Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 450
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 111, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distinctive from their normal counterparts, cancer cells exhibit unique metabolic dependencies on glutamine to fuel anabolic processes. Specifically, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells rely on an unconventional metabolic pathway catalyzed by aspartate transaminase 1 (GOT1) to rewire glutamine metabolism and support nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production. Thus, the important role of GOT1 in energy metabolism and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) balance demonstrates that targeting GOT1 may serve as an important therapeutic target in PDAC. METHODS: To assay the binding affinity between Aspulvinone O (AO) and GOT1 proteins, the virtual docking, microscale thermophoresis (MST), cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) and drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) methods were employed. GOT1 was silenced in several PDAC cell lines. The level of OCR and ECR were assayed by seahorse. To evaluate the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of AO, the xenograft model was built in CB17/scid mouse. RESULTS: Screening of an in-house natural compound library identified the AO as a novel inhibitor of GOT1 and repressed glutamine metabolism, which sensitizes PDAC cells to oxidative stress and suppresses cell proliferation. Virtual docking analysis suggested that AO could bind to the active site of GOT1 and form obvious hydrophobic interaction with Trp141 together with hydrogen bonds with Thr110 and Ser256. Further in vitro validation, including MST, CETSA and DARTS, further demonstrated the specific combining capacity of AO. We also show that the selective inhibition of GOT1 by AO significantly reduces proliferation of PDAC in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings identify AO as a potent bioactive inhibitor of GOT1 and a novel anti-tumour agent for PDAC therapy.

2.
Bioorg Chem ; 91: 103166, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404796

RESUMO

A new spiroaxane sesquiterpenoid talaminoid A (1) and two drimane sesquiterpenoid talaminoids B and C (2 and 3), together with four known compounds (4-7), were isolated from the solid culture broth of fungus Talaromyces minioluteum. The structures were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data analyses, and the absolute configuration of these new compounds were undoubtedly confirmed by X-ray crystal diffrations. Compound 1 is a rare spiroaxane sesquiterpenoid and the absolute configuration of spiroaxane sesquiterpenoid was determined for the first time. Compound 2 is the first drimane-type sesquiterpenoid containing both amino acid residue and butanediol group. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed significant suppressive effect on the production of NO on LPS induced BV-2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 4.97 to 7.81 µM. In addition, 1, 4, and 5 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities against the production of TNF-α and IL-6. Further immunofluorescence experiments revealed the mechanism of action to be inhibitory the NF- κB-activated pathway.

3.
Mol Ther ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466933

RESUMO

Oncolytic viruses are an excellent platform for developing effective strategies in cancer immunotherapy. Several challenges remain in the use of viro-immunotherapy for cancer, such as the lack of costimulatory signals and negative regulation of immune checkpoints. In this study, we designed a novel adenovirus expressing a soluble fusion protein, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/CD137L, which contains the extracellular domains of PD-1 and CD137L at each terminus (Ad5-PC). Ad5-PC preserved the costimulatory activity of CD137L and facilitated the persistence of activated CD8+ T cells. Ad5-PC induced strikingly increased antitumor activity in both ascitic and subcutaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor models, with 70% and 60% long-term cure rates, respectively. The improved antitumor effect of Ad5-PC was attributed to the sustained high-level lymphocyte activation and interferon (IFN)-γ production in the tumor microenvironment, and was essentially dependent on CD8+ T cells rather than natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, Ad5-huPC-expressing human soluble PD-1/CD137L fusion protein was effective in suppressing tumor growth and improving survival in a humanized mouse model. We confirmed that Ad5-PC induced tumor-specific and systematic protection against tumor rechallenges at both in situ and distant sites. Thus, Ad5-PC harnesses several distinct functions to efficiently overcome several major hurdles of viro-immunotherapy.

4.
J Nat Prod ; 82(8): 2181-2188, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390200

RESUMO

An HPLC-DAD-directed chemical investigation of the soil-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor QC812 resulted in the isolation and identification of eight new linearly fused prenylated indole alkaloids, asperversiamides I-P (1-8), along with a congener, asperversiamide H (9). Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR, electronic circular dichroism analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Asperversiamide I (1), the first diketopiperazine derived from d-proline and l-tryptophan, possesses an unprecedented C-11-spiro-fused 6/6/5/5/6/5 hexacyclic ring system. Asperversiamide J (2) is the first linearly fused 6/6/5 tricyclic prenylated indole alkaloid to be reported. 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibitory activities against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 7.3 and 6.4 µM, respectively.

