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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 348, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbal tea residue (HTR) is generally considered to be the waste of herbal tea beverage production while it still retains rich nutrients and active substances. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of fermentation technology on improving the quality of HTRs, and focus on the fermented HTR-induced alleviation of summer heat stress in fattening cattle. RESULTS: In this study, the waste HTR was fermented and then fed to a total of 45 fattening cattle that were divided into 3 groups (fermented HTR replaced 0, 15, 30% of the forage component of the diet), and the feeding experiment was lasted for 40 days. The physiological indexes, growth performance and fecal microbiota of fattening cattle were evaluated and results showed that fermented HTR could effectively reduce the respiratory rate and rectal temperature of fattening cattle under heat stress, increase the daily feed intake and daily gain, and improve the antioxidant content and blood immune index. In addition, we studied the fecal microbiota composition of 6 fattening cattle in control and 30% HTR substitution groups and found fermented HTR significantly changed the composition of fecal microbiota and increased microbial diversity, and correlation analysis suggested that the bacteria were closely related to fecal SCFA levels of fattening cattle under heat stress. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, fermented HTR replaced 30% of the forage component of the diet that can change the intestine microorganisms, maintain health and alleviate the heat stress of fattening cattle.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Dieta/veterinária , Indústria Alimentícia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resíduos Industriais , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/terapia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576353

RESUMO

Riveting is widely used in aircraft manufacturing. The strap butt joint is often used in the aircraft's main bearing area such as the aircraft docking area. The connection quality affects the reliability and safety of the aircraft directly. To study the effect of the rivet position on the connection quality of the strap butt joints, this paper analyzed the distribution of stress around the rivet hole at different positions by the finite element method, and then further analyzed the influence of the different rivet layouts on the connection quality of the strap butt joints by experiments. The static load tensile failure test of the joints was carried out, and the obtained tensile strength and failure mode of the strap butt joints showed that the main static tensile failure form of the single strap butt joint is that the whole rivets is sheared and the connecting sheets are separated. By changing the layout of different rivets, the connection strength can be maximized by reducing the outer row spacing (ORSD) of rivets. The results can be used for reference in the design of the riveting structure of aircraft panels.

4.
J Immunol ; 207(8): 2107-2117, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526375

RESUMO

A multifunctional glycoprotein, osteopontin (OPN), can modulate the function of macrophages, resulting in either protective or deleterious effects in various inflammatory diseases and infection in the lungs. Although macrophages play the critical roles in mediating host defenses against cryptococcosis or cryptococcal pathogenesis, the involvement of macrophage-derived OPN in pulmonary infection caused by fungus Cryptococcus has not been elucidated. Thus, our current study aimed to investigate the contribution of OPN to the regulation of host immune response and macrophage function using a mouse model of pulmonary cryptococcosis. We found that OPN was predominantly expressed in alveolar macrophages during C. neoformans infection. Systemic treatment of OPN during C. neoformans infection resulted in an enhanced pulmonary fungal load and an early onset of type 2 inflammation within the lung, as indicated by the increase of pulmonary eosinophil infiltration, type 2 cytokine production, and M2-associated gene expression. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated OPN knockout murine macrophages had enhanced ability to clear the intracellular fungus and altered macrophage phenotype from pathogenic M2 to protective M1. Altogether, our data suggested that macrophage-derived OPN contributes to the elaboration of C. neoformans-induced type 2 immune responses and polarization of M2s that promote fungal survival and proliferation within macrophages.


Assuntos
Criptococose/imunologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/fisiologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Processos de Crescimento Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osteopontina/genética , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2
5.
J Org Chem ; 86(19): 13212-13230, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533021

RESUMO

N,N-Diacetylimido protection of 2-aminoglycosides is an elegant strategy but has had limited applications due to unexpected side reactions in glycosylation. We found that high acid concentrations could diminish the side reactions. We observed intermolecular hydrogen bonding among alcohols and acids could disrupt. Assuming that intermolecular hydrogen bonding accelerates the formation of 1,2-orthoamides and disrupting intermolecular hydrogen bonds could turn to the desired glycosylation, we successfully employed sulfenyl triflate pre-activation in the glycosylation of a broad scope of alcohol acceptors, as well as in a one-pot synthesis of a protected human milk oligosaccharide, lacto-N-neotetraose.


