBCD) and then CDT by reductive debromination. These findings imply that nZVAl can degrade HBCD efficiently with no extra energy input and this offers a new idea for better treatment of HBCD.

11.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591535

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent production of ROS underlies sustained oxidative stress, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, aortic aneurysm, hypercholesterolaemia, atherosclerosis, diabetic vascular complications, cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Interactions between different oxidases or oxidase systems have been intensively investigated for their roles in inducing sustained oxidative stress. In this Review, we discuss the latest data on the pathobiology of each oxidase component, the complex crosstalk between different oxidase components and the consequences of this crosstalk in mediating cardiovascular disease processes, focusing on the central role of particular NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms that are activated in specific cardiovascular diseases. An improved understanding of these mechanisms might facilitate the development of novel therapeutic agents targeting these oxidase systems and their interactions, which could be effective in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

12.
Biomimetics (Basel) ; 4(4)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618923

RESUMO

Heat control has been a momentous problem in engineering areas which include manufacturing, aeronautics, microchips and so forth for a considerable amount of time. The control of material for thermal deformation, effective cooling are the key components of the aero crafts and compactly laid out microchips are urgently needed for improvement. In a micro-scale, researchers are mainly focused on the mechanism, design, improvement and heat transfer of straight channels other than developing other types of channels. A previous study on the carnivorous plant, Nepenthes alata, indicates that the water can be transported continuously and directionally on the surface of the rim of the pitcher because of its multi-scale structures. Meanwhile, the transporting speed is much higher than what was thought previously. Inspired by this unique phenomenon, the heat management ability of this biological micro channel is investigated in this research. Firstly, based on existing studies, the features of the biological channels are extracted. Then, the unidirectional channels are designed and fabricated by elliptical vibration cutting accordingly. The experimental platform for thermal control was established consequently. Both bio-inspired and straight triangular channels of the same depth and width were set for comparison. Through the comparative experiments, it is concluded preliminarily that the critical point of heat transfer performance of the two channels exists, and the biomimetic structure can improve and strengthen the cooling effects at a large flow rate because of the unique geometric structure. The temperature reduction of the bio-inspired channels can be increased by up to 84 percent compared with straight channels in a single experiment when heated up to 150 centigrade.

13.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 25(4): 1097-1105, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404229

RESUMO

The stem of Paeonia lactiflora will bend when it grows in greenhouse at a low light intensity. It is important to explore causes of morphological changes of peony to improve its quality. Gene expression can be evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, based on reference gene. However, systematic selection of reference genes under weak lighting for herbaceous peony is lacking. To address this problem, we first selected 10 candidate reference genes based on a coefficient of variation of gene expression from peony stem transcriptome data. Then, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were applied to assess the stability of the genes, and RankAggreg was used to give a comprehensive ranking. The results show that there are some differences in optimal reference genes among samples from different organs and under the two lighting conditions, and the optimal number of suitable reference genes is distinct. Two selected suitable reference genes were then used to normalize target genes, and the results were compared with transcriptome data. Consistent gene expression trends were obtained, indicating the reliability of the method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time reference genes for herbaceous peony were selected in different organs, developmental stages and under two kinds of lighting conditions. The findings can provide a practical method for selecting reference genes for peony under these conditions and demonstrate a useful combination of reference genes.

14.
Gene ; 711: 143949, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255735

RESUMO

As a transcriptional repressor, Chromobox 8 (CBX8) overexpression is found to be associated with tumorigenesis in several cancers. However, its role in radiotherapy resistance remains poorly characterized. Our study is the first to explore the correlation between CBX8 and radioresistance. We report here that CBX8 is upregulated in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and cells and serves as an indicator of poor prognosis for ESCC patients. CBX8 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation capability, DNA repair and promotes cell apoptosis. Moreover, the transcriptome sequencing analysis demonstrates that CBX8 downregulates the expression of Apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (APAF1), which is the core protein that mediates mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. APAF1 depletion could abrogate apoptosis induced by CBX8 knockdown in irradiated ESCC cells. Our results provide novel insight into CBX8 as a therapeutic target to improve the radiosensitivity of ESCC.


Assuntos
Fator Apoptótico 1 Ativador de Proteases/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação , Animais , Fator Apoptótico 1 Ativador de Proteases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Prognóstico , Regulação para Cima
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8319, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165765

RESUMO

A total amount of 116 fungal strains, belonging to 30 genera, were acquired from the rhizosphere soil and plant of Galinsoga parviflora. A strain SYPF 7336, isolated from the rhizospheric soil, was identified as Seltsamia galinsogisoli sp. nov., by morphological and molecular analyses, which displayed high antibacterial activity. In order to study the secondary metabolites of Seltsamia galinsogisoli sp. nov., nine compounds were successfully seperated from the strain fermentation broth, including two new compounds and seven known compounds. Their structures were elucidated based on spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR. All the seperated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. Compounds 2, 5 and 1 displayed antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 25, 32 and 75 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, morphological observation showed the coccoid cells of S. aureus to be swollen to a volume of 1.4 to 1.7-fold after treatment with compounds 1, 2 and 5, respectively. Molecular docking was carried out to investigate interactions of filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) with compounds 1, 2 and 5.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 515(3): 429-435, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155295