5.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441489

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the extracts of the aerial parts of Hypericum przewalskii Maxim. resulted in the isolation and identification of six new epoxychromene-containing polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), named przewalcyrones A-F (1-6), and one known analogue (7). All of the structures were determined based on extensive spectroscopic analyses, X-ray crystallographic analysis, modified Mosher's method, [Rh2(OCOCF3)4]-induced ECD, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) comparison. Structurally, przewalcyrones A-F represent the first examples of PPAPs containing an unexpected 8,8-dimethyl-3,9-epoxychromene moiety. All these compounds were evaluated for the immunosuppressive activity in anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-stimulated human T cells. Among them, przewalcyrones C and D exhibited potential in vitro immunosuppressive activity, with IC50 values of (5.01 ± 0.52) µM and (5.26 ± 0.56) µM, respectively, highlighting those compounds as a promising starting point for the development of new immunosuppressive agents.

6.
Biomolecules ; 9(8)2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408989

RESUMO

Cytochalasans are a group of structurally diverse fungal polyketide-amino acid hybrid metabolites that exhibit diverse biological functions. Asperchalasine A was identified and isolated from an extract of the marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus. Asperchalasine A is a cytochalasan dimer which consists of two cytochalasan molecules connected by an epicoccine. This study investigated the potential antiangiogenic effects of Aspergillus extract and asperchalasine A, which significantly inhibited cell adhesion and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Aspergillus extract and asperchalasine A decreased the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, Aspergillus extract and asperchalasine A inhibited angiogenesis via downregulation of VEGF, p-p38, p-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p-VEGFR-2, and p-Akt signaling pathways. Moreover, Aspergillus extract and asperchalasine A significantly inhibited the amount of blood vessel formation in fertilized chicken eggs using a chorioallantoic membrane assay. Our results provide experimental evidence of this novel biological activity of the potential antiangiogenic substances, Aspergillus extract, and asperchalasine A. This study also suggests that Aspergillus extract and its active component asperchalasine A are excellent candidates as adjuvant therapeutic substances for cancer prevention and treatment.

7.
J Nat Prod ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419139

RESUMO

Two cysteine residue containing merocytochalasans (cyschalasins A and B, 1 and 2) and two 17,18-seco-aspochalasins (secochalasins A and B, 3 and 4) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus micronesiensis. Cyschalasins A and B represent a new type of merocytochalasan featuring the fusion of an aspochalasin with a modified cysteine residue. Secochalasins A and B are the first 17,18-seco-aspochalasins to be reported and represent a previously undescribed carbon skeleton. Plausible biosynthetic pathways of 1-4 were proposed. Compounds 1 and 2 were cytotoxic and active against Gram-positive bacteria.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 112925, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454572