Assuntos
Álcoois , Hidrogênio , Glicosilação , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio
6.
Growth Horm IGF Res ; 60-61: 101429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507253

RESUMO

The hormone secretion of GHRH-GH-IGF-1 axis in animals was decreased as aging. These hormones play an important role in maintaining bone mass and bone structure, and also affect the normal structure and function of the skin. We used plasmid-based technology to deliver growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) to elderly mice. In the current study, 80 and 120 µg/kg pVAX-GHRH plasmid expression plasmid were injected into old mice, the serum GHRH and insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) content were increased within three weeks (P < 0.05). In the groups of 80 and 120 µg/kg plasmid, the content of procollagen type I N-terminal pro-peptide (PINP) in the serum was increased(P < 0.05), and the content of C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-1) in the serum was reduced significantly (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin (OCN) in the femur also was increased(P < 0.05). The bone mineral density(BMD)、trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular number(Tb.N) of mouse femur were increased significantly (P < 0.05) and trabecular separation(Tb.Sp) was decreased(P < 0.05). There were more trabecular bones in the bone marrow cavity and the trabecular bones are thicker in the groups of 80 and 120 µg/kg plasmid relative to control. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) content in the skin was increased(P < 0.05), and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was reduced significantly (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the skin moisture content also increased significantly(P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3(MMP3) and matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) was decreased in the skin(P < 0.05). The thickness of the dermis and epidermis of the skin had increased significantly(P < 0.05). Skin structure is more dense and complete in the two groups. These results indicate that 80 and 120 µg/kg plasmid-mediated GHRH supplementation can improve osteoporosis and skin aging in aged mice.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448137

RESUMO

Dust pollution and heat damage hazards are important problems affecting underground safety production. This paper is aimed at exploring the optimal magnetization conditions of magnetized water for dust removal and temperature reduction and improving the utilization rate of water. First, the surface tension, viscosity, and specific heat capacity of water under different magnetization conditions were measured experimentally. Then, the influence law of ejection pressure on spray atomization and the changes of dust removal performance before and after magnetization of water were analyzed. Based on this, the temperature reduction effect of magnetized water under different wind speeds was analyzed, and the magnetization conditions with the best coupling performance of magnetized water were obtained. Finally, a spray system was designed to control the magnetization conditions strictly. The results demonstrate that the dust removal performance is better when the magnetic field intensity is 150 mT and the magnetization time is 80 s. Under this condition, the specific heat capacity also reaches the maximum. These research results can provide a theoretical basis for the selection of dust pollution and heat damage control measures in mines.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 117949, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438166

RESUMO

The domestic combustion of smoky (bituminous) coal in the Chinese counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, are responsible for some of the highest rates of lung cancer in the world. Cancer rates vary between coal producing regions (deposits) in the area, with coals from Laibin exhibiting particularly high risks and smokeless (anthracite) coal exhibiting lower risks. However, little information is available on the specific burning characteristics of coals from throughout the area. We conducted an extensive controlled burning experiment using coal from multiple deposits in either a traditional firepit or ventilated stove, accompanied by a detailed examination of time-weighted and real-time size-aggregated particle concentrations. Smoky coal caused higher particle concentrations of all sizes than smokeless coal, with variations observed by geological source. Virtually all particle emissions were in the PM2.5 fraction (98% - mass based), and 75% and 46% were in the PM1 and PM0.3 fraction respectively. Real-time concentrations of PM1 and PM0.1 peaked after coal was added and declined afterwards. Ventilation reduced particle concentrations by up to 15-fold and increased the coal burning rate by 1.9-fold. These findings may provide valuable insight for reducing exposure and adverse health effects associated with domestic coal combustion.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Culinária
10.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(3): e00253, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277977