RESUMO

Accelerating the clearance of toxin in the brain extracellular space (ECS) has grown a promising strategy for treating some central nervous system diseases. As oldest sensory system, we know little about the influence of olfaction on the brain, but preclinical studies such as treatment of neurological diseases through it are in the ascendant. This makes it important to clarify the effects of olfaction on brain ECS and interstitial fluid (ISF) drainage. In this study, the effect of olfactory stimulation (eugenol, EUG) on ISF flow in hippocampus and its association with aquaporin 4 (Aqp4) had been investigated. The results show that eugenol can significantly increase the activity of hippocampal neurons, but reduce the clearance and diffusion rates of Gd-DTPA and A-594 in hippocampus. Similarly, eugenol inhalation slows down the rate of Gd-DTPA in CSF entering the hippocampus and its clearance. And knockout of Aqp4 gene aggravated these processes. In vitro results showed that after Aqp4 gene silencing, astrocytes grew slowly, with significantly decreased cells number, less nuclei, atrophied bodies and shorter processes. These results concluded that olfactory stimulation can change the ECS structure of the hippocampus, slow down the ISF drainage, and improve the function of neurons, while Aqp4 plays important roles.

17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 516(3): 673-679, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248595

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show huge variations in their differentiation potential, even in the same condition. However, methods for predicting these differentiation tendencies, especially in the early stage of differentiation, are still scarce. This study aimed to establish a simple and practical system to predict the differentiation tendency of iPSC lines using embryoid bodies (EBs) with identified parameters in the early stage. We compared four human iPSC lines in terms of the morphology and maintenance of EBs and their gene expression levels of specific markers for three germ-layers. Furthermore, the differentiation potentials of these iPSC lines into melanocytes, which are ectoderm-derived cells, were also compared and correlated with the above parameters. The results showed that iPSC lines forming regular, smooth, and not cystic EBs, which could be maintained in culture for a relatively longer time, also expressed higher levels of ectoderm-specific markers and lower levels of mesoderm/endoderm markers. Additionally, these iPSC lines showed greater potential in melanocyte differentiation using EB-based protocol, and the induced melanocytes expressed melanocytic markers and presented characteristics that were similar to those of normal human melanocytes. By contrast, iPSC lines that formed cystic EBs with bright or dark cavities and expressed relatively lower levels of ectoderm-specific markers failed in the melanocyte differentiation. Collectively, the differentiation tendency of human iPSC lines may be predicted by specific parameters in the EB stage. The formation and maintenance of optimal EBs and the expression of germ layer-specific markers are particularly important and practical for the prediction assay in the early stage.

18.
Neurosci Lett ; 704: 189-194, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, the protective effects of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid (DLA) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been explored. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weight 300-350 g) were used to establish the SAH model using the endovascular perforation method. The animals were randomly divided into four groups: sham (n = 40), SAH (n = 46), SAH + vehicle (n = 44), and SAH + DLA (n = 40) treatment groups. At 1 h after SAH, either DLA (10 mg/kg) or normal saline (vehicle) was administered by femoral vein injection. The effects of DLA on mortality, neurological function, brain water content, and BBB were observed. Additionally, immunohistochemistry and western blot techniques were applied to investigate the mechanism of action of DLA. RESULTS: We found that the administration of DLA (10 mg/kg) following SAH could improve neurological functions, reduce brain water content, and maintain BBB integrity. The expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic factors such as toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), NF-κB (p-p65), tumor necrosis factor-α, p-p38 MAPK, p-p53, and caspase-3 were significantly increased after SAH. These same factors were markedly attenuated following treatment with DLA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings showed that DLA can alleviate BBB injury following SAH through its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects via suppression of TLR4 and its downstream NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways.

19.
Inflammation ; 42(4): 1463-1473, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011928

RESUMO

Twelve polyketones were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp., including six new compounds (supplementary material). Penicillium sp. is widely used in clinic as a highly effective and low toxic antibiotic. Among these compounds, (3R, 7R)-7-acetoxyl-9-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin named PS-2 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. So, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of PS-2 was investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that PS-2 can significantly inhibit the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas it showed no inhibition on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Cell-free colorimetric method demonstrated that PS-2 could obviously inhibit the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Western blot results indicated that PS-2 could significantly inhibit high expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Further investigations on the anti-inflammatory mechanism showed that PS-2 could suppress the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), but did not exhibit obvious inhibition on the phosphorylation of c-JunN-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated 38 (p38). In addition, PS-2 inhibited the degradation of inhibitor of kappa-B alpha (IκB-α) and translocation to nucleus of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggested that PS-2 might be an effective intervention against inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Penicillium/metabolismo , Animais , Mediadores da Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
20.
Cell Rep ; 27(2): 455-466.e5, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970249

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising melanocyte source as they propagate indefinitely and can be established from patients. However, the in vivo functions of human iPSC-derived melanocytes (hiMels) remain unknown. Here, we generated hiMels from vitiligo patients using a three-dimensional system with enhanced differentiation efficiency, which showed characteristics of human epidermal melanocytes with high sequence similarity and involved in multiple vitiligo-associated signaling pathways. A modified hair follicle reconstitution assay in vivo showed that MITF+PAX3+TYRP1+ hiMels were localized in the mouse hair bulb and epidermis and produced melanin up to 7 weeks after transplantation, whereas MITF+PAX3+TYRP1- hiMelanocyte stem cells integrated into the bulge-subbulge regions. Overall, these data demonstrate the long-term functions of hiMels in vivo to reconstitute pigmented hair follicles and to integrate into normal regions for both mature melanocytes and melanocyte stem cells, providing an alternative source of personalized cellular therapy for depigmentation.

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