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and new flame retardants (NFRs) are known thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors, but their disrupting mechanisms in humans are not completely understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the disrupting mechanisms of the aforementioned chemicals via examining TH-regulated proteins and gene expression in human serum. Adult participants from an e-waste dismantling (exposed group) and a control region (control group) in South China provided blood samples for the research. Some compounds of PCBs, PBDEs, and NFRs showed strong binding affinity to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), gene expression of TH receptor α (TRα) and ß, and iodothyronine deiodinase I (ID1). The highly exposed individuals had lower levels of TBG, TSH, and expression of TRα, but higher expression of ID1 than those of the control group. The disruption of TH-regulated proteins and gene expression suggested the exertion of different and, at times, even contradictory effects on TH disruption. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the TH levels between the exposed and the control group, implying that the TH disruption induced by these chemicals depends on the combined influence of multiple mechanisms. Gene expression appears to be an effective approach for investigations of TH disruption and the potential health effects.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 721, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising and effective tool to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; however, context-specific data to guide optimal implementation are currently lacking in China. This study aims to systematically collect comprehensive, empirical data to determine effective ways to implement PrEP among at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS: The CROPrEP project, a real-world study of PrEP use, will recruit 1000 high-risk HIV-negative MSM participants from four cities in China, who will be able to choose between daily or event-driven dosing regimens, according to their preference. Participants will be followed up at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 for PrEP provision, clinical evaluation, laboratory testing (e.g., emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) concentrations, and HIV/sexually transmitted infections), alongside detailed, self-administered online questionnaires regarding sexual behaviors, adherence, and attitudes. Online weekly notes will be used to record pill use and sexual practice. Various measurements will be triangulated to assess adherence, including: self-reported adherence, pill count, and drug concentration. A propensity score matching model will be fitted to examine the effectiveness of PrEP use in HIV seroconversion compared with non-PrEP users selected from a local expanding cohort study of HIV-1-negative MSM at participating research centers. Analyses using a generalized estimating equation model will focus on elucidation of the cascade of PrEP implementation, effectiveness, safety, and possible effects of PrEP use on sexual behaviors. This study will provide a comprehensive assessment of real-world PrEP use among Chinese MSM, to develop guidelines and strategies for PrEP implementation in China. DISCUSSION: The CROPrEP project is the first study of the TDF/FTC combination as PrEP in China, which will provide primary data on PrEP implementation, including: the cascade of PrEP use, "real-world" effectiveness, adherence, and safety. The findings from this study have potential to be vital for promoting the integration of PrEP within the portfolio of HIV prevention interventions and developing guidance on PrEP implementation in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-IIN-17013762 (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry). Date of registration: 8 December 2017.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airborne pollutants have collectively been classified as a known human carcinogen and, more broadly, affect the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Benzene is a frequent component of air pollution, and strategies to protect individuals against unavoidable exposure to this and other airborne carcinogens could improve the public's health. Earlier clinical trials in Qidong, China, demonstrated efficacy in enhancing the detoxication of benzene using a broccoli sprout beverage. OBJECTIVES: A randomized, placebo-controlled, multidose trial of a broccoli sprout beverage was designed to determine the lowest effective concentration that enhances benzene detoxication adjudged by enhanced excretion of the urinary biomarker, S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA). METHODS: Following informed consent, 170 subjects were randomly assigned in 5 blocks of 34 each to drink either a placebo beverage (n = 55) or 1 of 3 graded concentrations of a broccoli sprout beverage [full (n = 25), one-half (n = 35), and one-fifth (n = 55)] for 10 consecutive days. Concentrations of SPMA arising through induced benzene conjugation with glutathione were quantified by MS in sequential 12-h overnight urine collections during the intervention. RESULTS: MS was also used to quantify urinary sulforaphane metabolites in each dosing regimen that resulted in a median 24-h urinary output of 24.6, 10.3, and 4.3 µmol, respectively, confirming a dose-dependent de-escalation of the inducing principle within the beverage. A statistically significant increase in benzene mercapturic acids in urine was found for the high-dose group (+63.2%) during the 10-d period. The one-half dose (+11.3%) and one-fifth dose groups (-6.4%) were not significantly different from placebo controls. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention with a broccoli sprout beverage enhanced the detoxication of benzene, an important airborne pollutant, when dosed at a concentration evoking a urinary elimination of ∼25 µmol sulforaphane metabolites per day, and it portends a practical and frugal population-based strategy to attenuate associated long-term health risks of air pollution. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02656420.

11.
J Nat Prod ; 82(7): 1923-1929, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265296

RESUMO

Three new dolabellane-type diterpenoids (1-3) and three new atranones (4-6) were isolated and identified from a marine-derived strain of the toxigenic fungus Stachybotrys chartarum. The planar and relative structures of 1-6 were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic methods, and their absolute configurations were fully confirmed via single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Structurally, compounds 2 and 3 have a 1,14-seco dolabellane-type diterpenoid skeleton; compound 4 is the first C23 atranone featuring a propan-2-one motif linked to a dolabellane-type diterpenoid by a carbon-carbon bond; compound 5 represents the first example of a C24 atranone with a 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-3-carboxylate motif fused to a dolabellane-type diterpenoid at C-5-C-6. In an in vitro antimicrobial activity assay, compound 2 was active against Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterococcus faecalis with MIC values of 16 and 32 µg/mL, respectively, while compound 4 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MIC values of 8, 16, and 32 µg/mL, respectively.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 177-186, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255619