RESUMO

Aim: Heparin, a widely used antithrombotic drug has many other anticoagulant-independent physiological functions. Here, we elucidate a novel role of heparin in glucose homeostasis, suggesting an approach for developing heparin-targeted therapies for diabetes. Methods: For serum heparin levels and correlation analysis, 122 volunteer's plasma, DIO (4 weeks HFD) and db/db mice serums were collected and used for spectrophotometric determination. OGTT, ITT, 2-NBDG uptake and muscle GLUT4 immunofluorescence were detected in chronic intraperitoneal injection of heparin or heparinase (16 days) and muscle-specific loss-of-function mice. In 293T cells, the binding of insulin to its receptor was detected by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), Myc-GLUT4-mCherry plasmid was used in GLUT4 translocation. In vitro, C2C12 cells as mouse myoblast cells were further verified the effects of heparin on glucose homeostasis through 2-NBDG uptake, Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation. Results: Serum concentrations of heparin are positively associated with blood glucose levels in humans and are significantly increased in diet-induced and db/db obesity mouse models. Consistently, a chronic intraperitoneal injection of heparin results in hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. These effects are independent of heparin's anticoagulant function and associated with decreases in glucose uptake and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle. By using a muscle-specific loss-of-function mouse model, we further demonstrated that muscle GLUT4 is required for the detrimental effects of heparin on glucose homeostasis. Conclusions: Heparin reduced insulin binding to its receptor by interacting with insulin and inhibited insulin-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in skeletal muscle, which leads to impaired glucose uptake and hyperglycaemia.

11.
Mol Plant ; 14(11): 1787-1798, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274523

RESUMO

Genome editing provides novel strategies for improving plant traits but mostly relies on conventional plant genetic transformation and regeneration procedures, which can be inefficient. In this study, we have engineered a Barley stripe mosaic virus-based sgRNA delivery vector (BSMV-sg) that is effective in performing heritable genome editing in Cas9-transgenic wheat plants. Mutated progenies were present in the next generation at frequencies ranging from 12.9% to 100% in three different wheat varieties, and 53.8%-100% of mutants were virus free. We also achieved multiplex mutagenesis in progeny using a pool of BSMV-sg vectors harboring different sgRNAs. Furthermore, we devised a virus-induced transgene-free editing procedure to generate Cas9-free wheat mutants by crossing BSMV-infected Cas9-transgenic wheat pollen with wild-type wheat. Our study provides a robust, convenient, and tissue culture-free approach for genome editing in wheat through virus infection.

12.
EMBO J ; 40(16): e107660, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254679

RESUMO

The plant antioxidant system plays important roles in response to diverse abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the effects of virus infection on host redox homeostasis and how antioxidant defense pathway is manipulated by viruses remain poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that the Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb protein is recruited to the chloroplast by the viral αa replicase to enhance viral replication. Here, we show that BSMV infection induces chloroplast oxidative stress. The versatile γb protein interacts directly with NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC), a core component of chloroplast antioxidant systems. Overexpression of NbNTRC significantly impairs BSMV replication in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, whereas disruption of NbNTRC expression leads to increased viral accumulation and infection severity. To counter NTRC-mediated defenses, BSMV employs the γb protein to competitively interfere with NbNTRC binding to 2-Cys Prx. Altogether, this study indicates that beyond acting as a helicase enhancer, γb also subverts NTRC-mediated chloroplast antioxidant defenses to create an oxidative microenvironment conducive to viral replication.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus de Plantas/fisiologia , Tabaco/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/genética , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(23): 13128-13135, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075977

RESUMO

Chiral metasurfaces patterned with L-shaped holes in a thin film of Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 are designed. The impact of temperature T on circular conversion dichroism, mainly characterized by circular polarization differential transmittance (CPDT), is studied by rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The results show that decreasing T will give rise to the appearance of much more narrow CPDT peaks and dips, and the maximum differential transmittance between two opposite circularly polarized light can reach above 0.60 by optimizing the structural parameters at 80 K. As the T increases, the differential transmittance gradually decreases, and the CPDT peak and dip values exhibit variation tendencies of 'Z' and 'S' types, respectively. Two simple formulae of CPDT extreme values with respect to T are derived, predicting that the decreasing tendency will reach saturation when T ≥ 500 K. Differing from the wavelength-independent variation trend of differential transmittance, CPDT extremum positions mainly show a blueshift (redshift) tendency at the wavelength λ > 10 µm (λ < 5 µm) as the T increases. Moreover, evolutions of CPDT with various factors including the thickness of Cd3As2, incident and azimuth angles are also clearly unveiled.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073819

RESUMO

Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays an important role in gut acquired immunity and mucosal homeostasis. Breast milk is the irreplaceable nutritional source for mammals after birth. Current studies have shown the potential functional role of milk-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and their RNAs cargo in intestinal health and immune regulation. However, there is a lack of studies to demonstrate how milk-derived sEVs affect intestinal immunity in recipient. In this study, through in vivo experiments, we found that porcine milk small extracellular vesicles (PM-sEVs) promoted intestinal SIgA levels, and increased the expression levels of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) both in mice and piglet. We examined the mechanism of how PM-sEVs increased the expression level of pIgR in vitro by using a porcine small intestine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). Through bioinformatics analysis, dual-luciferase reporter assays, and overexpression or knockdown of the corresponding non-coding RNAs, we identified circ-XPO4 in PM-sEVs as a crucial circRNA, which leads to the expression of pIgR via the suppression of miR-221-5p in intestinal cells. Importantly, we also observed that oral administration of PM-sEVs increased the level of circ-XPO4 and decreased the level of miR-221-5p in small intestine of piglets, indicating that circRNAs in milk-derived sEVs act as sponge for miRNAs in recipients. This study, for the first time, reveals that PM-sEVs have a capacity to stimulate intestinal SIgA production by delivering circRNAs to receptors and sponging the recipient's original miRNAs, and also provides valuable data for insight into the role and mechanism of animal milk sEVs in intestinal immunity.

15.
Front Genet ; 12: 631230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135937

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues are both involved in regulation of metabolism. In the skeletal muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk, exosomes may play an important role but the main components of exosomes are not clear. In this study, we found skeletal muscle-derived exosomes can inhibit adipogenesis of porcine preadipocytes. We identified microRNA expression profiles of muscle exosomes and adipose exosomes by high-throughput sequencing. There were 104 (both novel and known microRNAs) microRNAs differentially expressed (DE miRNAs) between M-EXO (muscle-derived exosomes) and A-EXO (adipose-derived exosomes) groups. A total of 2,137 target genes of DE miRNAs for M-EXO and 2,004 target genes of DE miRNAs for A-EXO were detected. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that some DE miRNAs of M-EXO (especially miR-221-5p) were mainly enriched in lipid-related metabolism processes. The findings may serve as a fundamental resource for understanding the detailed functions of exosomes between the skeletal muscle-adipose crosstalk and the potential relationship between skeletal muscle atrophy and obesity.

17.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3022-3035, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091599

RESUMO

Dysfunction of adipocytes and adipose tissue is a primary defect in obesity and obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) has been implicated in adipogenesis. However, the role of IRF3 in obesity and obesity-associated disorders remains unclear. Here, we show that IRF3 expression in human adipose tissues is positively associated with insulin sensitivity and negatively associated with type 2 diabetes. In mouse pre-adipocytes, deficiency of IRF3 results in increased expression of PPARγ and PPARγ-mediated adipogenic genes, leading to increased adipogenesis and altered adipocyte functionality. The IRF3 knockout (KO) mice develop obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and eventually type 2 diabetes with aging, which is associated with the development of white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation. Increased macrophage accumulation with M1 phenotype which is due to the loss of IFNß-mediated IL-10 expression is observed in WAT of the KO mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Bone-marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrate that the nonhematopoietic cells are the primary contributors to the development of obesity and both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells contribute to the development of obesity-related complications in IRF3 KO mice. This study demonstrates that IRF3 regulates the biology of multiple cell types including adipocytes and macrophages to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-related complications and hence, could be a potential target for therapeutic interventions for the prevention and treatment of obesity-associated metabolic disorders.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2284, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863904

RESUMO

Drug resistance is a major obstacle to the treatment of most human tumors. In this study, we find that dual-specificity phosphatase 16 (DUSP16) regulates resistance to chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, colorectal cancer, gastric and breast cancer. Cancer cells expressing higher DUSP16 are intrinsically more resistant to chemotherapy-induced cell death than cells with lower DUSP16 expression. Overexpression of DUSP16 in cancer cells leads to increased resistance to cell death upon chemotherapy treatment. In contrast, knockdown of DUSP16 in cancer cells increases their sensitivity to treatment. Mechanistically, DUSP16 inhibits JNK and p38 activation, thereby reducing BAX accumulation in mitochondria to reduce apoptosis. Analysis of patient survival in head & neck cancer and breast cancer patient cohorts supports DUSP16 as a marker for sensitivity to chemotherapy and therapeutic outcome. This study therefore identifies DUSP16 as a prognostic marker for the efficacy of chemotherapy, and as a therapeutic target for overcoming chemoresistance in cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatases da Proteína Quinase Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Fracionamento Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/análise , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosfatases da Proteína Quinase Ativada por Mitógeno/análise , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
19.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(10): 5014-5025, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875086

RESUMO

Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2), consisting of nanoparticles and sub-microparticles, were widely used as food additive and consumed by people every day, which has aroused a public safety concern. Some studies showed TiO2 can be absorbed by intestine and then distributed to different tissues after oral intake, which is supposed to affect the content of various elements in the body whereas led to tissue damage. However, knowledge gaps still exist in the impact of TiO2 on the disorder of elemental homeostasis. Thus, this study aimed to explore the oral toxicity of TiO2 by assessing its influence on elemental homeostasis and tissues injury. Method: ICR mice were fed with normal feed, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs)-mixed feed or TiO2 submicron particles (MPs)-mixed feed (1% mass fraction TiO2 NPs or MPs were mixed in commercial pellet diet) for 1, 3, and 6 months. Particles used in this study were characterized. The distribution of Ti and other 23 elements, the correlation among elements, and pathological change in the liver, kidney, spleen and blood cells of the mice was determined. Result: Ti accumulation only appeared in blood cells of mice treated with TiO2 MPs-mixed feed for 6 months, but TiO2 cause 12 kinds of elements (boron, vanadium, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, phosphorus) content changed in organ tissue. The changed kinds of elements in blood cells (6 elements), liver (7 elements) or kidney (6 elements) were more than in the spleen (1 element). The TiO2 NPs induced more elements changed in blood cells and liver, and the TiO2 MPs induced more elements changed in kidney. Significantly positive correlation between Ti and other elements was found in different organs except the liver. Organ injuries caused by TiO2 NPs were severer than TiO2 MPs. Liver exhibited obvious pathological damage which became more serious with the increase of exposure time, while kidney and spleen had slight damages. Conclusion: These results indicated long-time dietary intake of TiO2 particles could induce element imbalance and organ injury. The liver displayed more serious change than other organs, especially under the treatment with TiO2 NPs. Further research on the oral toxicity of TiO2 NPs should pay more attention to the health effects of element imbalances using realistic exposure methods.

20.
Plant Commun ; 2(2): 100137, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898976

RESUMO

Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are key to nearly all aspects of cellular activity. Therefore, the identification of PPIs is important for understanding a specific biological process in an organism. Compared with conventional methods for probing PPIs, the recently described proximity labeling (PL) approach combined with mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics has emerged as a powerful approach for characterizing PPIs. However, the application of PL in planta remains in its infancy. Here, we summarize recent progress in PL and its potential utilization in plant biology. We specifically summarize advances in PL, including the development and comparison of different PL enzymes and the application of PL for deciphering various molecular interactions in different organisms with an emphasis on plant systems.

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