RESUMO

Gracilaria is a genus of red algae widely cultivated in Asia and is notable for its economic importance as food ingredients. Neoagaro oligosaccharides (NAOSs) are products of Gracilaria that have excellent water solubility, antioxidant activity and prebiotic effect. In this study, Gracilaria crude polysaccharide was treated with agarase and hydrolyzed into NAOSs with different degrees of polymerization (DP). The compositions of the hydrolyzed NAOSs were analyzed by electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. The antioxidant capacity and prebiotic effects of NAOSs with different DPs were investigated and the results showed that DP could affect the antioxidant capacity of NAOSs. The prebiotic effects of NAOSs with different DP were evaluated based on the influence on the growth of four intestinal bacteria. NAOSs promoted the growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Sterptococcus thermophilus. The protective effect of Gracilaria NAOSs in simulated gastrointestinal juice was also studied. Finally, NAOSs with best prebiotic effects were used in Procambarus feeding experiment and exhibited promotion effect on Procambarus growth. The present study showed that Gracilaria NAOSs can be utilized as antioxidant and prebiotic additive, which had a considerable potential in food and feed industry.

13.
Prostate ; 79(11): 1284-1293, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) indicates an urgent need for the development of new effective drugs in PCa therapy. Triptonide has been reported to have a strong inhibition activity in cancers through screening of Chinese herbal medicine. This study aims to investigate the effects of triptonide on anti-PCa activity and its mechanisms. METHODS: Three human advanced PCa cell lines PC3, DU145, and LNCap, and a human normal prostate epithelial cell line RWPE were treated with a range (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 nM) of triptonide concentrations for 72 hours respectively. Then, cell viability was assessed by cell counting kit-8. PCa cells were treated with different doses (0-20 nM) of triptonide for 72 hours. Cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry assays. Nude mice bearing human PCa xenografts were intraperitoneally injected daily with either triptonide (10 mg/kg/d) or phosphate-buffered saline as a control for 35 days. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed by an Illumina Hiseq Sequencing platform and confirmed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis, and ingenuity pathway analysis were used to analyze RNA-seq results. RESULTS: Triptonide effectively inhibits the proliferation of human PCa cells PC3, DU145, and LNCap in vitro with their IC50 values as 11.961, 10.259, and 12.012 nM, respectively. Triptonide (10 mg/kg) potently inhibits the growth of PCa cell xenografts in vivo at an inhibition rate of over 97.95%. Treatment with triptonide (5 nM) significantly promotes cell apoptosis and retaining cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. RNA-seq data revealed that total of 936 genes were upregulated or downregulated in triptonide treated. Moreover, the phosphorylation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the downstream protein p70S6K were both inhibited, most obviously in PCa cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that triptonide can efficaciously suppress PCa growth in vitro and in vivo via inhibiting the phosphorylation of mTOR and the activities of related downstream signaling pathways.

14.
Org Lett ; 21(13): 5091-5095, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247789

RESUMO

Emeriones A-C (1-3), three highly methylated polyketides with bicyclo[4.2.0]octene and 3,6-dioxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane functionalities, were isolated from Emericella nidulans. An additional peroxide bridge in compound 3 led to the construction of an unexpected 7,8-dioxatricyclo[4.2.2.02,5]decene scaffold. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic techniques, and their absolute configurations were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses and ECD calculations. Compound 1 shows weak inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells.

15.
Org Lett ; 21(13): 5101-5105, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247809

RESUMO

A manganese-catalyzed ring-opening coupling reaction of cyclopropanols with enones for the facile and efficient preparation of 1,6-diketones is described. A wide array of synthetically important 1,6-diketones bearing manifold functional groups are obtained with up to 93% yield. These reactions feature broad substrate scopes, environmentally benign conditions, inexpensive catalyst, and operational simplicity.

16.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 184-191, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158603

RESUMO

Eleven highly oxygenated meroterpenoids, named terreustoxins A-K, along with five known analogues, were isolated from the Antarctic fungus Aspergillus terreus. The structures and absolute configurations of these undescribed compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and ECD experiments. Terreustoxins A-D are the first examples of meroterpenoids with two ortho-hydroxy groups at C-6 and C-7 in the terretonins family. Terreustoxin C and terretonin inhibited the proliferation of Con A-induced murine T cells at the concentration of 10 µM.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/química , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Concanavalina A , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Oxigênio/química , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/metabolismo
17.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 236-242, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185420

RESUMO

Mangiterpenes A-C and 2',3'-seco-manginoid C, four undescribed sesquiterpene/monoterpene-shikimate-conjugated meroterpenoids with spiro ring systems, were isolated from Guignardia mangiferae. The structures and absolute configurations of these compounds were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Mangiterpenes A-C represent the first examples of sesquiterpene-shikimate-conjugated spirocyclic meroterpenoids, and 2',3'-seco-manginoid C features an unexpected 2',3'-seco-manginoids skeleton. Mangiterpene C strongly inhibited the production of NO inducted by LPS, with an IC50 value of 5.97 µM. It showed an anti-inflammatory effect by means of blocking in the NF-κB signaling pathway and decreasing the expression of inflammatory mediators.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Ácido Chiquímico/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Ácido Chiquímico/química , Ácido Chiquímico/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/química , Compostos de Espiro/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Opt Express ; 27(12): A620-A628, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252842

RESUMO

For the [0001] oriented AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), the holes in the p-type electron blocking layer (p-EBL) are depleted due to the polarization induced positive sheet charges at the last quantum barrier (LQB)/p-EBL interface. The hole depletion effect significantly reduces the hole injection capability across the p-EBL. In this work, we propose inserting a thin AlN layer between the LQB and the p-EBL, which can generate the hole accumulation at the AlN/p-EBL interface. Meanwhile, the holes can obtain the energy when traveling from the p-EBL into the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) by intraband tunneling through the thin AlN layer. As a result, the hole injection and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) have been remarkably enhanced. Moreover, we point out that the thick AlN insertion layer can further generate the hole accumulation in the p-EBL and increase the hole energy which helps to increase the hole injection. We also prove that the intraband tunneling for holes across the thick AlN insertion layer is facilitated by using the optimized structure.

19.
Opt Express ; 27(12): A643-A653, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252844

RESUMO

In this work, the size-dependent effect for InGaN/GaN-based blue micro-light emitting diodes (µLEDs) is numerically investigated. Our results show that the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the optical power density drop drastically as the device size decreases when sidewall defects are induced. The observations are owing to the higher surface-to-volume ratio for small µLEDs, which makes the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) non-radiative recombination at the sidewall defects not negligible. The sidewall defects also severely affect the injection capability for electrons and holes, such that the electrons and holes are captured by sidewall defects for the SRH recombination. Thus, the poor carrier injection shall be deemed as a challenge for achieving high-brightness µLEDs. Our studies also indicate that the sidewall defects form current leakage channels, and this is reflected by the current density-voltage characteristics. However, the improved current spreading effect can be obtained when the chip size decreases. The better current spreading effect takes account for the reduced forward voltage.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(35): 12091-12095, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254370

RESUMO

Bipolarolides A-G (1-7), seven novel ophiobolin-derived sesterterpenes with three new types of skeletons, were characterized from fungus Bipolaris sp. TJ403-B1. Their structures were determined via spectroscopic analyses, X-ray crystallography, and quantum chemical 13 C NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 were uniquely defined by a multicyclic caged oxapentacyclo[9.3.0.01,6 .05,9 .18,12 ]pentadecane-bridged system. Compounds 3 and 4 featured an unprecedented 5-5-5-5-fused core skeleton, while 3 also contained an unexpected C-3-C-14 oxygen bridge to construct the caged architecture. Compounds 5-7 form a new class of highly modified pentacyclic oxaspiro[4.4]nonane-containing sesterterpene-alkaloid hybrids. Their biosynthetic pathways and potential HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities are also discussed.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA